Skip to main content

Full text of "The apostolic fathers ... by the late J.B. Lightfoot"

See other formats










J. B. LIGHTFOOT, D.D., D.C.L., LL.D., 



ILonfcon : 


[All Rights reserved^ 







(i) Circumstances of writing and order of the Epistles; (2) Au- 
thorities for the text. Exceptional position of the Letter to the Romans. 
Previous editions. Principles of the text and apparatus criticus of the 
present edition. Symbols used. 


Introduction ........... 152 

Text and Notes .......... 2189 

Excursus on yevvrjTb'i and cryeWeros 7 ..... 9 94 


Introduction ........... 97 104 

Text and Notes .......... 105 140 


Introduction ........... 143 ! 49 

Text and Notes .......... 150182 

4 . TO THE ROMANS 183234 

Introduction ........... 185 188 

Text and Notes .......... 189234 


Introduction ........... 237 247 

Text and Notes ......... ' 248282 

6. TO THE SMYRN&ANS 283326 

Introduction ........... 285, 286 

Text and notes .......... 287326 

7. TO POLYCARP 327360 

Introduction ........... 3 2 9> 33 

Text and Notes ......... 331360 





1. Different forms: (i) Antiochene Acts, Greek, Latin, and Syriac; 
(ii) Roman Acts, Greek and Coptic; (iii) Bollandist Acts; (iv) Armenian 
Acts; (v) Acts of Metaphrast [363368]. 

2. Mutual relations. The Antiochene and Roman Acts independent. 
Their contents. The other Acts composite [368 377]. 

3. Historic credibility, place, and date of the Roman Acts [377382]. 
The same questions as regards the Antiochene Acts : internal evidence 
[383 386]; external testimony (Chrysostom, Evagrius, the Mensea) [386 
389]. Possible nucleus of truth [389 391]. 

4. Chronology of Trajan's reign. Tables [391 398]. Reckoning of 
tribunician years [398 404]. Notes on the tables with special reference 
to Trajan's Eastern campaigns [404 418]. 

5. The festival of Ignatius, (i) Oct. 17, the original day [418 422]. 
(2) Dec. 20, the later day with the Greeks [422, 423]. (3) July i, the 
Egyptian festival [423 428]. (4) Feb. i, the Latin commemoration 
[428 430]. Lessons for his day [430, 431]. Translations of the reliques 
U3 1 4341- 

6. The year of the martyrdom. Pearson's disquisition [435, 436]. 
Volkmar's theory that he was martyred at Antioch [436]. The testimony 
of John Malalas examined [437 447]. Statement of the Syriac Chronicle 
[447]. Authorities for the 9th year of Trajan [448]. Chronicon of Eu- 
sebius [448 452]. Harnack's theory examined [452 471]. Results of 
the investigation [471, 472]. 

7. Authorities for the texts of the Antiochene and Roman Acts. Pre- 
vious collations and editions [473, 474]- 


Text and Notes 477 495 


Text and Notes 496 540 




Antiochene Acts 575 579 

Roman Acts 579 588 

ADDENDA 589598 

INDEX 599619 



THE REASONS for accepting as genuine the Seven Epistles in 
the form in which they were current in the age of Eusebius have 
been stated already. Only a few additional words will be necessary 
to explain the principles which have been followed in the arrangement 
of the epistles and in the construction of the text. 

These seven epistles were written in the early years of the second 
century, when the writer was on his way from Antioch to Rome, having 
been condemned to death and expecting to be thrown to the wild 
beasts in the amphitheatre on his arrival. They fall into two groups, 
written at two different halting-places on his way. The letters to the 
Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallians, and Romans, were sent from Smyrna, 
while Ignatius was staying there and was in personal communication 
with Polycarp the bishop. The three remaining letters, to the Philadel- 
phians, to the Smyrnaeans, and to Polycarp, were written at a subsequent 
stage in his journey, at Alexandria Troas, where again he halted for a 
time, before crossing the sea for Europe. The place of writing in every 
case is determined from notices in the epistles themselves. 

The order in which they are printed here is the order given by 
Eusebius (H.E. iii. 36). Whether he found them in this order in his 
manuscript, or whether he determined the places of writing (as we 
might determine them) from internal evidence and arranged the epistles 
accordingly, may be questioned. So arranged, they fall into two groups, 
according to the place of writing. The letters themselves however 
contain no indication of their chronological order in their respective 
groups ; and, unless Eusebius simply followed his manuscript, he must 
have exercised his judgment in the sequence adopted in each group, 
e.g. Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallians, and Romans. 



The two groups, besides having been written at different places, are 
separated from each other by another distinctive feature. All the 
epistles written from Smyrna are addressed to churches which he had 
not visited in person but knew only through their delegates. On the 
other hand all the epistles written from Troas are addressed to those, 
whether churches (as in the case of the Philadelphians and Smyrnseans) 
or individuals (as in the case of Polycarp), with whom he had already 
held personal communication at some previous stage in his journey. 

It has been seen that at some point in his journey (probably 
Laodicea on the Lycus), where there was a choice of roads, his 
guards selected the northern road through Philadelphia and Sardis 
to Smyrna. If they had taken the southern route instead, they would 
have passed in succession through Tralles, Magnesia, and Ephesus, before 
they reached their goal. It is probable that, at the point where the 
roads diverged, the Christian brethren sent messengers to the churches 
lying on the southern road, apprising them of the martyr's destination ; 
so that these churches would despatch their respective delegates without 
delay, and thus they would arrive at Smyrna as soon as, or even before, 
Ignatius himself. 

The first group then consists of letters to these three churches, 
whose delegates had thus met him at Smyrna, together with a fourth to 
the Roman Christians apprising them of his speedy arrival among 
them this last probably having been called forth by some opportunity 
(such as was likely to occur at Smyrna) of communicating with the 
metropolis. The three are arranged in a topographical order (Ephesus, 
Magnesia, Tralles) according to the distances of these cities from 
Smyrna, which is taken as the starting-point. 

The second group consists of a letter to the Philadelphians whom he 
had visited on his way to Smyrna, and another to the Smyrnseans with 
whom he had stayed before going to Troas, together with a third to his 
friend Polycarp closing the series. 

The order however in the Greek MS and in the versions (so far as 
it can be traced) is quite different, and disregards the places of writing. 
In these documents they stand in the following order : 

1. Smyrnaeans 5. Philadelphians 

2. Polycarp 6. Trallians 1 

3. Ephesians 7. Romans. 

4. Magnesians 

1 The Armenian Version however transposes Trallians and Philadelphians. 


This sequence is consistent with the supposition that we have here 
the collection of the martyr's letters made at the time by Polycarp, 
who writing to the Philippians says 'The Epistles of Ignatius which 
were sent to us by him, and others as many as we had with us, we send 
to you, even as ye directed: they are subjoined to this letter' ( 13). 
But though this order, which is given in the documents, has high claims 
for consideration as representing the earliest form of the collected 
epistles, I have substituted the chronological arrangement of Eusebius 
as more instructive for purposes of continuous reading. 


Of the data for the text an account has been given already. Our 
documents are as follows. 

1. The Manuscript of the Greek Original (G). If this MS had 
been, as Turrianus described it, * emendatissimus ', we should have had 
no further trouble about the text. But since this is far from being the 
case, the secondary authorities are of the highest moment in settling the 

2. Among these the Latin Version (L) holds the first place, as 
being an extremely literal rendering of the original. It exhibits a much 
purer form of the text, being free from several corruptions and a few 
interpolations and omissions which disfigure the Greek. At the same 
time however it is clear, both from the contents of the collection and 
from other indications (as described previously), that this version was 
translated from a Greek MS of the same type as the extant Greek MS ; 
and therefore its value, as a check upon the readings of this MS, is 
limited. Whenever GL coincide, they must be regarded as one witness, 
not as two. 

3. The Syriac Version (S) would therefore have been invaluable as 
an independent check, if we had possessed it entire, since it cannot 
have been made later than the fourth or fifth century, and would have 
exhibited the text much nearer to the fountain-head than either the 
Greek or the Latin. Unfortunately however only a few fragments 
(Sj, S 2 , S 3 ) belonging to this version are preserved. But this defect is 
made up to a considerable extent in two ways. First. We have a 
rough Abridgment or Collection of Excerpts (%) from this Syriac Version 
for three epistles (Ephesians, Romans, Polycarp) together with a frag- 
ment of a fourth (Trallians), preserving whole sentences and even 

i 2 


paragraphs in their original form or with only slight changes. Secondly. 
There is extant also an Armenian Version (A) of the whole, made from 
the Syriac (S). This last however has passed through so many vicissi- 
tudes, that it is often difficult to discern the original Greek reading 
underlying its tertiary text. It will thus be seen that A3 have no inde- 
pendent authority, where S is otherwise known, and that SA2 must be 
regarded as one witness, not as three. 

4. There is likewise extant a fragment of a Coptic Version (C), in 
the Sahidic (Thebaic) dialect of the Egyptian language, comprising the 
first six chapters of the Epistle to the Smyrnaeans, besides the end of the 
spurious Epistle to Hero. The date of this version is uncertain, though 
probably early ; but the text appears to be quite independent of our 
other authorities, and it is therefore much to be regretted that so little 
is preserved. 

5. Another and quite independent witness is the Greek Text of 
the Long Recension (g) of the Ignatian Epistles. The Latin Version (1) 
of this Long Recension has no independent value, and is only import- 
ant as assisting in determining the original form of this recension. 
The practice of treating it as an independent authority is altogether 
confusing. The text of the Long Recension, once launched into the 
world, had its own history, which should be kept quite distinct from 
that of the genuine Epistles of Ignatius. For the purpose of determining 
the text of the latter, we are only 'concerned with its original form. 

The Long Recension was constructed, as we have seen, by some 
unknown author, probably in the latter half of the fourth century, from 
the genuine Ignatian Epistles by interpolation, alteration, and omission. 
If therefore we can ascertain in any given passage the Greek text of 
the genuine epistles which this author had before him, we have traced 
the reading back to an earlier point in the stream than the direct Greek 
and Latin authorities, probably even than the Syriac Version. This 
however it is not always easy to do, by reason of the freedom and 
capriciousness of the changes. No rule of universal application can be 
laid down. But the interpolator is obviously much more given to 
change at some times than at others ; and, where the fit is upon him, 
no stress can be laid on minor variations. On the other hand, where 
he adheres pretty closely to the text of the genuine Ignatius, as for 
instance through great parts of the Epistles to Polycarp and to the 
Romans, the readings of this recension deserve every consideration. 

Thus it will be seen that though this witness is highly important, 
because it cannot be suspected of collusion with other witnesses, yet it 


must be subject to careful cross-examination, before the truth under- 
lying its statements can be ascertained. 

6. Besides manuscripts and versions, we have a fair number of 
Quotations, of which the value will vary according to their age and 
independence. A full account of these has been given already. 

From the above statement it will be seen that, though each authority 
separately may be regarded as more or less unsatisfactory, yet, as they 
are very various in kind, they act as checks one upon another, the 
one frequently supplying just that element of certainty which is lacking 
to the other, so that the result is fairly adequate. Thus A will often give 
what g withholds, and conversely. Moreover it will appear from what 
has been said that a combination of the secondary and capricious 
authorities must often decide a reading against the direct and primary. 
For instance, the combination Ag is, as a rule, decisive in favour of a 
reading, as against the more direct witnesses GL, notwithstanding that 
A singly, or g singly, is liable to any amount of aberration, though in 
different directions. 

The foregoing account applies to six out of the seven letters. 
The text of the Epistle to the Romans has had a distinct history and is 
represented by separate authorities of its own. This epistle was at 
an early date incorporated into the Antiochene Acts of Martyrdom, 
and thus disconnected from the other six. In its new connexion, it 
was disseminated and translated separately. It so happens that the 
only extant Greek MS which contains this epistle (the Colbertine) 
is even less satisfactory than the sole Greek MS of the other six (the 
Medicean); but on the other hand we have more than compensation 
for this inferiority in the fact that the Acts of Martyrdom (with the 
incorporated epistle) were translated independently both into Syriac 
(S m ) and into Armenian (A m ); and these two versions, which are ex- 
tant, furnish two additional authorities for the text. Moreover the 
Metaphrast, who compiled his Acts of Ignatius from this and another 
Martyrology, has retained the Epistle to the Romans in his text, 
though in an abridged and altered form. 

From this account it will be seen that the authorities for the Epistle 
to the Romans fall into three classes. 

(i) Those authorities, which contain the epistle as part of the 
Martyrology. These are the Greek (G), the Latin (L), the Syriac 
(S m ), and the Armenian (A m ), besides the Metaphrast (M). These 
authorities however are of different values. When the epistle was first 


incorporated in the Acts of Martyrdom, it still preserved a compara- 
tively pure form. When it has arrived at the stage in which it appears 
in the extant Greek MS (G), it is very corrupt. In this last form, 
among other corruptions, it exhibits interpolations and alterations which 
have been introduced from the Long Recension (g). The MS used by 
the Metaphrast exhibited a text essentially the same as that of G. 

(2) The independent Syriac Version (S) of which only a few 
fragments remain, but which is represented, as before, by the Syriac 
Abridgment (%) and the Armenian Version (A). 

(3) The Long Recension (g), which in great parts of this epistle 
keeps close to the text of the original Ignatius. 

Though the principles on which a text of the Seven Epistles should 
be constructed are sufficiently obvious, they have been strangely over- 

The first period in the history of the text of the genuine Ignatius 
commences with the publication of the Latin Version by Ussher (1644), 
and of the Greek original by Isaac Voss (1646). The Greek of the 
Epistle to the Romans was first published by Ruinart (1689). The text 
of Voss was a very incorrect transcript of the Medicean MS, and in this 
respect subsequent collations have greatly improved on his editio princeps. 
But beyond this next to nothing was done to emend the Greek text. 
Though some very obvious corrections are suggested by the Latin 
Version, these were either neglected altogether by succeeding editors 
or were merely indicated by them in their notes without being intro- 
duced into the text. There was the same neglect also of the aid 
which might have been derived from the Long Recension. Moreover 
the practice of treating the several MSS and the Latin Version of the 
Long Recension independently of one another and recording them 
co-ordinately with the Greek and Latin of the genuine Ignatius (instead 
of using them apart to ascertain the original form of the Long Recen- 
sion, and then employing the text of this Recension, when thus 
ascertained, as a single authority) threw the criticism of the text into 
great confusion. Nor was any attention paid to the quotations, 
which in several instances have the highest value. Hence it happened 
that during this period which extended over two centuries from Voss to 
Hefele (ed. i, 1839; ed. 3, 1847) and Jacobson (ed. i, 1838; ed. 3, 
1847) inclusive, nothing or next to nothing (beyond the more accurate 
collation of the Medicean MS) was done for the Greek text. 

The second period dates from the publication of the Oriental 


versions the Syriac Abridgment with the Syriac Fragments by 
Cureton (1845, 1849), and the Armenian Version by Petermann (1849) l . 
New materials of the highest value were thus placed in the hands of 
critics ; but, notwithstanding the interest which the Ignatian question 
excited, nearly thirty years elapsed before any proper use was made 
of them. In some cases the failure was due, at least in part, to a false 
solution of the Ignatian question. The text of Bunsen (1847), Cureton 
(1849), an( ^ Lipsius (1859), which started from the assumption that 
the Syriac Abridgment represented the genuine Ignatius, must neces- 
sarily have foundered on this rock, even if the principles adopted had 
been sound in other respects. Petermann and Dressel (1857) however 
maintained the priority of the Seven Epistles of the Vossian text to the 
Three of the Curetonian; and so far they built upon the true basis. 
But Petermann contented himself with a casual emendation of the text 
here and there from the versions; while Dressel neglected them 
altogether. Jacobson (ed. 4, 1863) and Hefele (ed. 4, 1855) also, 
in their more recent editions which have appeared since the Oriental 
versions were rendered accessible, have been satisfied with recording 
some of the phenomena of these versions in their notes without apply- 
ing them to the correction of the text, though they also were un- 
hampered by the false theory which maintained the priority of the 
Curetonian Abridgment. It was reserved for the most recent editors, 
Zahn (1876), and Funk (1878), to make use of all the available materials 
and to reconstruct the text for the first time on sound and intelligible 

The text which I have given was constructed independently of both 
these editions, and before I had seen them, but the main principles are 
the same. Indeed these principles must be sufficiently obvious to those 
who have investigated the materials with any care. In the details 
however my views frequently differ from theirs, as must necessarily be 
the case with independent editors; and in some respects I have had 
the advantage of more complete or more accurate materials than were 
accessible to them. 

In the apparatus criticus, which is appended to the text, I have 
been anxious not to overload my notes with matter which would be 
irrelevant to the main issue. Thus for instance, those divergences in 

1 The editio princeps of the Armenian was published at Constantinople in 1 783 ; 
but this version was practically unknown to scholars until Petermann's edition ap- 


the several versions which, however interesting and instructive in them- 
selves, cannot be supposed to represent various readings in the Greek 
text, are carefully excluded. On the 'other hand it has been my aim 
to omit nothing which could reasonably be thought to contribute to 
the formation of a correct text. 

In carrying out this principle, the following rules have been ob- 

1. The various readings of the Greek Manuscripts of the genuine 
Ignatius (G), i.e. of the Medicean MS in the Six Epistles, and of the 
Colbertine in the Epistle to the Romans, are given in full. This is 
also the case with the fragment of the Epistle to the Ephesians (G') 
which is found in another Paris MS. I have not however thought it 
worth while to record differences of accent, or such variations as 
or av for oTav, ovSc /u'o, for ov'8e/u'a, etc., except where they had some real 
interest. All these MSS I have myself collated anew for this edition. 

2. The readings of the Latin Version (L) are generally given from 
the ultimate revised text, as it is printed in the Appendix. This text 
is founded on a comparison of the two MSS of the version, modified by 
other critical considerations which will be explained in their proper 
place. It did not seem necessary to give here the various readings of 
these two MSS (L t , L 2 ), except in very rare cases. Where such varia- 
tions occur, I have held it sufficient to call attention to the fact, refer- 
ring the reader to the Appendix itself. As the Latin Version is strictly 
literal, every variation which remains in the ultimate Latin text (i.e. the 
text as restored to the condition in which presumably it left the hands 
of the translator) is recorded, because every such variation represents, 
or may have represented, a corresponding variation in the Greek MS 
which the translator used. 

3. In like manner the various readings of the different MSS 
(2 1} 2 2 , 2 3 ). of the Syriac Abridgment (2) are not generally given. 
They will be found in the Appendix, where this version is printed at 
length with an apparatus criticus of its own and a translation. In 
admitting or rejecting divergences which this abridgment exhibits, 
I have been guided by the considerations already alleged. The few 
fragments which survive of the original unabridged Syriac Version (S) 
are also printed in the Appendix. In the case of this and all the 
other Oriental versions Latin renderings are given in the critical notes 
for the sake of convenience and uniformity. 

4. The Armenian Version (A) has been described in the proper 
place. From the description it will have appeared that only a small 


proportion of its many divergences deserves to be recorded as bearing 
on the Greek text. In giving its various readings I have found Peter- 
mann's Latin translation of the greatest service; but I have myself 
consulted the Armenian original as printed by him, in order that, so 
far as my slender knowledge of the language served me, I might not be 
misled by the necessary distortion produced in passing through the 
medium of another language. 

5. The fragment of the Copto-Thebaic Version (C) will be found 
in the Appendix, where it is published for the first time. It is ancient 
and literal enough to be an important authority as far as it goes, and I 
have therefore given all its variations. 

6. The Armenian and Syriac Versions of the Epistle to the 
Romans in the Acts of Martyrdom (A m , S m ), having been translated 
separately and directly from the Greek, are independent of each other 
and of the above-mentioned versions (A, S) in these languages. I have 
freely used Petermann's translation of the one and Moesinger's of the 
other, but not without satisfying myself by consulting the originals. 

7. The text of the Metaphrast (M) for this same epistle is never 
quoted, unless supported by some other authority. In other cases his 
mode of compilation deprives his text of any weight. The MSS of the 
Metaphrast are very numerous ; the readings of some of these are given 
by Cotelier, Dressel, Zahn, and others. 

8. The Greek of the Long Recension (g) will be found with its 
own apparatus criticus in the Appendix. The limits within which it is 
necessary for my purpose to quote its text as an authority have been 
already indicated (p. 4). In citing this recension I have given the 
critical text at which I have myself arrived, without (as a rule) re- 
ferring to the variations of the several MSS or of the Latin Version (1). 
These will be found in their proper place. 

For convenience of reference I give the following recapitulation of 
the symbols : 

G. Greek Original (Medicean and Colbertine MSS). 

G'. Paris fragment of the Epistle to the Ephesians. 
L. Latin Version. 

Lj, L 2 , the MSS of this Version. 
A. Armenian Version. 
S. Syriac Version. 

S,, S 2 , S 3 , being the several collections of fragments belonging 
to this version. 


C. Coptic Version. 

S. Abridgment of the Syriac Version. 

g. Greek Original of the Long Recension. 

1. Latin Version of the Long Recension. 

For the Epistle to the Romans alone : 

A m . Armenian Version in the Martyrology. 
S m . Syriac Version in the Martyrology. 
M. Acts of the Metaphrast. 

The Greek and Latin quotations from the fathers are given by the 
volumes and pages of the standard editions ; the Syriac quotations by 
the pages of Cureton's Corpus Ignatianum. 

The following marks and abbreviations are also used. 

add. \ Where a word or words are added or prefixed in the 

praef. J authority subjoined. 

al. Where the divergence is so great in a version or recension, 

that no inference can be drawn as to the reading which the 

author of the version or recension had before him. This will 

also include passages which are so corrupt as to be worth- 
less for determining a reading, 
app. Apparently, 
def. When the context, in which the word or words should occur, is 

wanting either from designed or accidental omission or from 

the imperfection of the MS or MSS. 
om. When the context is there, but does not contain the word or 

words in question, 
dub. Where a word or expression is so translated or paraphrased, 

that the reading which it represents is uncertain, 
marg. When the reading is found in the margin of the authority in 

s. Attached to an authority signifies that the reading of such 

authority is not given on express testimony, but may be inferred 

from the silence of collators, 
txt. When the authority quoted supports the reading adopted in the 

edd. When an authority is given as generally quoted, or as it stands 

in the common editions, though some MSS may be known or 

suspected to have it otherwise. 


[ ] An authority is included in square brackets thus [g], in all cases 
where it is discredited by some special circumstances: e.g. (i) 
where the grammatical forms are so close as to be easily 
confused, as in the case of the singular and plural in the Syriac ; 
or (2) where the context in a version or recension is so altered 
as to impugn the fidelity of the author or the scribe at this 
particular point; or (3) where a passage may have been modified 
in the process of quotation by the influences of the context. 

( ) The words included in brackets of this form have reference to 
the authority which has immediately preceded and which they 
explain or qualify in some way. 

* An asterisk after an authority (e.g. L*) refers the reader to the 
Appendix for particulars as to the reading of the authority 
which is so distinguished. 




THE EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS belongs to the group 
of four letters written by the saint from Smyrna ( 21). He 
had not himself visited Ephesus on his way; but the Ephesians had 
been apprised of his journey and had sent delegates to meet him at 
Smyrna ( i, 2, 21). The probable manner in which this information 
was conveyed to the Ephesians has been suggested above (p. 2). 

Ephesus was the nearest to Smyrna of those cities which are 
recorded to have sent their delegates thither, the distance between the 
two places being about 40 miles (Strabo xiv. p. 632 Tpia/coViot eu<ocri 
oraSiot). We are therefore prepared to find that the Ephesian delegacy 
was more numerous than that of any other church. The bishop 
Onesimus was there in person; and he was accompanied by four others 
who are mentioned by name, Burrhus, Crocus, Euplus, and Fronto 
( i, 2). Of the two last the names only are given. On the other 
hand Crocus is singled out in this letter for special praise as having 
greatly ' refreshed ' the saint and is mentioned also in affectionate terms 
in the Epistle to the Romans ( 10); while Burrhus the deacon is 
valued so highly by him that he requests the Ephesians to allow him 
to remain in his company. This request was granted ; and we find 
Burrhus with him at Troas, where he acts as his amanuensis (see the 
note on 2). 

Altogether Ignatius appears to have had much satisfaction in the 
presence of these Ephesian delegates, whom he mentions in all his 
other letters written from Smyrna (Magn. 15, Trail. 13, Rom. 10). Of 
his intercourse with Onesimus their bishop more especially he speaks in 
terms of grateful acknowledgment. He describes him as ' unspeakable 


in love ' ( i). He says that in a very brief space of time they had held 
much spiritual communion ( 5). 

But not only was he moved by gratitude to write this letter. He was 
also deeply impressed with the previous history of the Ephesian Church. 
He speaks of it as ' renowned unto all ages '. He himself is the devoted 
slave of such a church ( 8). He does not venture to set himself up 
as their teacher : he is content to be their fellow-disciple. Nay, he will 
even look upon them as his trainers in the athletic contest for the 
martyr's crown which awaits him ( 3). Above all, he remembers their 
companionship with Apostles; and remembering this, he is constrained 
to dwell on his own weakness as contrasted with their strength. They 
had escorted the blessed Paul on the way to martyrdom Paul who 
never tires of commemorating them in his letters ; and he himself would 
fain tread in the same path ( 12). 

Of the character of this church he speaks most favourably. Onesimus 
himself had commended them in the highest terms (vTrepeTrcuvet). No 
heresy had found a lodgment among them. They were steadfast in 
maintaining doctrinal purity and good order ( 6). They were spiritually 
minded in all things ( 8). They owned no other rule of life but God 
( 9). Thus the Ephesian Church appears to have sustained the cha- 
racter and profited by the warning which it received on the last occa- 
sion when it is directly mentioned in the Apostolic writings ; ' I know 
thy works and thy labour and thy patience, and how thou canst not 
bear them which are evil, and didst try them that call themselves 
Apostles, though they are not, and didst find them liars, and thou hast 
patience and didst bear for My Name's sake and hast not fainted. 
Nevertheless I have this against thee, that thou didst leave thy first 
love. Remember therefore from whence thou hast fallen and repent 
and do the first works (Rev. ii. 2 5).' 

But, though heresy had not found a home among them, it was 
hovering in their outskirts. Certain persons who came from a distance 
had attempted to sow the seeds of error among them, but had been 
repulsed ( 7). These were doubtless the docetic teachers, who are 
denounced in his other epistles. Hence the emphasis with which he 
dwells on the * reality ' of the Passion in the opening salutation (lv TrdOci 
dXrjOww). Hence also the prominence which he gives to the true 
humanity of our Lord, where he has occasion to mention His two 
natures ( 7, 18, 19, 20). False teachers are described as 'violators 
of the temple ' in the worst sense, and as such condemned to the 
severest vengeance ( 16). 


As a safeguard against the inroads of this heresy, the saint gives the 
Ephesians some practical advice. They must assemble themselves 
together more frequently than hitherto for congregational worship ( 5, 
13). No man can eat the bread of God, if he keeps aloof from the 
altar ( 5). More especially they must adhere to their bishop, as the 
personal centre of union ( 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). The silent modesty of 
Onesimus renders this warning the more necessary ( 6). Unity will 
thus be secured, and unity is the overthrow of Satan ( 13). 

While enforcing these duties, Ignatius indulges in several metaphors, 
always vigorous, but sometimes extravagant, after his wont. One such 
metaphor more especially demands attention, as containing a vivid 
appeal to the local experiences of an Ephesian audience. In the reign 
of Trajan a munificent Roman of high rank, Gaius Vibius Salutaris, a 
citizen of Ephesus, gave to the temple of Artemis a large number of 
gold and silver-gilt images. Among them are mentioned several statues 
of Artemis herself, one representing her as the Huntress, others 
as the Torchbearer; images of the Roman Senate, of the Ephesian 
Council, of the Roman People, of the Equestrian Order, of the Ephe- 
beia, etc. One of the ordinances relating to his benefactions bears the 
date February in the year of the Consuls Sextus Attius Suburanus n 
and Marcus Asinius Marcellus (A.D. 104) the same year in which, 
according to one Martyrology, Ignatius was put to death. Salutaris 
provided by an endowment for the care and cleaning of these images ; 
and he ordered that they should be carried in solemn procession from 
the temple to the theatre and back again on the birthday of the 
goddess (6th Thargelion), on the days of public assembly, and at such 
other times as the Council and People might determine. They were 
to be escorted by the curators of the temple, the victors in the sacred 
contests, and other officers who are named. The procession was to 
enter the city by the Magnesian gate and leave by the Coressian, so 
as to pass through its whole length. On entering the city it was to 
be joined by the Ephebi who should accompany it from gate to gate. 
The decrees, recording the acceptance of these benefactions on the 
conditions named, were set up on tablets in the Great Theatre, 
where they have been recently discovered (Wood's Discoveries at 
Ephesus Inscr. vi. i sq.). The practice of carrying the images and 
sacred vessels belonging to the temple in solemn procession on the 
festival of the goddess and on other occasions doubtless existed long 
before; but these benefactions of Salutaris would give a new impulse 
and add a new splendour to the ceremonial. At such a time the 

IGN. II. 2 


metaphor of the saint would speak with more than common directness 
to the imagination of his Ephesian readers, when, alluding to these pagan 
festivals, he tells them that as Christians they all alike are priests and 
victors, for they carry, not in their hands, as the votaries of Artemis 
carry their images and treasures, but in their hearts, each his God, his 
Christ, his shrine ; that they too are duly arrayed for their festivities, 
not indeed in ornaments and cloth of gold, but in the commandments 
of Jesus Christ which are their holiday garments (see the notes on 


The Epistle to the Ephesians is the longest and most elaborate of 
the extant letters of Ignatius. This fact may be explained by his close , 
relations with the Ephesian delegates, as well as by his respect for the 
past history and present condition of the Ephesian Church, as already 
mentioned. Towards the close he enters upon what looks like a 
systematic discussion of the doctrine of the Incarnation ( 19). But 
he breaks off abruptly, promising, if it be God's will, to send them a 
second tract (/?i/?Ai'Sioi/) wherein he will continue the subject upon 
which he has entered, * the economy relating to the new Man Christ 
Jesus' ( 20). This promise he seems never to have fulfilled. At least 
no such second letter or treatise has ever been heard of. The hurry 
of his subsequent movements (Polyc. 8), perhaps also the direct inter- 
ference of his guards (Rom. 5), may have prevented his carrying out his 

The following is an analysis of the epistle : 

' IGNATIUS to the CHURCH OF EPHESUS, which was blessed by God 
and predestined to glory through a true Passion, hearty greeting in 

' You have acted in a manner congenial to your nature, in sending 
your delegates to comfort me on my way to martyrdom. In welcoming 
Onesimus I welcomed you all. You are indeed happy in your bishop, 
and should love him as he deserves ( i). I thank you for sending 
Burrhus also, and I trust you will let him remain with me. Your other 
delegates too, Crocus more especially, have greatly refreshed me. 
Glorify Jesus Christ by unity and submission to your bishops and 
presbyters ( 2). I do not say this, as if I had a right to command. 
Indeed it were much more fit for me to learn of you. But love will 
not let me be silent. The bishops represent the will of Jesus Christ 
( 3). Your presbyters are to your bishop as the strings to the lyre. 


Let one harmonious chant rise up to heaven, as from one chorus singing 
in accord. Union is fellowship with God ( 4). If my brief intercourse 
with your bishop has been so blessed, what blessing will not attend 
your unbroken communion with him ! The united prayer of the bishop 
and the congregation is all powerful. He that stands aloof brings 
God's condemnation upon himself ( 5). If your bishop is silent, he 
only claims from you the more respect. The delegate of the Master 
must be received as the Master Himself. I rejoice to hear so good an 
account of you from Onesimus. He tells me that heresy has found 
no home among you ( 6). Still certain persons are going about 
teaching false doctrine. Shun them, as you would wild beasts. There 
is only one Physician who can heal their wounds ; and He is flesh, as 
well as spirit, Man as well as God ( 7). Be not deceived, but put 
away all evil desires. I am devoted to the renowned Church of 
Ephesus. The things of the flesh and things of the Spirit are exclusive 
the one of the other. With you even the things done in the flesh are 
the promptings of the Spirit ( 8). I have learned that certain persons 
coming from a distance attempted to sow the seeds of false doctrine 
among you : but you stopped your ears and would not listen. You are 
stones raised aloft to be fitted into the temple of God. You are holiday- 
makers, bearing your sacred things in festive procession ; and I rejoice 
that I am permitted to take part in your festivities ( 9). Pray for the 
heathen, since repentance is still possible for them. Teach them by 
your conduct; by your gentleness, your humility, your prayers, your 
steadfastness in the faith. Requite them not in like kind, but imitate 
the Lord in your forbearance. In this way show that you are their 
brothers. Be chaste and modest ( 10).' 

4 The world is drawing to a close. If we value not the present 
grace, let us at least dread the coming wrath. One way or another let 
us be found in Christ Jesus, in whom I also hope to rise from the dead 
and to have my portion with the Christians of Ephesus, the scholars of 
Apostles ( n). I cannot compare myself with you you who were 
associates in the mysteries with Paul, who are mentioned by him in 
every letter ( 12). Meet together more frequently for eucharistic 
service. These harmonious gatherings will be the overthrow of Satan. 
There is nothing better than peace ( 13). This ye yourselves know. 
Cherish faith and love the beginning and the end of life. Where 
these exist, all else will follow. The tree is known by its fruits. 
Christianity is not a thing of profession but of power ( 14). Doing 
with silence is better than not doing with speech. The silence and 

2 2 


the speech alike of the great Teacher were operative. Whosoever 
understands His word will understand His silence also. Nothing is 
hidden from the Lord. In all our doings let us remember that we are 
His temples ( 15). No violators of the temple shall inherit God's 
kingdom. To those that violate the faith by corrupt doctrine the 
warning is especially addressed. They and their hearers shall go into 
unquenchable fire ( 16). The Lord was anointed with ointment that 
He might breathe incorruption upon His Church. Shun the foul 
odour of false doctrine. Why should we perish m our folly, by refusing 
the grace of God ( 17) ? I am the devoted slave of the Cross, which 
is a scandal to the unbeliever. Away with the wisdom of this world ! 
Our God Jesus Christ was born a Man ( 18). This economy was 
hidden from the Prince of this world, until it was accomplished this 
threefold mystery, the virginity of Mary, her child-bearing, and the 
death of Christ. It was revealed by a star of unwonted brightness. 
All the powers of heaven were dismayed at its appearing ; for the 
Incarnation of God was the overthrow of the reign of evil. This was 
the beginning of the end. The dissolution of Death was at hand 
( 19). If it please God, I will write again and say more of this 
economy. Only be steadfast in the faith; preserve the unity of the 
body ; render obedience to the bishop and presbyters ( 20).' 

1 My affectionate devotion to you and your delegates. I write this 
from Smyrna. Remember me and pray for the Church in Syria, of 
which I am a most unworthy member. Farewell in God and Christ 

( 21).' 


IFNATIOC, 6 Kai Oeo(f>6pos 9 Trj ev\oyrj jmevrj ev 

npoc ecJ>eciOYc] irpbs efavlovs iyvdTios G (with 7 in the marg.) ; TOV O.VTOV 
eTricrToXr) irpbs efaffiovs g* (with ia in the marg.) ; Ignatius ephesiis L; \ejus\ secunda 
qnae ad ephesios S ; ad ephesios A. 

i 6 Kai] GLg; qui est S (IPTI, and so Rom., Polyc.} A (and so always, except 
Hero, where it is qui et}. peytdei] /j-eytQ-rj G. 

to the question of Trajan Kai TIS 
fortv 0eo(p6pos; Ignatius answers 
C O Xpto-Tov f\a>v (v o-Tcpvois. (3) The 
metaphor of 'bearing God,' 'bearing 
Christ,' is frequent in early Christian 
writers; e.g. Iren. iii. 16. 3 'portante 
homine et capiente et complectente 
filium Dei] v. 8. i 'assuescentescapere 
etportare Deum* (quoted by Pearson 
on Smyrn. inscr.). See also the Latin 
reading in i Cor. vi. 20 'glorificate 
et portate (tollite) Deum in corpore 
vestro'; comp. Tert. de Resurr. 10, 
1 6, de Pudic. 16, Cypr. Test. iii. 11, 
Dom. Orat. n. Hence Tertullian 
elsewhere, adv. Marc. v. 7, 'Quomodo 
tollemus Deum in corpore perituro?' 
Compare also Clem. Alex. Exc. Theod. 
27 (p. 976) TO Geotfiopov yiv(r6ai TOV 
avdpcvrrov Trpotre^o)? evcpyovpevov virb 
TOV Kvpi'ou Kai Kaddirep vat pa avTov 
yivofjifvov. (4) Even in later writers 
and in other connexions this active 
sense prevails: e.g. Greg. m&z.Epist. 
IO2 (ll.p. 96, Caillau)ro delvrrpoa-KwcIv 
p,r) avdpoyjrov deoffropov aXXa Qeov 
o~apKo<j)c>poi>, and below pr) o-dpKa 
deofpopov dXXa Qfbv dvOpoonoCpopov. 
See other examples in Pearson V. /. 
p. 521 sq, Suicer Thes. s.v. Similarly 
Xpio-To(p6pos seems to be always 
active (see Phileas in Euseb. H. E. 

'IGNATIUS, called also Theopho- 
rus, to the CHURCH OF EPHESUS, 
which is greatly blessed of God and 
was foreordained from the beginning 
to eternal glory, united and elected 
in the power of a real Passion through 
the will of the Father and of Christ ; 
hearty greeting in Christ.' 

I. 6 Kai Qeofpopos] This word would 
be equally appropriate to the true 
Christian, whether taken in its active 
sense ($fo<popos, bearing God, clad 
with God} or in its passive sense 
($eo<popof, borne along by God, in- 
spired by God] j Clem. Alex. Strom. 
vii. 13 (p. 882) 6flos apa 6 yvcaariKos 
Kai fjftr] dyios, 6co(popwv Kai 6co- 
<f>opovp.fvos; comp. Strom, vi. 12 
(p. 792). There can however be little 
doubt that it should here be taken 
actively and accentuated etocpopor; 
for (i) We have the authority of 
Ignatius himself below, 9, where 
the connexion of faofpopot. with 
vaocfx'ipoi, xptoro$o/jot, ayicx^opot, fixes 
its meaning ; see also the analogous 
words <rapKo<opos, vcKpo<f)6pos, Smyrn. 
5. (2) It is so interpreted universally 
till a very late date, e.g. by the Syriac 
translator who renders it 'clad with 
God.' See also the altercation in 
Mart. Ign. Ant. 2, where in answer 


6ei Oeov Traces TrA^jOw/xaTt, Trj TrpocopLcrjUievrj Trpo 

i TrX^pwyucm] Gg* (with a v.l.) ; perfectione A ; et plenitudine L ; et perfectae S: 
see the lower note. T#] txt GLS[A] ; add. /cat g. 

viii. iooi xptoTocpopot paprvpfs) ; while 
on the other hand 7rvfv/j,aT6<popos is 
commonly used in such a sense as to 
suggest a passive meaning, 'inspired, 
borne along by the Spirit,' e.g. Hos. ix. 
7 (LXX), Presbyt. in Iren. v. 5. i, Herm. 
Mand. n, Theoph. ad Autol. i. 9, ii. 
22, Dionys. Rom. in Athanas. Op. I. 
p. 182, and frequently. But even 
here we are perhaps deceived, and 
the idea of inspiration may be derived 
equally well from the active irvv^a- 
ro(p6pos 'a vehicle of the Spirit'; e.g. 
in Herm. Mand. u (a reference 
already cited) the word may be ex- 
plained by an expression which occurs 
in the neighbourhood, e^coi/ ev eauro> 
8vvap.iv irvfvfjiaTos 6fiov. Comp. Iren. 
iv. 20. 6 'videbitur Deus ab homi- 
nibus qui portant Spiritum ejus.' 
The passive word tfeocpopr/Tor, which 
is also classical, is found occasionally 
in early Christian writers, e.g. Hippol. 
Fragm. 123 (p. 193 Lagarde), and 
several times in Philo, e.g. de Somn. 
i. 43, ii. i (i. pp. 658, 659). The idea 
involved in the word dcotpopos is 
found also in contemporary Stoic 
writers; e.g. Epictet. Diss. ii. 8. 12, 
13 0e6i> 7Tfpt( o-ai/ro) 
(pepeis OVTOV K.r.X. (comp. ii. 16. 
33), Lucan Phars. ix. 563 'Ille Deo 
plenus, tacita quern mente gerebat? 
The active sense therefore must be 
adopted, but the alternative of 'bear- 
ing God' and 'wearing God' still 
remains. All the passages quoted 
however seem to show that the former 
is the sense of 6eo(p6pos here, though 
the Syriac renders it ' God-clad,' and 
S. Paul's metaphor of 'putting on 
Christ' might suggest this meaning. 
The former sense indeed is impe- 
ratively demanded below, 9. 

It is more probable that this sur- 
name was adopted by Ignatius himself, 
as a token of his Christian obligations, 
than that it was conferred upon him 
by others, as a title of honour. For 
supposed references to it in the body 
of his epistles, see the notes on Magn. 
I, Trail. 4, Smyrn. 5. It occurs in 
the opening of all his genuine epi- 
stles; and in this he is imitated by 
the Pseudo-Ignatius. The epithet 
however is not confined to him, but 
is applied freely to later fathers, espe- 
cially to those assembled at any of 
the great councils, as Nicaea; see 
Pearson V. L 1. c. In his case how- 
ever it has the character of a second 
name or surname, as the mode of 
introduction, o /cat Qeofpopos, shows; 
comp. Acts xiii. 9 SauXos, o /cat IlaG- 
Xoy. This form of expression is ex- 
tremely common in inscriptions ; e.g. 
Boeckh C. I. G. 2836 'ApicrTOKXfjs o KOI 
Zrjvtov, 2949 M. Avp. nerpa)j/tos 

6 KCU MeVtTTTTOS, 3282 KafTTplKlOS ' 

p,id(opos 6 Koi ['A/uJ/xtayos, 3309'Ep/iei'as 
o /cat AiropiS) 3387 ^Xaovta Tpixpaiva 
77 KCU 'PoSoTT?;, 3550 Mei/e'crrparoi/ TOV 
Kal Tpu0a>ra, 3675 Taios Taiov 6 KOI 
HIVTOS, 3737 Mai'/za r\ /cat 'lldovij, 
4207 'EXti/q j; /cat *A.(p(f>iov, and so fre- 
quently. From this epithet arose the 
tradition that Ignatius was the very 
child whom our Lord took up in 
His arms (Mark ix. 36; comp. Matt, 
xviii. 2, Luke ix. 47), the passive 
6e6(popos being substituted for the 
active 6eo(p6pos and a literal sense 
being attached to the word. 

The groundless suspicion of Dus- 
terdieck (p. 89), Bunsen (B. p. 33, 
/. v. A. p. 38), Renan (Les Evangiles 
p. xxvii), and others, that 6eo(j>6pos 
is a later insertion, has been refuted 


by Zahn (/. v. A. p. 69 sq). It goes 
directly in the teeth of all the evi- 
dence. Daille founded an objection 
to the genuineness of the epistles on 
the use of this surname, urging that it 
arose out of the legend. He is re- 
futed by Pearson ( V. I. p. 520 sq), who 
shows that the converse was the case. 
TTJ evXoyrjfMevrj K.T.\.] This opening 
address contains several obvious re- 
miniscences of Ephes. i. 3 sq. o 
Qeos Kal 7raTr/p...6 ev\oyijo-as rjp-as 
ev iraa-rj fv\oyia...Ka6<as e 
rjp,as ... npo /eara/SoXf/ 

..ap.<i>p.ovs ...TT poopio~as 
rr\v evdoKtav TOV 6c\rj- 
TOV aip.aTos OVTOV... 
KaTa rrjv /3ovXj)z> TOV 
CIVTOV...CIS TO eivai jj/xas 1 
els eiraivov dor)s avVov. See also 
the notes on TrXT/pw/xart below, and 
on p,ip.T)Tal ovrfs 06ov I, and for trpo 
comp. Ephes. iii. 1 1 Kara rrpo- 
&v aia>v(0v. Though S. Paul's 
so-called Epistle to the Ephesians 
was probably a circular letter, yet 
even on this hypothesis Ephesus was 
the principal Church addressed, and 
there was therefore a special pro- 
priety in the adoption of its language. 
This is analogous to the references 
in the Roman Clement ( 47) to the 
First Epistle to the Corinthians, and 
in Polycarp ( 3, comp. 9, n) to the 
Epistle to the Philippians, where 
these fathers are writing to the same 
two Churches respectively. The di- 
rect mention of the Epistle to the 
Ephesians, which is supposed to occur 
at a later point in this letter ( 12 
IIavXov...os ev navy (niaroXfj fj.vrjp.o- 
vfvft vjuwv), is extremely doubtful (see 
the note there) ; but the acquaintance 
of Ignatius with that epistle appears 
from other passages besides this ex- 
ordium, e.g. Polyc. 5. 

l iti greatness." 1 The 
describes the moral and 
spiritual stature of the Ephesian 

Church itself; comp. Smyrn. n 
drreXaftov TO idiov peyeOos, Rom. 3 
peyedovs eVrii/ o xP l " riavia 't JLOS - These 
are the only other passages in Ig- 
natius where peycdos occurs, and in 
both it refers not to God, but to the 
Church. We might be tempted by 
the parallel, Rom. inscr. eV /teyaXeid- 
TTJTI TraTpos v-v^iVrov, to connect eV 
fjLeyedei with Geov Trarpo's, but this 
would oblige us to interpret TrXjypa)- 
P.CITI 'fully,' 'richly' (as Zahn 7. v. A. 
p. 415, while ad loc. he compares 
Rom. XV. 29 cv TrXj/poo/ian evXoytas) ; 
an interpretation which cannot, I 
think, stand. 

0fov TraTpos irXrjp^paTi] ' through 
the plenitude of God the Father] 
where pleroma is used, as by S. 
Paul and S. John, in its theological 
sense, to denote the totality of the 
Divine attributes and powers: see 
the excursus on Colossians p. 257 
sq. The dative case is instrumental. 
To participation in the pleroma 
of God, or of Christ, we are in- 
debted for all the gifts and graces 
which we possess ; John i. 16 '* TOV 
Tr\r)pwp,aTos avTov ijp.fls irdvTfs eXa- 
f3o[j.(v K.T.X. The expression before 
us should be compared especially 
with Ephes. iii. 19 Iva TrXTypco^Te ei's 
irav TO 7rX;'pa>/xa TOV Gfov, a passage 
which Ignatius probably had in his 
mind, as this same epistle of S. Paul 
is present to his thoughts through- 
out his opening salutation. See also 
Ephes. i. 23, where the TrX^'pco^a is 
regarded as transfused wholly into 
the Church. Ignatius again uses 
this term in its technical sense, Trail. 
inscr. r\v Kal do~7rdop,ai fv TG> irXrjpco- 

p.aTL. For the prominence of the 
pleroma in the Valentinian theology 
see Colossians p. 265 sq. For similar 
instances of phraseology, which was 
afterwards characteristic of Valenti- 
nianism or of other developments of 
Gnosticism, in these epistles, see the 


ai(av(*)v Aval Sia TTCIVTOS ets So^av Trapafuovov, ctTpeTT- 

1 7)vwfdvr) Kal tK\e\eyntvri} yvu^byv Kal eK\e\eytJ.{vr)v GLg; but SA refer the 
words to the Church, and seem therefore to have read the datives : see the lower 
note. Their renderings are et (i.e. quae ecclesia) perfecta et electa S ; quae perfecta 
est (om. Kal K\e\ey^vr]) A. In S the word K^JDGPDI et perfecta is the same which 

notes on i (pvo-ei, Rom. 6, Magn. 8, 
Trail, i. 

The sentence would be simplified, 
if we could venture on the reading 
KCU TrAT/peo/zaTt. In this case peyeOos, 
like 7rA77p<B/za, would be attributed to 
God ; and here again a Valentinian 
tinge would be given to the language 
of Ignatius, for peycdos appears to 
have had a technical sense with this 
school : comp. Iren. i. 2. 2 8ta TO 
p, eye 6 os TOV fidOovs Kal TO dve^ix v ' l ~ 
(HTTOV TO Trarpoy, and esp. Anon, in 
Epiphan. Hcer. xxxi. 5 (see Stieren's 
Irenasus, p. 916 sq) rjv rives "Evvoiav 
e<pao-av, eWpoi Xdpiv oucetW, did TO 

TOV peyedovs rots e< TOV peyedovs, 
oi 8f d\r)6fVo~avTes 2tyj)f Trpoarjyo- 
pevo~av ) OTI di vdv^o~0)s ^copis \6yov 
TO. irdvra TO p,ey*6os vrfXcMMTW o>y 
ovv TrpoetTroi', TJ aCpdapTos [atam'a] 
fai cAXw TO 

e pcei vaTravo-eus OVTOV; 
comp. the Valentinian use of /Meye&j 
for 'powers' in Iren. i. 13. 6, i. 14. 4, 
and see also i. 13. 3. I find more- 
over that in Syriac 'the greatness' 
(KniTl) was used absolutely to 
signify the Divine Majesty. To the 
passage from Ephraem Syrus (Op. 
Syr. i. p. 68), quoted by Michaelis 
(Castell. Lex. Syr. s. v. p. 843) for 
this use, add two examples from the 
Syriac of Clem. Recogn. p. 21 1. 28, 
p. 26 1. 7 (ed. Lagarde), both which 
passages are altered in the Latin of 
Ruffmus, perhaps because he did 
not understand this sense of p.fye6os. 
1 1 is possible therefore that this reading 
Kal TrXr/pco/xaTi is correct; but in the 
extant authorities which have it the 

Kal must be regarded as a later (and 
very obvious) insertion, and if it 
existed in the original copy, it must 
have dropped out at a date anterior 
to any existing texts. The original 
form of the Syriac was not K^D&^EI 
1 and perfected (fulfilled^ as it stands 
in the Curetonian MSS, but K^DHSQ 
l in (or by] the perfection (fulness),' 
or some similar expression, as the 
Armenian rendering shows (see 
Petermann ad loc.}. The word 
&07D1K> is the rendering of TrXTypco/Lta 
in Rom. xi. 12, Ephes. i. 23, iv. 13. 
The substitution would be the more 
easy, because the former word occurs 
in the immediate context as the 
rendering (or loose paraphrase) of 

1. fli\ For the construction dv 
(Is 'to be destined for, reserved for' 
comp. Ephes. i. 12 (is TO flvai fls eTrai- 
vov K.T.A., Acts viii. 23 els x^ v 7rt ~ 
Kpi'ar...opa> o-e 6Wa, I Cor. xiv. 22 at 
y\a>o-o-ai fls o-rjfiflov clcrw. 

Trapduovov aTpeTrroi/] ' abiding and 
unchangeable' Both adjectives must 
be connected with So^ai/, even though 
we should read rfvat^vrjv K.T.\. after- 
wards ; comp. Clem. Al. Strom, vii. 

IO (p. 866) 60-Oflfl/OS 1 , Q)f flTTflv, <f)WS 

eo~T<as Kal fifvov tSiW, irdvTT) Trcumos 
aTpeiTTov. For Trapa/ioyo? comp. 
Philad. inscr. x a P a a ^ vl ^ Kc " vrapd- 
P.OVOS; for arpeTTTo?, which is used es- 
pecially of the unchangeable things 
of eternity, see e.g. Clem. Horn. xx. 5 
aTpfTTTOV yap [o 0eos] Kal del o>z>, Philo 
Leg. AIL i. 15 (i. p. 53) anoiov OVTOV 
[TOV Qeov] eivai Kal afpdapTov Kal aTpeir- 


2. TJva>fj,evfl K.T.A.] I have ventur- 


vn KCLI K\e\ey fj.evn iv 



has occurred just before as the rendering of TrX^pw/ttcm, and there is probably 
therefore some corruption, as it does not represent fyufj^vri. Cureton (1845) sug- 
gested that S read fyvanevriv. ev Trddei] GLAg ; in signo S : see the 

lower note. 

ed to substitute datives for accusa- 
tives, as the change is slight. But 
if the accusatives be retained, they 
must still be referred to the Church, 
and not connected with dogav. As 
coming after the infinitive, elvai 
[avTt)v~]...jv<oncvr)v K.r.X., they are jus- 
tifiable: comp. Winer Gramm. xliv. 
p. 402, Ixvi. p. 782, Kiihner n. p. 
590 sq. But in the present instance 
they are especially awkward, as 
being interposed between datives 
before and after, and also as being 
liable to confusion with the accusa- 
tives immediately preceding. For the 
frequency of cvovv etc. in Ignatius see 
the note on 4. 

(v 7ra#ei] This should probably be 
connected with both the preceding 
words. The 'passion' is at once the 
bond of their union and the ground 
of their election. For the former idea 
comp. Philad. 3 ei TIS fv aXXorpm 
yvtopr) TTfpiTraret, OVTOS TG> nddfi ov (rvy- 
Karart'tferai ; for the latter, Trail. 1 1 
fv TO) nddfi O.VTOV TrpocrKaXeirai up-ay. 
This latter relation it has, because 
in foreordaining the Sacrifice of the 
Cross God foreordained the call of 
the faithful. Thus their election was 
involved in Christ's passion. 

This word has a special promi- 
nence in the Epistles of Ignatius. 
In Christ's passion is involved the 
peace of one Church (Trail, inscr.) 
and the joy of another (Philad. 
inscr.). Unto His passion the peni- 
tent sinner must return (Smyrn. 5) ; 
from His passion the false heretic 
dissents (Philad. 3) ; into His passion 
all men must die (Magn. 5); His 
passion the saint himself strives to 

imitate (Rom. 6) ; the blood of His 
passion purifies the water of baptism 
(Ephes. 1 8); the tree of the passion 
is the stock from which the Church 
has sprung (Smyrn. i); the passion 
is a special feature which distin- 
guishes the Gospel (Philad. 9, Smyrn. 
7). In several passages indeed it is 
coordinated with the birth or the 
resurrection (Ephes. 20, Magn. 11, 
Smyrn. 1 2, etc.) ; but frequently, as 
here, it stands in isolated grandeur, 
as the one central doctrine of the 

Hence the importance that the 
Passion should have been real (0X9- 
Oivov), and not, as the Docetic teach- 
ers held, a mere phantom suffering 
and death. On the opposition of 
Ignatius to these Docetic views, see 
the note on Trail. 9. As this is the 
only passage referring to Docetism 
in the Curetonian letters, and as the 
Syriac MSS here read KLziAa 'in 
signoj the fact has been pressed as 
arguing the priority of these letters 
to the Vossian. Cureton at first 
supposed that it was a corrupt 
reading for rtLxjjca 'in passionej 
but afterwards was persuaded that 
it was genuine and represented the 
Greek ev rrpo&Vet, which (as he sup- 
posed) had been changed into eV naOft 
by the Vossian interpolator to con- 
trovert the Docetse, whose errors are 
combated elsewhere in the Vossian 
letters, ' or perhaps indeed the Phan- 
tasiastae of a later period' (C. I. G. 
p. 276 sq). An argument in favour 
of Cureton's reading is, that it pro- 
duces another coincidence with S. 
Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, i. 



TOV Trarpos Kai 'lr]<rov Xpurrov TOV Qeov 
eKK\t](ria Trj d^io/JLaKapia-Tw Trj ovcry ev 

i TOV iraTpbs Kai 'I. X. TOV OcoO i]fjt.u>v] GL ; 6eov iraTpbs Kai Kvpiov r/^w^'I.X. TOV 
g ; patris iesu christi dei nostri S ; del et domini nostri iesu christi 
[A] (omitting kv leXi^art) : see the lower note. 3 TTJS 'Avlas] GL[A] (which 

transposes the whole clause) g ; om. S. KCU] GLg ; om. SA. 4 X a w] 

gSA ; x<*-P tTl GL : see the lower note. 5 'ATrode^evos] Gg* ; acceptans L ; 

1 1 irpoopLo-Qevres Kara Trpodeariv K.r.A. 
This view accordingly has been a- 
dopted by several later writers, e.g. 
Bunsen (Hippolytus I. p. 94, ed. 2), 
Lipsius (Aecht. p. 24, S. T. p. 153), and 
others. Nevertheless Cureton's for- 
mer view was unquestionably correct. 
The telling facts are these, (i) The 
word r<!jcjJ is not in itself a suit- 
able rendering of 7rpo#e<m, and as a 
matter of fact is never so employed 
in the Peshito. As denoting a 'sign,' 
'mark,' it denotes an aim or purpose 
(CTKOTTOS), but this is somewhat dif- 
ferent from npodeo-Ls. (2) On the 
other hand the Greek text has ei/ 
7ra0ei, which is exactly represented 
by r^Jtwcs. (3) The two words 
are not unfrequently confused in the 
Syriac texts. Even in these Igna- 
tian Epistles, the Armenian transla- 
tor found this error twice in the 
Syriac text which he had before him, 
in Smyrn. i OTTO TOV irddovs rendered 
a signo (see Petermann p. xix), and 
in Trail. II ev TG> Travel rendered 
signo. The Syriac of this latter 
passage is preserved (C. I. p. 200), 
r^Lr >xr). I may add a third in- 
stance from the Syriac Version of 
the Clementines p. 74, 1. 25 (ed. La- 
garde), where one MS (the older of 
the two and the earliest known 
Syriac MS, dated A.D. 411) has 
r^-Xjkl.l and the other r<!jCA>.l, the 
latter being correct, as appears from 
the Latin of Ruffinus (Clem. Recogn. 
ii. 58) ; and a fourth from Sexti Sen- 
tetitiae pp. 26, 27 (ed. Gildemeister), 

where there is the same interchange 
between the two words r<Lx4J3, 
r^Lxxl=D, in the MSS. As a very 
slight knowledge of Syriac literature 
has enabled me to collect these in- 
stances, it may be presumed that the 
confusion is common. Indeed the 
traces of the letters so closely re- 
semble each other that it naturally 
would be so. (4) The Armenian 
Version actually has inpassione here, 
so that rr^-Z-jjca must have stood in 
the Syriac text from which it was 

i. roO Qeov jfjiwv] Where the 
Divine Name is assigned to Christ 
in these epistles, it is generally with 
the addition of the pronoun, 'our 
God,' 'my God,' as below 18 6 Qebs 

yfjitov 'Irjcrovs o Xpioros eKvo^opr/flj/ 
K.r.X., Rom. inscr., 3 o Geos rjpwv 
'I. X., Polyc. 8 lv 06w TIJIUV 'I. X. 
(v^opai, Rom. 6 /ZI/ZT/TT}!/ fivat TOV TTO.- 
6ovs TOV 0f ov fj,ov ; or it has some 
defining words as in Smyrn. i Aoa- 
fa> 'I. X. rbv Qfbv TOV OVTCOS vp,as o-o(pi- 
O-CLVTO, Ephes. 7 fv ai/$pa)7ra> Geoy. 
The expression just below i V 
ai/zari Qcov can hardly be regarded as 
an exception (see the note there). 
In the really exceptional passages 
there is more or less doubt about 
the reading or the connexion ; Trail. 
7, Smyrn. 6, 10. The authority for 
the omission of <al here is quite in- 
adequate; but, even if KOI were gen- 
uine, TOV Qeov 77/neoi/ must be taken 
with "I. X., and not (as Bunsen Br. p. 
85) with TOV 


'G(^)ecr&> [TT;S 'Acr/as], 7r\eIcrTa ev 'Iricrov XpicrTto KOI 


5 I. 'A7roSea/iei/os 



ew TO 

quoniam accepttim mihi (supra me) S ; quoniam acceptabilisestapudme A. There is 
no authority (except a worthless v.l. in g) for dire8$;a/j,7iv. vfii>] g ; <rov (after 

jroXvaydirrjTov) GL ; vestrtim SA, but there is nothing to show in what position 
V/JLUV stood in their text, or whether it stood there at all : see the lower note. 
iro\vayawr)Toi>] G ; iro\vTr6dT)Toi> g ; multum dilectum LS[A]. 

See also Xen. Anab. ii. 2. 6 e' 'E0e- 

2. a^io/xaKapioro)] ' 'worthy of feli- 
citation? Comp. 5 rrocra) /zaXXoi/ 
vnas /iaapia>. The compound occurs 
again 12, Rom. inscr., 10. It is 
hardly classical, and its occurrence 
in Xenophon Apol. 34 has been al- 
leged as an argument against the 
genuineness of that treatise. On the 
fondness of Ignatius for compounds 
of aios see the notes on a^iov6p,a<TTov 
4 below. 

3. TTJS 'Ao-mr] i.e. the Roman 
province. With very much hesita- 
tion I have put the words in brackets, 
as a possible though not a probable 
interpolation, since they are wanting 
in the Syriac. With a place so well 
known as Ephesus the specification 
is a little startling. It occurs how- 
ever in Iren. iii. i. i 'la>avvT)s...ev 
'E(peVa> rfjs 'Ao-ias duiTpifttov ; and is 
added also in the addresses of the 
letters to Smyrna, Tralles, and Phila- 
delphia, cities only less famous than 
Ephesus, while in the letter to the 
Magnesians it is only suppressed to 
give place to another geographical 
definition rfj rrpos Mcuai/Spcp. The 
case of 'Ai/no^em rfjs SupiW (Philad. 
10, Smyrn. n, Pol. 7) is different, 
for several important cities bore that 
name. The other places called Ephe- 
sus were quite too obscure to come 
into competition (Steph. Byz. s.v. 
fan Kal*E(f)(Tos vfjo-os cv TO) Net'Xo), on 
the authority of Hecataeus) ; and the 
addition here must be explained by 
the formal character of the address. 

(rov rs 

4. ev dfj.oofj.(o ^apa] Comp. Magn. 
7 fv rfj x a P9- T fl fl/A&>/Lia>. If the read- 
ing had been left doubtful by the ex- 
ternal authorities, this parallel would 
have decided it. For a/xco/zor, ap.cop.coj , 
in the openings of these epistles, see 
Rom. inscr., Smyrn. inscr., Trail, i, 
Polyc. i : comp. also 4 (below), 
Trail. 13. 

7rXfi(rra...^atp6ti/] This form of 
salutation runs through six of the 
seven Ignatian letters, sometimes 
with words interposed as here and 
Rom., sometimes in juxtaposition as 
Polyc., Magn., Trail., Smyrn. The 
exception is Philad., where the open- 
ing salutation runs on continuously 
into the main subject of the letter, so 
that there is no place for such words 
or any equivalent. The commonest 
form of salutation in the opening of 
a Greek letter is ^cupeii/; and it is 
occasionally strengthened, as here, 
by TrXelora. Of the Apostolic Epi- 
stles however S. James alone (i. I, 
comp. Acts xv. 23) has ^cupeti/ in 
the opening salutation. 

I. ' I heartily welcomed you in God. 
Your name is very dear to me; for 
your character for love and faith with 
right judgment is not accidental, but 
natural to you ; and inflamed by 
Christ's blood you did but fulfil the 
dictates of your nature, in imitating 
the loving-kindness of God. For 
when you heard that I was on my 



TOV ovofJia, o K6KTrjar6e (j)ucrei [eV yvwfjup 6p6r t KCLI\ 
Kara TTLO-TLV Kal dydiniv iv XpHrro) 'lr}<rov TCO 

i <pt<rei. . .ducal?,] natura (in) voluntate recta etjusta S ; revera immaculata volun- 
tate A; 0i5<ret diKalg. (omitting the other words) GLg. 2 Kara] txt. GLAS 3 g ; 

praef. atque etiam S 2 . Iv X. 'I. T< awr^pi w&v] gL; kv 'I. X. T$ ffUTrj 
iesu christi salvatoris nostri SA : see the lower note. 3 fu/i?7Tat] 

way from Syria, a prisoner for the 
Name of Christ our common hope, 
expecting to fight with wild beasts 
in Rome and so to claim a place as a 
disciple, you were eager to visit me. 
Gladly then have I received you all 
in the person of Onesimus your loving 
bishop and delegate. And I pray 
that you may love and imitate him ; 
for God has indeed been good to you 
in giving you such a man for your 

'ATroSe^a/iei/os] ' Having wel- 
comed'* \ com p. Polyc. i, Trail, i. 
He had welcomed them in the person 
of Onesimus: see Trail, i. The 
sentence thus begun is never finished, 
being lost in a succession of subor- 
dinate and parenthetical clauses. 
The subject is at length resumed in 
a different form, eVet ovv . . .airfiKrjfya 
K.r.X. The opening of the letter to 
the Romans fares in the same way. 
See also similar phenomena in 
Philad. i, Smyrn. i ; comp. Magn. 

i, 5- 

i. oi/o/xa] 'name? here equiva- 
lent to 'personality,' 'character,' 
'worth'; comp. Clem. Rom. i aia- 
ycnrrjTov ovopa vpoav. A marginal 
gloss to the Latin translation (L 2 ) 
supposes that there is a play on the 
word tyeoris 'appetite, desire,' l Ephe- 
sis Gr3dce,desideriumLaime. Ephesii 
desiderabiles dicuntur'; and this 
explanation has been adopted by 
some editors. Such a reference how- 
ever, besides being too obscure in 
itself, is rendered improbable by such 
parallel passages as Rom. 10 

TO no6rjTov pot ovopa (see also the 
note on ^AX/cT/i/, Smyrn. 13). The 
various readings suggest the omis- 
sion of the pronoun with oi/ofta. At 
all events o-ov can hardly stand. The 
Latin translation here again has a 
gloss (L 2 ), 'Dicit autem singulariter 
tuum nomen, et continue pluraliter 
possedistis, insinuans multitudinis in 
fide et charitate unitatem'; but this 
is too ingenious. I am disposed to 
think that a transcriber, finding no 
pronoun,carelessly inserted orou,which 
appears in Polyc. i. Otherwise I 
should adopt the reading of the Long 
Recension vpwv fv 0eo> TO K.T.A., as 
this pronoun occupies the same 
early place elsewhere in the opening 
addresses of Ignatius, Magn. i, Rom. 
i, Polyc. i. 

0utrei] ^by nature] and not by 
accident or use or education. Here 
again the expression has a Gnostic 
tinge : see the note on Trail, i *A- 
/xco/Ltop 8iavoiav...eyvo)V vpas e'^ozTay, 
ou Kara xprjortv dXXa ncara <f)v(riv. 

ev yvwfjir) opdfj Kat] I have inserted 
these words from the Syriac, which 
is loosely followed by the Armenian. 
They must have fallen out at an age 
prior to any of our Greek authorities. 
The epithet diKaia is altogether un- 
suited to <u<ret; and, if the Greek 
text could be regarded as entire, I 
should suggest oiKeia', comp. Euseb. 
de Laud. Const. 15, p. 652 TO Qvyrov 
rfjs oiKfias rj\ev6epov (pvo-fcos, ib. p. 
653 els ifXfyxov rrjs oiKfias <j)v(rc(i>s, 
Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 3 (p. 433) IvravBa 
ijyovvrai TTJV rrio'Tiv ol dp.(pl 


i oVres Oeou, dva(^a)7rvpri(ravT6s ev di\ 

q^^ia imitatores L ; the anacoluthon is obviated in SA by conversion into a finite 
verb with a connecting particle et estis imitatores. ava^wTrvp^ffavrf^i] 

Gg* [Sev-Syr 172, 174]; et reaccendentes L; et incalescentcs estis... et S; def. A 
(see the next note). 

BatriXeiSiji*. ..en <pao~lv ot dfj-fpl Bacrt- 
\ci8r]v TTLCTTIV dfjLa Kal eK\oyr)v olKeiav 

2. TTto-Ttv KOI dydnrjv] A very 
frequent combination in this writer ; 
e.g. 14, 20, Magn. 1,13, ^?0w. inscr. 
(v. 1.), Philad. n, Smyrn. inscr., i, 
13. He explains himself on this 
point, 14 ap^j) 0)77? /cai re'Xor, ap^j) 
/ii> nio~TLs TfXos 5e dydrrT), -Smyrn. 6 
TO yap oXov fcrrlj/ iri&Tis KOI dydnrj. 
See the simile in 9. In Trail. 8 
faith and love are said to be the flesh 
and blood of Christ respectively. 

(v Xpurroi 'ITJCTOU K.r.X.] The read- 
ing of the Syriac and Armenian may 
be explained by the interchange of a 
single letter in the Syriac, ^ for 3 ; 
see Clem. Rom. 60 (p. 292). Other- 
wise the following reasons are in its 
favour, (i) It has an exact parallel 
in Rom. inscr. Kara TTIO-TIV KOI dyd-rrTjv 
'Irjo-ov Xpiorov ; comp. below 20 ei/ 
rfj avrov TricTTfi Kal fv rf) avrov dydiri], 
(2) It is more difficult than the other 
reading, and would therefore lend 
itself more easily to correction. 

3. pip.r)Tal ovres 0eoO] i. e. ' in 
benevolence and love.' So also 
Trail, i ; and see below 10, where 
the point of /zt/LiTjrai TOV Kvpiov is 
eVteiKeia. The expression is borrow- 
ed from S. Paul, Ephes. v. i, thus 
exhibiting another coincidence with 
this same epistle : see the note on 
inscr. TTJ fv\oyrjp.evrj. Comp. Clem. 
Ho)Ji. xii. 26 xpi) TOV <f)i\av6p(i)7riav 
CHTKOVVTO. fj,ip.r)TT)v aval TOV Geot), 
evtpyfTovvTa diKaiovs Kal dfiiKOvs, ws 
avTos o Qtos naaiv fv TO> vvv Ko(r/Lio> 


^o>v. The same is the point here. 

The interpolator brings it out by 
writing ^u/x^rou OVTCS 0eou (f)i\av- 

This sentence, /zi/z7;rat...a7r77priVare, 
was apparently intended to be paren- 
thetical, stating merely by the way 
that the Ephesians had been true to 
their nature and had exhibited their 
character in action : but it leads inci- 
dentally by a series of subordinate 
clauses to the main topic, the visit 
of Onesimus, and so breaks up the 
grammar of the sentence. This very 
disjointed and ungrammatical preface 
is explained by the unfavourable cir- 
cumstances under which the letter was 
dictated: Rom. 5. The grammar would 
be partially relieved, if there were au- 
thority enough for the insertion of Kal 
before KUTO. nia-Tiv, for the parentheti- 
cal sentence would then begin less 
abruptly with Kal Kara TTIO-TIV; but 
the Syriac without the Armenian is 
valueless. Otherwise the Kal might 
easily have dropped out in our main 
authorities owing to the repetition of 
the same letters KAIAKAIKATA. 

oWG>7ri;p7J(ra/re?] ' kindled into liv- 
ing fire j in an intransitive sense, i.e. 
* stimulated to activity.' The intran- 
sitive use is not uncommon ; e. g. 
Gen. xlv. 27, i Mace. xiii. 7, the 
only passages where it occurs in the 
LXX. So also Clem. Rom. 27, Plut. 

Mor. p. 695 A, p. 888 F dvafanvpflv 
VVKT&P, KaQdirep TOUS avfipaKas, etc. 

fv atpzrt 0foO] Tertull. ad Uxor. 
ii. 3 'sanguine Dei. 5 See also Acts 


TreptfTTOir/craro did TOV ai/iaroy TOV t&i'ov, 
where Qcov is most probably the 
Correct reading ; and comp. Rom. 6, 


Oeov, TO (Fvyycvucov epyov reAe/ws dTrrjpTicraTe' CIKOV- 
<yap SeSejuevov Vo Cvpias vTrep TOV KOIVOV 

TY\ Trpocrev^rj V/ULCOV 

i GeoO] GL*S Sev-Syr 2, 3 ; def. A (but this defect witnesses to 0eoO, 
the whole clause having dropped out owing to the homoeoteleuton) ; X/HOTOU g. 
GLg Sev-Syr i, 3 ; celeriter (as if Taxtus) S ; cum amore A. 
g*L2A Sev-Syr 2, 3; airapTlaaTe G. i yap] GLg*; om. 

S*A. dede/mtvov] GL ; /xe dedcptvov g ; dub. SA. (X7r6 Su/afas] GLg ; in 

syria A ; ab operibus S*. 4 ^7riTixe?v] GLg ; om. 2A : see the lower note. 

dia TOV farvrvxiLUr\ per potifi L*; ^r id quo dignor'S, ; quando hoc dignor et perfero 
A ; Sid, TOU ftaf/ntpLov g ; 5ta TOU f^aprvpLov ewiTvx.e'ii' G : see the lower note. 

For similar modes of expression in 
early Christian writers, see the notes 
on Clem. Rom. 2 TO. iraBrmara avrov 
(with the Appendix, p. 402). It does 
not follow because a writer uses 'the 
blood of God ' and ' the blood of 
Christ' as convertible expressions, 
that he would therefore speak of 
Christ as ' God ' absolutely. This 
passage is therefore no exception to 
the rule as to the Ignatian usage 
laid down above on inscr. roC 6eoO 
7Jjz5i/. The 'blood of God' is the 
incentive which fans the natural 
benevolence of their character into a 
flame. On the energizing action of 
the blood of Christ, see the note on 
Philad. inscr. 

i. o-vyycviKov] *" natural] literal- 
ly ' connate J ' congenital"* \ comp. 

Plut. Mor. p. 56l F KOKiaS 6p.OlOTT)Ta 

o-vyyevtKrjv ev veto /3XaoTai>ou<rai/ rffai. 
So avyyeviKov v6o~r)[j.a ) Plut. Vit. 
Pericl. 22. Here it refers back to 
o KcVn/cr&r (frvarei. The Ephesians had 
perfected in action the disposition 
which they possessed by nature. 
Zahn translates it fraternum, adding 
'quod decebat vos praestare erga 
eum qui eidem genti a Christo re- 
dempti [redemptas?] vobiscum ad- 
scriptus est.' But this, though a 
possible sense, does not suit either 
the context or the general usage of 
the word so well as the other, 

2. OTTO Supiar] A condensed ex- 
pression in place of * hearing that I 
was come in bonds from Syria ; 
see Winer Gramm. Ixvi. p. 776 
(Moulton), Kiihner II. p. 469 sq. For 
other similar constructions of prepo- 
sitions comp. e. g. below, 12 rav 
fh Qeov avaipovfj.ev(0v } 14 eir KaXo- 
Ka.ya.6iav dKo\ov0d earn/, 17 at^/xa- 
Xa)r/(T7;.../c TOV...T]V, and not unfre- 
quently in Ignatius. For the par- 
ticular expression here see Smyrn. 
II oQfV Sedepevos (comp. below, 

TOV KOIVOV ovopaTos] i.e. 'the Name 
of Christ which we all bear in com- 
mon.' For this application of TO 
OVOIM see the note on 3 below. 

3. eX.7Tios] So 21 ev 'lr)o~ov 
XpioroJ rrj KOIVTJ fXnio'i ijfjinv, Philad. 
ii : comp. Philad. 5. For ?/ eXnls 
7)/A5i/, applied to Christ, see the note 
Magn. ii. 

4. cTrtrvxcZi'] A very common and 
characteristic expression in Ignatius. 
It occurs most frequently in the 
connexion cirtrvyxavetv Qeov ; see 
the note on Magn. i. His mar- 
tyrdom was the success, the triumph, 
to which he looked forward ; see 
esp. Rom. 8 atr^o-ao-^e Trept e'/noG, Iva 
eVirv^a) : comp. also Polyc. 7, Trail. 
12, 13. So Mart. Ign. Ant. 5 roO 
arTpdvov TTJS a^Xjfo-eo)? frrirvxr]' 

diet TOV Jrirvvecr The enesis of 






la-TOprjcrai ecr7rov$d(raTe. 
ev ovofJLCLTL Qeov 

5 %eu/ 
7Tt ovv Trjv 7ro\v7r\ri6eiav 

5 /uaflijTTjs elvai] L ; add. del 2A ; add. TOU inr^p ijfjLwv eavrbv aveveyKovTos (- 
ros v. 1. in g) 6e$ irpo<r(popav /cat dvalav Gg (from Eph. v. 2 ; 1 completes the quotation 
by adding in odorem bonae suavitatis] : see the lower note. laToprjaai tcnrov- 

5a.ffa.Te] videre (leg. visere ?) festinastis L ; studnistis ut veniretis et videretis me 2; vos 
sttiduistis recreare me A (as if it had read 'OJin'Ofl f r ^ITHn); om. Gg. Cureton 
supplies the missing words, fj.e ISetv effirovSafeTe ; Pearson, Petermann, Lipsius, Zahn, 
and Funk, Ideiv c<nrovda(ra,Te : see the lower note. 6 eirel ovv] Gg* ; quia atitem 

(5) 2 ; enim (as if TTJV yap TroXuTrXijfletai') L; ergo A. iroXvirXydeiav] g*; 

5. p,a6r)TJs] l a learner.' 1 This 
also is an idea which has taken 
possession of Ignatius, and is repeat- 
ed again and again by him. He 
does not set himself up as a teacher 
of others ; at present he himself is 
only beginning to be a learner : see 
esp. 3 vvv yap apx^v e^o> rou 
fiadrjTV(r0ai ; comp. Trail. 5, Rom. 5 
(quoted below), and see Mart. Ign. 
Ant. I u.riirui...(<^n^rau.f VOS...TTJS rfXft'n? 
rou u.aBr)Tov ra|6cos. His discipleship 
will then only be complete, when he 
is crowned with martyrdom, Rom. 4 ; 
comp. Magn. 9, Polyc. 7. Hence he 
uses p.a8r)Tris elsewhere, as here, ab- 
solutely : Trail. 5 ov...napa TOVTO rj8rj 
Kai fiadrjTTjs ci/xt', Rom. 5 vvv ap^ 
fjLa6rjT^s flvai. The Greek interpolator 
and the Syriac translator, not under- 
standing this absolute use, have sup- 
plied genitive cases in different ways. 
This elpoivfia of Ignatius has a pa- 
rallel in Socrates, who always pro- 
fessed himself merely a learner : see 
Grote's Plato i. p. 239. 

torrop^o-ai] Comp. Gal. i. 1 8 (with 
the note). In restoring the Greek 
from the Versions, I have chosen 
this word, because the Syriac render- 
ing seems to point to something more 
expressive than I8flv t which is gene- 
rally supplied. 

6. eVfi ovv K.T.X.] A resumption 
of the original sentenced 

the corruptions in the text is as 
follows, (i) The interpolator of the 
Long Recension has substituted Sia 
roO /laprupiov for dia TOV frriTv^elv 
to save a needless repetition ; and 
he has also helped out the /ia&jr^r, 
which appeared to him bare and 
unmeaning, with the addition of 


0f6> TTpocr(f>opav KOI 6v<riav, borrowed 
from S. Paul, Ephes. v. 2. Both 
these changes are after his usual 
manner. But in doing so he has 
carelessly thrust out the end of the 
sentence, io-Topfja-at fO-TrovSacrarf, and 
thus left aKovo-avTcs without any finite 
verb. (2} The genuine Ignatius has 
been corrupted from the text of the 
interpolator ; but the work has not 
been done thoroughly, and the word 
firiTvx^v has been allowed to stand. 
For a similar instance of interpola- 
tion in the Greek MS from the Long 
Recension see 2 after naTT)pTio-p,(voi. 
In both cases however we have the 
alternative of supposing conversely 
that the interpolation was made first 
in a MS of the genuine Ignatius and 
so passed into the Long Recension, 
but this is not probable. The Latin, 
Syriac, and Armenian Versions, when 
correctly read and interpreted, sug- 
gest the true restoration of the text, 
which however has been overlooked 
by the editors generally. 


\r](ba ev 'Ovrj(ri JULIO, TW ITT' dydirn dSi^yriTcOy VJJLWV Se 
[ei/ <rapKi~^ ITTLCTKOTTU)' ov ev^o/mai Kara 'Irjcrovv XpicrTOV 
v/uids dycLTrdv, Kat TrdvTas i/^tas avTw eV o/moiOTtiTi eivaC 

G (so it reads certainly, though the word is written in a slovenly way ; 
there is no authority for iro\vir\T)ptav which has got into the common texts) : see the 
lower note. airet\ri<f)a] GLAg ; stiscepimus "2. i CTT'] g ; ev (probably 

altered to conform to the following ev aapKi) G ; in L*; dub. SA. 8e] GLg ; 

om. SA (so that they take adirryifrrq) with dyawrj). i ev vapid] GL ; om. 

SAg : see the lower note. 'lyo-ovv 'Kptffrbv] GLSA ; xP Lffr ^ v hp** 9 g- Add. 

doniinum nostrum S ; om. GLAg. 3 avr<^ ev O/J-OLOTT^TL elvai] G ; ipsi in 

similitudine esse L ; ev 6(j.oiu/j,aTi atrov elvai g ; sifts in similitudine ejus S ; 

K.T.\. ; see the note there. This new 
sentence itself is never finished, but 
is lost in a crowd of subordinate 
clauses. In this respect it is an 
exact parallel to Magn. 2, which 
begins in the same way eVe! ovv 

TJt-ltoQrjV K.T.A. 

TroXvTrX^eiai/] ''your numerous 
body} l your large numbers' ; comp. 
2 MaCC. viii. l6 rr/j/ cQvwv iro\vTr\rj- 
6fiav, Valentinus in Epiph. Hcer. 
xxxi. 6 (oi/ rrjv TroXvrrXriOfiav rrpus ef-firrelv OVK dvayKaiov. The 
expression is an incidental testimony 
to the flourishing condition of the 
Ephesian Church in the beginning 
of the second century. The word 
occurs occasionally in Classical wri- 
ters, being found as early as So- 
phocles Fragm. 583 ; comp. Arist. 
Hist. An. v. 4 (p. 562) TTJV 7ro\vir\7]- 
6aav avT&v. It is written both TroXu- 
TrXij&ta and noXvTrXrjOia. The former 
is more largely supported by ana- 
logy ; but for the latter comp. Soph. 
Fragm. 342 KVK\fl Se nao-av oiKer<3z/ 
mffur\rf$ia9i which however, as a po- 
etical passage, does not go far to 
establish a prose usage. 

dirclXrj^a] The martyr received 
the whole Church, when he received 
Onesimus, their representative; see 
Magn. 6 eTret ovv ev rois Trpoye- 
TO fra,v 

ev irivrei K.r.X. Comp. also 
below, 2 $i a>v rravTas v^ias Kara 
dyaTrrjv eidov, Magn. 2 y^itodrjv I8elv 
upas diet Aa/ia K.T.X., Trail. I wore ^e 
ro irav 7r\f)dos v/zev ev ai)rw dewpricrcu. 

1. ev y Qvr)(rip.q>] This Onesimus 
seems to be a distinct person alike 
from S. Paul's convert the slave of 
Philemon, who, if still living, would 
be too old at this time, and from his 
later namesake the friend of Melito 
(Euseb. H. E. iv 26), who belonged 
to another generation and was ob- 
viously a layman. Chronologically 
this notice stands about mid-way 
between the two, being separated 
from each by about half a century. 
On the name Onesimus and the 
persons bearing it, see the introduc- 
tion to the Epistle to Philemon in 
Colossians etc. p. 310 sq. The name 
occurs in an Ephesian inscription 
Boeckh C. /. G. no. 2983. 

2. ev crapKt] See the note on 
Rom. 9 rfi oSw TT; *cara o-apica. But 
the words ev trapKt here are highly 
suspicious, both as being absent 
from some authorities and as being 
unmeaning in themselves. They may 
have been added to relieve the ap- 
parent awkwardness of the connexion 
vpmv e. There is no reason to sup- 
pose that the Syriac translator had 
not the de in his text, because he 


5 TOV e7ri(TKO7rov KKTrjcr6ai. 

II. flepL 5e TOV (rvvSovXov JULOV Bovppov TOV KCCTCI 


s yap 6 xapKrd/uievos vfuiiv d^iois ovcriv TOLOV- 

similes-estate ei A. 4 dfois] GLSA; roiotfroij g. oCa-ip] ofot Gs. 

5 K eKTrj<rdcu~] GL ; KeKTrjcrQai tv xP LffT< ? g > om - 2 A. Similar omissions in S occur ^/>z. 
i efocu, Polyc. 6 <r%et^ (x eil/ )' The translator probably had KeKTTjffOai in his text here 
but declined to translate it as a pleonasm. S stops here and resumes again 3 dXX' 
<:7rei K.T.X. 6 /won] GLA ; fyucDj' g. A read (ru/wjSotfXou for erwSotfXou. 

Rotppov] G; ^wrafo A (a confusion of the Syriac letters ^ and l, </and r). For the 
variations in the first vowel in Lg see Appx. All the authorities, except A, agree 
in the consonants here. See also the notes on Smyrn. 12, Philad. u. 

has not translated it. This free 
handling of connecting particles is 
habitual with him. If ev vapid be 
genuine, it would seem to imply a 
contrast to the great eirio-KOTros 
in heaven (Magn. 3). But such a 
contrast is out of place here, and 
Ignatius was not likely to speak of 
a bishop as a carnal officer. Zahn 
(/. v. A. p. 254) explains it other- 
wise ; Onesimus belongs to all alike 
by virtue of love (ev dyarrr)), though 
externally (ev a-apKi) he was connected 
with the Ephesians alone. But this 
antithesis is not suggested by the 
first clause. For v&v 8e see Phil. 

. 25 v/ic3i> e a7ro r roAoj> ; comp. 
Herod, vii. 8 'AptorayopT; TW M.i\rj(ri(o 
SovXw 8e T/^erepo). Onesimus had 
two recommendations in the eyes of 
Ignatius ; he was beyond praise for 
his love, and he was their chief 

KOTO, 'irjo-ovv Xpioroi/] ' after the 
standard of Christ] i. e. ' with a 
Christian love ' ; comp. Rom. xv. 5 
TO avro (frpovclv ev aXAr/Xots Kara 
Xpicrrof Irjffovv. 

3. avT<a] i. e. 3 Ovrj(Tifj.(o. For the 
dative after opxnorTjy, comp. Plat. 
Phcsd. 109 A TTJV ofMOtoTrjTaTov ovpavov 
avTOv eauroi, Ph<zdr. 253 C ets 6fj.oio- 
Trjra avrols Kal rai Geai. . .ayeiv : and for 
this case with substantives generally 


see Kiihner Gramm. II. p. 372 sq. 
The interpolator has substituted a 
simpler construction and order, eV 
o/io id) part avrov. 

4. dgiois ovo-iv] A favourite ex- 
pression in Ignatius; 2, Magn. 
12, 14, Trail. 4, 13, Rom. 9, Smyrn. 
9, u, Polyc. 8. So also aioy 0eo5 
2, 4, Rom. 10 ; comp. Ephes. 15. 

II. 'As touching Burrhus the 
deacon, I entreat that he may be 
allowed to remain with me. Crocus 
too has refreshed me much, and I 
pray that God may refresh him. 
These, together with Euplus and 
Fronto, have been very welcome to 
me as your representatives. May I 
have joy of you always, if I deserve 
it. Ye ought therefore to glorify 
Jesus Christ, who glorified you, by 
submission to your bishop and pres- 
byters, that ye may be perfectly 

6. o-vvdovXov] This expression 
is with great propriety confined in 
Ignatius to deacons, since the func- 
tion which the bishop had in common 
with them was ministration; Magn. 
2, Philad. 4, Smyrn. 12. Similarly 
it was customary for bishops to 
address presbyters as ' compresby- 
teri ' ; see Philippians p. 228. So 
too Constantine was accustomed to 
speak of himself as a <Tvv6fpcnra>v of 






aL avrov ek TLJJLYIV v/mtov Kai TOU 
KpoKOS Se 6 Oeov of*os KCLI VJULCOV, ov 

i KCU] Ag; om. GL. 3 Kai Kp6icos ] GL; Kp6i<os 8 g; et mar- 

cum (^m for o, #z for k) A. e^e/i?rXdptoj'] GL; cbs e^e/^TrXdptoi' g; 

secundum similitttdinem A (omitting however SP, and adding *#z at the end of the 
sentence). 4 dTr^XajSo?'] GLA; aTreXdjSo/iej' g. 6 

bishops, Euseb. F. C. ii. 69, iii. 12, 
17, Socr. /f. . i. 9. For the relation 
of the Ignatian usage of crvVSovXo? 
to S. Paul's see the note on Col. 
iv. 7. The limitation observed by 
Ignatius is not regarded in other 
early writers ; e.g. Clem. Horn. Con- 
test. 5, Ep. ad lac. 2, 17, where 
presbyters and others are so address- 
ed by a bishop. 

Bouppov] This person is mentioned 
again Philad. n, Smyrn. 12. He 
was the amanuensis of both those 
letters, which were written from 
Troas ; and is there represented as 
bearing a joint commission from the 
Churches of Ephesus and Smyrna 
to attend the saint. The request 
therefore which Ignatius, prefers 
just below (ev^o/zai napapelvai) was 
granted ; and he accompanied him 
when he left Smyrna, whence the 
present letter was despatched. In 
the Syriac Decease of Saint John 
(Wright's Apocryphal Acts n. p. 64) 
the Apostle is represented as giving 
his latest commands to one Birrus 
(Byrrhus). As the scene takes place 
at Ephesus, it is not improbable that 
the person intended was the same 
who is mentioned by Ignatius. The 
Greek copy however substitutes the 
name Evrv^rj TOV KOI Ovrjpov (Tisch- 
endorf Act. Apost. Apocr. p. 274). 
In the corresponding passage of 
pseudo-Abdias (Ap. Hist. v. 23) the 
name is Byrrhus, as in the Syriac. 

2. els TI/XT/V] A common Ignatian 

phrase, more especially with 
etc. (see examples in the note on 
21 below) ; comp. also Polyc. 5 
eiy TifjLrjv TTJS (rapKoy TOU Kvpiou . 

3. KpoKos] mentioned likewise in 
the letter to the Romans 10, which 
also was written from Smyrna, as 
TO TroBrfTov p.oi ovofj.a. It is a rare 

0eoO aios KOI vfjiaiv] The same 
expression occurs also Rom. 10. For 
0eoO agios see the note on i dgtois 

ee/n7rAaptoi>] l a pattern] not 
merely ' a sample. 1 The Latin ' ex- 
emplar,' ' exemplarium,' is properly 
a copy, not in the sense of a thing 
copied from another, but a thing 
to be copied by others ; Hor. Ep. 
i. 19. 17 'Decipit exemplar vitiis 
imitabile? As a law term, it de- 
noted one of the authoritative origi- 
nals where a document was written 
in duplicate ; see Heumann-Hesse 
Hand-lexicon des Romischen Rechts 
s.v. Hence Arnob. adv. Nat. vi. 13 
* Phryna... exemplarium fuisse per- 
hibetur cunctarum quse in opinione 
sunt Venerum,' i. e. the original of 
all the statues of Venus held in 
repute. The older form is 'exem- 
plar' (' exemplare,' Lucr. ii. 124) ; but 
even this would become egffjnrXdpiov 
in Greek, just as Apollinaris becomes 
'ATToAAti/aptoy. The word occurs 
again Trail. 3 TO e^ffjnrXdpiov rrjs 
ayairr)s v^v, Smyrn. 12 e^e/iTrXapioi/ 
GeoO diaKovias. It was natural that 



Xdpiov Trjs d<p' vfJLwv dyaTrris d7re\a(3ov, /cotra irdvTa 
5 /me dveiravcrev, ws Kai OVTOV 6 Trarrjp 'lri(rov XpiarTOv 
dva\lsvai, dfjia 'OvricrijJLW Kai Bovppco Kai ,V7r\w Kai 
4*povratvi 9 Si wv TrdvTas vjmds Kara dyaTrrjv eldov ovai- 

GL; di>a\f/u!;ei g (but refrigeret 1); dub. A. BoiJppy] G; cendaro A (to be 

explained by the confusion of similar letters in the Syriac). L*g* have variations 
in the first vowel as before. EforXy] G; eifrrXoi' g*; euplo L; euphathe A. 

7 $POVTWVL\ (j>p6i>Tovt G. ovai^v} wvaL^v G. 

a provincial, like Ignatius, should 
adopt from the Latin a word which 
was a law-term, just as he elsewhere 
adopts others which are military 
terms (Polyc. 6 ; see the note). 

4. Kara rrdvra K.r.X.] The phrase 
Kara ndvra dvcnrawiv occurs several 
times in Ignatius ; Magn, 15, Trail. 
12, Rom. 10, Smyrn. 9, 12 (comp. 
Smyrn. 10). The word dvauavtiv 
is similarly used by S. Paul of the 
'refreshment' arising from the kind- 
ly offices of another: i Cor. xvi. 18, 
Philein. 7, 20. 

5. eos /cat avTov...dva\lfvai] A remi- 
niscence of 2 Tim. i. 16 TroXXaxts- fie 
dveiffv^ev [o 'Oi/^ai'^opof] Kai rffv aXvcriv 
OVK 7rr)(rxvvdr)...8(pr) ai'rw o Kvpios 
fvpelv K.r.X. The Latin translator 
of the interpolated letters has been 
so possessed with this parallel, that 
he has added the words * et catenam 
meam non erubuit ' here, and sub- 
stituted ' Onesiphoro ' for ' Onesimo ' 
just below. Ignatius exhibits another 
reminiscence of this context of S. 
Paul in Smyrn. 10 TO Seoyza pov a 
ovx - - irfl(rxvv0r)T' ov8e vpas eVat- 
(rxvv^o'fTai TI reXfia TriVrty, 'irjtrovs 
Xpio-ros, a passage which in thought 
closely resembles the one before 
us. For dva-^rv^fLv comp. also Trail. 

6. EuTrXoj] The name EVTT\OVS is 
found occasionally in the inscrip- 
tions, as is also the feminine EvTrXoia. 
In Boeckh C.I. 1211 we have the 

coincidence of names, EVTT\OVS 'Oi/a- 
o-ifjLov. The other form of the dative 
EuTrXoV, which appears in the MSS 
of the interpolated epistles, is also 
legitimate, as TrXov? is frequently 
declined roO rrXoos-, r<a TrXot 1 , in later 
writers; see Lobeck Paral. p. 173 
sq, Phryn. p. 453. In Alciphr. Ep. 
i. 1 8 I find it written EuTrXow. This 
Euplus and Fronto are not mentioned 
again by name, though they are 
probably included among the * many 
others' who are mentioned together 
with Crocus, as being in the saint's 
company at Smyrna, in Rom. 10. 
All these Ephesians, with the excep- 
tion of Burrhus, appear to have 
parted from Ignatius at Smyrna, as 
they are not mentioned in the epis- 
tles written from Troas. 

7. &' wv\ i. e. ' as your repre- 
sentatives.' For the general sense 
see the note on dnciXrjCpa i, and for 
8ia comp. Magn. 2 ifaiv vfias did. 

ovatpijv] Again a Pauline phrase, 
Philem. 20 (see the note there). In 
Ignatius it occurs several times in 
this same phrase or in similar con- 
nexions, Magn. 2, 12, Polyc. i, 6 ; 
comp. Rom. 5. The clause occurs 
again almost word for word in 
Magn. 12. The spurious Ignatius 
has caught up this expression and 
repeats it, Mar. 2, Tars. 8, 10, Ant. 
14, Hero 6, 8, Philipp. 15. There 
may possibly be a play on the name 



VJJLMV Sid TravTos, edvTrep a^tos w. TrpeTrov ovv 

KaTa TrdvTa TpOTrov So^d^eiv 'lrj(rovv 
TOV So^dcravTa i)/xas* \va ev JULIO. vTroTayrj 
voi) vTTOTacra'oiuLevoi TO) eTrurKOTrcp KOI TW 
KaTa irdvTa r]Te q<yia(r/jLevoi. 

i irpt-rrov ovv] txt GL; add. u/Aas g; add. vobis A. 3 KaTtjp- 

u] L; 77x6 KarrjpTLff^vot ry O.VT$ vot /cat rp avrrj yv^^y KOt TO airrd \tyr)T 
wepl TOV avrov iW Gg (from i Cor. i. 10). This addition is wanting not 
only in L, but also in A, where however the syntax is rearranged; perfectos fieri 
in onini submissione; ergo submissi estate episcopo etc. 4 viroTa.<r<rbnevoi.] 

Trjpas fK irdvrav 'E\\yva>v ecXovro ot 
MiX77o-iot. (2) It is a surgical term 
for 'setting bones': e.g. Galen Op. 
XIX. p. 461 (ed. Kiihn) *carapTr^os 
eVri /lerayco-yT) oaroO 77 OCTTUV < TOV 
Trapa (f>vo~iv TOTTOV els TOV Kara (pvo~iv. 
The use of the word here recalls its 
occurrence in i Cor. i. 10 tea TO avro 
Xe'yTjr* rravTfs, Kai fir) 77 eV vfjuv o~x^- 
/iara, r^re Se Kar77prto-fiefot Iv TO> avTut 
i/oi KOI ev TTj avTrj yvaip.r]. From 

this passage of S. Paul the Ignatian 
interpolator has introduced the words 
which I have here spaced into our 
text (see the upper note) ; and from 
the interpolated epistles they have 
passed into the Greek MS of the 
genuine epistles. The versions are 
our authorities for ejecting them. 
For a similar instance see the note 
on I dia TOV ciriTvxflv- 

4. Trpecr/Surept'w] This is a com- 
mon word in Ignatius; see below, 
4, 20, Magn. 2, 13, Trail. 2, 7, 
13, Philad. 4, 5, 7, Smyrn. 8, 12. 
In the Apostolic writings it occurs 
only once of a Christian presbytery, 
i Tim. iv. 14. 

III. ' I do not venture to use the 
tone of authority. I am only a 
learner with you. I need to be train- 
ed by you for the contest. Never- 
theless love would not allow me to 
be silent. I could not refrain from 
urging obedience to your bishop. 

here, as there seems cer- 
tainly to be in S. Paul ; but this is 
not probable. 

1. tdvTTfp agios w] This doubt 
about his ' worthiness ' is common in 
Ignatius; Magn. 12, 14, Trail. 4, 13, 
Rom. 9, Smyrn. u. See also the 
note on T^IO^J/I/, Magn. 2. 

7rpe7roi/...eVni>] This phrase ap- 
pears again, Magn. 3, 4, Rom. 10, 
Philad. 10, Smyrn. 7 ; while Trpenei 
occurs in 4 below, Magn. 3, Trail. 
12, Smyrn. n, Polyc. 5, 7. 

2. 8oafiv . . . TOV oao-ai>ra] See 
Philad. IO doao~ai TO ovop,a...Kal v^el? 
8oao-07 0-6 o~6e. For similar turns of 
expression see the note on Smyrn. 
5 /LtaXXof 8e K.r.X. 

3. Karr)pTio~fj.evoi] ''joined toge- 
ther] l settled' ; comp. Philad. 8 
etff fvcacTLv KaTripTio-pevos, Smyrn. I 
KaTr)pTio~nevovs tv aKivijTa irlvTei. The 
Latin translator has rendered it here, 
as elsewhere, by 'perfecti,' which 
would be airr)pT 10- \Lfvoi. The promi- 
nent idea in this word is ' fitting to- 
gether'; and its force is seen more 
especially in two technical uses, (i) 
It signifies 'to reconcile factions,' 
so that a political umpire who ad- 
justs differences between contending 
parties is called Karaprtorrrjp ; e. g. 
Herod, v. 28 T) MtX?/Tos...j'oo'7/(ra(ra es 
Ta /xaXiora orrao'i ptXP 1 ^ P- lv Hapioi 

TOVTOVS yap Karaprt<r- 




III. Ou 


ev TCO oVo/xarf, OVTTCO 
vvv ^0 ' 

o>V rr el yap Kai 
ev 'Irjcrov 


7rpocr\a\co V/ULLV 

/ULOV e/xe 

gLA; TriTa<T<r6fjievoi G. 6 TI] gA; T GL. 7 ^ T ovb^ari] 

G; / nomine (iesu) christi L*; 5td rd foo^a g* (add. cnJroO vulg.); propter veri- 
tatis nomen A. It may be a question whether we should read tv T$ dv6fj,ari or 
Sia rb 6vojj.a., but without doubt the words Christi, veritatis, are glosses : see the 
lower note. 8 yap] Gg; autem L; om. A. 

The bishops abide in the mind of 
Christ, just as Christ is the Mind of 
the Father.' 

6. Ov tarao-(TOjLiai K.r.A.] Trail. 3 
tva (ov KaraicpiTos <&s enrooToXos vpiii/ 
iara(TO-a>/iai, Rom. 4 ov% to? JQerpoy 
KOI Hav\os diaTcura'OfjLai vfjuv. For 
the general sentiment comp. Barnab. 
I e'yoi 5e ov^ tas 8i8d(TKa\os dXX' oJy 
eif e' i5fieoi/ vTroSf/^co oXiya x.r.X., /& 
4 epcorco v/xay cos fiy e^ v/ioov coi/, and 
again ov^ o>y SiSao-icaXoy dXX' <as 
dyairc^vTi...ypa(f)fiv eo-Trovdatra, 
ooi/, Polyc. /*/!//. 12 'nihil 
vos latet ; mihi autem non est con- 
cessum modo.' For the reading rt, 
rather than ris, comp. i Cor. iii. 5, 7, 
rt ovv e<mv 'ATroXXco?; ri 5e eortv 
IIavXos';...oi;re o (f)vTvo)v tcrrLv rt 
K.r.X., where similarly, ris...ris is sub- 
stituted for TI...TI in some copies; 
see also Gal. ii. 6, vi. 3, emu n, and 
I Cor. xiii. 2, 2 Cor. xii. 1 1, ovdev dpi. 

KOI] 'Even my bonds do 
not perfect me; even my bonds do 
not make me a full disciple, much 
less a teacher'; comp. Magn. 12 
ei yap KCU SfSe'/iat, rrpoy eva TCOV XeXv- 
fjifvuv v}iu>v OVK ft/At, Trail. 5 <al yap 
eya> ov Kadon 8f Sf/nai. . .Trapa TOVTO 
ffdr) KCU fjiadrfrr/s fi/ii, TroXXa yap ^/iiv 
XeiVei K.T.X. For the additional 
dignity and authority which are con- 
ferred by his bonds, see the notes on 
ii below, Magn. I. 

7. (v T< ovo/itm] l the Name] i.e. 

of Christ. The Name is again used 
absolutely below 7 ro ovopa irfpi- 
(frcpciv, Philad. IO do^dcrat TO ovo/xa; 
comp. Acts v. 41 vTrep rov ovo^aros 
arifj.a(r0f)vai, 3 Joh. 7 vnep rov 
ovofj-aros cij\6av. So too [Clem. 
Rom.] ii. 13 TO ovopa di vpas /AJ) 
/3Xao-^)7;/LiJ7rat.../3Xaa-(pT;/Lifrrat TO ovopa, 
Hermas Sim. viii. 10 TO ovo^a ydevs 
fftcurTao-av, ix. 13 eav TO oi/o/xa /LIO'I/OI/ 
\dftflS, ib. fdv TO ovo^a tpopjjs, ib. TO 
p.v ovopa <f)6po~av, ix. 28 01 Trao"- 


in Euseb. H. E. v. 18 /tocpiTat...ou 
8ia TO oi/o/xa, dXXa fit' a? eVoX/i^cre 
X^o-remy, Clem. Alex. Strom, iii. 6 
(P- S3 2 )- There is a tendency in 
later transcribers, who did not un- 
derstand this absolute usage, to 
supply a genitive : e. g. avYoO in Acts 
v. 41 ; Christi, bonorum, in 7 below ; 
Domini, etc., in Philad. 10; ToG Kv- 
pi'ov, ToO XptoroO, in [Clem. Rom.] ii. 
13. Similarly the versions interpo- 
late here. 

8. fjiadTjTfveardai] l of becoming a 
learner! For the idea see the note 
on i [j.a6r)Tris flvai ; for the verb, the 
note on IO p.a6rjTevdf)vm. 

9. o-vvfitfiao-KaXmus /AOU] ' my school- 
fellows! I cannot find either fitoW- 

/caXi'TTjs or o-w5i8ao-Ka\iTTjs elsewhere ; 
but there is a close analogy in com- 
pedagogita or conpedagogita which 
appears in some Latin inscriptions 
(Fabretti Inscr. Ant.p. 361 sq, Orelli 



V7ra\6i(j)6fjvai 7rio-Ti, vov6e<ria 9 

d\\' eTrei Y\ aydmj OVK ea /me critoTrdv Trepi 
V/ULCOV, Sid TOVTO 7rpoe\a/3ov TTctpaKaXeiv i)/xa, 

; trap 1 v^div [g]. vira\ei<pdijvai] G ; suscipi (viro\r}(f)97)vai) L ; 

accipere a vobis fidem etc. A ; VTro/J.vrja'd'rjvai g. i dXX' eirci K.r.X.] S has 

Inscr. Lat. 2818, 2819), and which 
points to the meaning. These com- 
pedagogitce are the slaves trained 
under the same pedagogus or in the 
same pedagogium, and are called 
elsewhere pueri compedagogii (see 
Fabretti I.e.). The word is a mongrel 
(con-TraiSaycoyiTTjy), like sullibertus 
(o-w-libertus) which also is found in 
some inscriptions. Similarly awdi- 
daa-KaXlTai are those who have had 
the same StSacr/caAos or SiSacrKaXia or 
diSaa-Kakelov. Their common SiSaa- 
KO.\OS, contemplated here, is not S. 
Paul or any Apostle, but Christ ; see 
15 fis ow 8i8d(TKaXos K.r.X. Some 
would explain the word 'joint-teach- 
ers' 1 (comp. August. Conf. i. 9 *con- 
doctore suo'), and this meaning cer- 
tainly suits the following inraXexfrdfjvai 
well (comp. Plut. Vit. Pericl. 4 rw Se 
IlepiKXeT arvvfjv, K.a6anfp ddXrjTrj, rwv 
7ro\iTiKO)v dXeiTTTrjs KOI di8d(TKa\os} ) 
but it seems to be inadmissible on 
several grounds, (i) There is no 
reason why Ignatius should not have 
used <rvvdt$d(TKa\os, which occurs in 
Cyril Alex. Ep. Ixvii (x. p. 336, ed. 
Migne). (2) Analogy shows that the 
termination -irrjs signifies 'one who 
has to do with ' anything, e. g. 'Apeo- 

<ra>piTr)s, re^i/iT?;?, TraXaio-rpn-T/s (Maca. 
Magn. iii. 26), TrpcoroKa^eSpiV?;? (Her- 
mas Vis. iii. 9), etc. So o-v/u<pu- 
XaKi-njy, not 'a fellow-jailor,' but 'a 
fellow-prisoner' ; a-v^vyirrjs 'a yoke- 
fellow, husband' (crvfryia) ; avvopi'njs 
'a neighbour' (a-wopid) ; orwodiTrjs 'a 
fellow-traveller ' (o-vvodia) ; etc. (3) 
The aw- would be pointless other- 

wise ; since there is no reason for re- 
presenting the Ephesians as a board 
or council of teachers. 

ffj.f yap e'Sei] This sentence must 
be connected with ov Starao-o-o/nai 
vfjuv K.r.X., not with the words imme- 
diately preceding, if o-vi'Si^aa-KaXmu? 
is rightly interpreted ' school-fellows' ; 
and to such a connexion the im- 
perfect eSei 'it were meet' (not Sel) 
points. See the language of Ignatius 
to the Romans 3. 

i. v7ra\i<j)6f)vai] 'to have been a- 
nointed] as an athlete preparing for 
the contest. Compare the metaphor 
in Polyc. 2, 3, vfjcpe, cos 0eou dd\r)Tijs 
...TO 6ffjLa d(p6ap(rla...p.eyd\ov earlv 
dd\r)TOV TO depf(r6aL Kal VIKO.U. For 
the meaning of viraXeicpfiv see Com. 
in Plut. Vit. Pomp. 53 cos- artpos 
jrpos TOV erepov VTraXfi'^erai rco x ^P f 
ff viroKovierai. This duty of oiling 
the athlete fell to the trainer, hence 
called d\LTTTr]s (see e.g. Epict. Diss. 
iii. 10. 8, iii. 20. 10, iii. 26. 22); and 
Ignatius here says that the Ephesians 
were the proper persons to perform 
this office for him. The metaphor 
is variously applied : e. g. enaXeicpeiv 
eVt riva 'to incite against a person,' 
Polyb. ii. 51. 2 (see Wesseling on 
Diod. Sic. II. p. 138) ; dXeitpeiv rrpos ri, 
dXfi(pe> fVi ri, 'to educate to a thing' 
Philo Leg. ad Cai. 24 (n. p. 569), 
Qm's rer. div. her. 24 (i. p. 490), 
Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 15 (p. 436). 
For its application to a moral and 
godly life generally, see Philo Omn. 
prob. lib. 12 sq (ii. p. 458 sq) ro 
tfdiKov fv p,d\a 8ia7rovov<riVj dXeiirrais 
s rots narpiois VO/JLOIS...TOIOV- 




Trj yyw/u? T v tov. Kal yap 'lrj<rovs Xpi- 


this one sentence, but nothing afterwards till 8 OTO.V ybp K.T.\. tirel~\ G; 

TTidij g. Trepl vfj.wv'] Gg; pro vobis L; de vobis A; a vobis (a Syriac 

idiom). 5 TJ/J.UV] LA; ipwv G; al. g. 

agree} and below 4; as e.g. Clem. 
Horn. xx. 22 o-vvedpa/Jiov OVTOV rep 
/3ovX7/'/Liari (comp. i. 10). The sense is 
not uncommon in later writers. 

TTJ yvco-j.7) TOV 9eo] This expression 
is characteristic of Ignatius : Rom. 8, 
Smyrn. 6, Polyc. 8. So too yva>p.r] 
'Irjo-ov Xpio-rov here and Philad. inscr. 

5. ddtaKpiTov] 'inseparable' 1 ; comp. 
Magn. I 'lrjo~ov XpioroC rov 8ia 
travTos TJfjL&v tfjv. The word has va- 
rious meanings. In the active sense 
it signifies; (i) 'Unhesitating, un- 
wavering, single-minded, steadfast'-, 
e.g. James iii. 17 77' avudfv o~o<pia... 
d&idicpiTos, dwiroKpiTos, where it is 
best explained by a previous ex- 
pression, i. 6 fjirjdev dia<pivop.fvos. So 
elsewhere in these epistles, Magn. 
1 5 KKT7]ij.voi ddidiepiTov TTveC/^ia, Trail. 
I afj.u>fj.ov didvoiav Kal d8idt<piTov ', 
comp. Heracleon in Orig. in loann. 
xiii. 10 (IV. p. 220) rr)i/ ddtdicpiTov 
/cat KarciXXTjXov TTJ (f>va'ci eavTrjs TTIO'TLV, 

Clem. Alex. Peed. ii. 3 (p. 190) ddia- 
Kp/ro) Trio-ret: see the note on dSia- 
KpiTcos Rom. inscr. (2) ' Undiscriminat- 
ing, indiscriminate, indiscreet, reck- 
less^ '; e.g. Clem. Horn. iii. 5 ro?y 8id 
TO ddidicpiTov dXoyois <oois Trapei- 
Kaa-dfla-i. (3) l Impartial] e.g. Clem. 
Alex. Strom, ii. 18 (p. 474) aya? 


KoivaviKij. So the adverb, Test. Duod. 
Patr. Zab. 7 oduueplrtof Trao-t o-TrXay^- 
i/t^o/xei/ot c\eaTc. Its passive senses 
are ; (4) * Inseparable, inseparate] as 
here; comp. Aristot. de Somn. 3 

(p. 458) dta Se ro ytvt<T$CU ddcaKpi- 
TWTfpov TO alp.a juera TTJV Trjs Tpofprjs 
7rpoo-(popav 6 virvos ytWrai, eicos ai/ 
7 TOV aiuaros 1 ro aei/ K.a6a- 

TOVS r; St^a irepiepyfias \\rjviKa>v 
ovopdrav ddXr/Tas dpfTrjs airfpya^rai 
<piAoo~o<pia, yvp.vaa~p.aTa TrporiOelcra 
ray cTraiveras irpd^fis (speaking of the 
Mosaic law), Epict. Diss. i. 24. I o 
eoy o~, oa$ aXeiTrrrjr, K.r.X., Clem. 
Alex. Strom, vii. 3 (p. 839) OVTOS 6 
ddXrjrrjs aXrjOoJs 6 v rto 
oraSto) ro> Ka\<a KO(TfJ,(o rrjv 
v'ua}v Kara 7rai/ra>i> (rr(pavovp,vos 
TWV 7ra0Q)v...7rpiyivTa.i 6 ireiOyvios TG> 
d\fLirrrj ycvo/Jifvos ', COmp. ib. vii. II 
(p. 872) 77 dyaTrrj d\fi(pov(ra KOI 
yvfjivd(ra(ra Karaa'K.cvdfcfi TOV 'idiov 
dOXrjrriv. But it came to be applied 
more especially, as here, to the 
struggle for the martyr's crown. 
Hence the vision of Perpetua on the 
eve of her martyrdom, Act. SS. Perp. 
et Fel. 10 (Ruinart p. 84) *et cce- 
perunt me fautores mei oleo defrigere 
quomodo solent in agonem] Tertull. 
ad Mart. 3 'Christus Jesus... vos 
spiritu unxit et ad hoc scamma pro- 
duxit.' So too Basil. Ep. clxiv (11. 
p. 255? Gamier) ore /tcVrot etSo/zei/ TOV 
dOXrjTTjv, (p,a.Kapio~ap.V O.VTOV TOV 
dXfiTTTTjv ov irapa rw SiKato) KpiTrj 
/c.r.X. And in later writers this ap- 
plication becomes common. S. 
Chrysostom, in his homily on Ig- 
natius, repeats the saint's own 
metaphor; Op. II. p. 598 B (ed. 
Bened.) al yap KOTO. TT)V 68ov TToXfis 
o~vvrp^ovo~ai ndvroQfv rj\fi<pov TOV 
d6\r]Tr)v Kal /Aera TroXXtoi/ e^eVeftTroi/ 
ratv <po8ia>v. 

3. Trpoe'XajSoi/] i.e. 'I did not wait 
for you," I took the initiative,' 'I lost 
no time.' For the infinitive after 
7Tpo\ap.fidveiv comp. Mark xiv. 8. 

4. o-vvrpfxrjTf] l concur, combine, 



ok Kal ol eVfV/coTTOt ol KaTa TO. wepaTa 6pi<r6evTes ev 
'lri<rov XpicTTOv yvcoprj eicriv. 

TV. *'O6ev TrpeTrei vplv crvvTpexeiv Tr\ TOV eTTicrKO- 
TTOV ryvco/uLrj' OTrep Kal TroieZre. TO yap d^iovojULacrrov 
VJULCOV Trpea-fivTepiov, TOV Oeov atoy, oiyrws a-vvrippoa-Tai 5 

i fv 'Ir/croO X/otoToO yv<j}^rj\ G; in iesu christi voluntate A; iesu christi sententia 
L, where the omission of t (in) was easy between determinate and iesu; al. g. 
3 TrpeTrei \>IMV] G ; decet vos L ; /cat vfuv irpeTrei. [g] ; et vos decet A. 5 

peorepoj/ fls ra ava> ro 8e Bo\epa>Tepov 
els ra /carw. (5) ' Indistinguishable] 
as Athenag. Resurr. 2 Kav 
Trap' ai/^ptoTTots aStaKptroi/ ea/at 
ro rai rrai/ri TraXii/ Trpoa - ^)i/o)s > ) 
and so 'confused, unintelligible] 
Polyb. xv. 12. 9 a&iaKpirof (ptovjv. 
(6) l Miscellaneous] Prov. xxv. i (LXX) 
at Trapot/iiai (TraiSeTat) 2oXo/Acoi^ros at 
dS/oxpiroi. (7) * Undecided"* (of a con- 
test), Lucian //. Trag. 25 (n. p. 671) 
o5s diroddvT) di]TTr]Tos, d/jLCfrrjpiarTov ert 
/cat a&taKpirov /caraXiTrtoi/ roj/ Xoyov. 

770] For this substantival use of 
the word, see the note on n. 

?) yvtoprj] This term here takes the 
place of the more usual Xoyos or 
o-o(p/a, as describing the relation of 
Christ to the Father. On this ac- 
count yvupri is employed in the one 
clause, and V yvw/t?/ in the other; 
though some authorities obliterate 
the distinction. 

I. ra Tre'para] ' the farthest parts] 
i. e. of the earth : comp. Rom. 6 ovdev 
p,ot eo<peX?7O"ei ra Trepara rov KOO"/AOI>, ib. 
ftacri\Vtv TO>V nepaToov TTJS yijs. The 
expression [ra] Tre'para used absolutely 
as here occurs, Ps. Ixv (Ixiv). 9 ot 
Karoifcouj/re? ra Tre'para: comp. also 
Philo Leg. ad Cai. 3 (p. 548) of ^XP 1 
Treparo)!/, ib. 2J (p. 571) aVo Treparcoi/ 
avrcav, Celsus in Orig. c. Cels. viii. 
72 a^pt Treparcov vev(fj.r)p.vovs. Ignatius 
would be contemplating regions as 
distant as Gaul on the one hand and 
Mesopotamia on the other. The 

bishops, he says in effect, however 
wide apart, are still united in the 
mind of Jesus Christ ; see Liturg. D. 
Marc. p. 1 6 (Neale) TTJS cKKXrjo-ias TTJS 
OTTO yfjs TrepaTuv /ne'xpi TO>V Trepareui/ 
avT^s, comp. Liturg. S. Basil, p. 164. 
Zahn objects that ra Trepara cannot 
mean ra Tre'para TTJS yf)s, and himself 
conjectures Tanoip.via (/. i>. A. p. 564) 
or TOV Trarepa (ad loc.\ and Markland 
suggests TTJV xdpiTa ; but the passages 
which I have quoted amply justify 
the absolute use of [ra] ircpara. Zahn 
rightly objects (/. v. A. p. 299) to 
Pearson's interpretation * episcopatum 
fuisse ab apostolis ex voluntate 
Christi institutum' (V. I. p. 271), a- 
dopted also by Rothe and Uhlhorn. 
Ignatius is speaking here, not of 
episcopacy as instituted by Christ, 
but of the bishops themselves as 
sharing the mind of Christ. 

IV. 'Act in concert with your 
bishop, as you are now doing. Your 
presbytery stands in the same rela- 
tion to the bishop, as the strings to 
the lyre. The theme of your song 
is Jesus Christ. The several members 
of the Church will form the choir. 
God will give the scale. Thus one 
harmonious strain will rise up from 
all and reach the ears of the Father. 
He will recognise your good deeds ; 
and by your union among yourselves 
you will unite yourselves with him.' 

4. o?rep <al Trotftre] See for simi- 
lar expressions elsewhere in Ignatius, 




%Op$ai KlddpCL. Sid TOVTO V Trj 6/ULO- 

voia VJULCOV Kai crvjuitycovw dyawrj ' Irjcrovs XpicrTOs a$Tai. 
Kai ol KUT dvSpa Se XP* yivecrGe, iva <TVfjL<pa)voL oWes 
ev 6/uLOvoia, xpw/ma Oeov \a/3oVres, eV eVor^Tt aS^re eV 

GL [A]; om. [g]. roO GeoD d^iov] GL; a&ov 3r rov 6eov [g]; al. A. 

8 yive<r0e] G; yeVeo-tfe [g]; facti estis L; estate (or facti estis] A. Possibly we 
should read eylveede or eytveede. 9 pSTjre] aSere G. 

Trail. 2, Smyrn. 4, Polyc. I, 4. 

d^oi/o/Ltaa-roi'] ' worthy of record] 
'"worthy of fame? The fondness of 
Ignatius for the word agios, which 
has been already remarked (note on 
2), 'extends to its compounds also. 
Thus we have d^tayaTTJ/ros 1 , aiayvos, 

(p. 5) 

CTTOS, di6dfos, dt-tofMaKapiaTOS) d^to- 
TTIOTOJ, d^toyrXoKov, d^toTrpeTr^s, in these 
epistles. Some of these must have 
been coined for the occasion. 

6. cor xopdal Kiddpa] See another 
application of this metaphor in 
Phllad. I'Tai [o e 
rats eVroAcus-, <uy ^opdaty 
Comp. Clem. Al. Protr. I 
o roO 06oG Xoyos...r<)i/ av 
re Kat crco/Lta aiJroO, ayt'a) 
dpp.oo-dp.fvos, \lfd\\d r<a 
TOV 7ro\v(p(tivov opydvov 
ddet roura) ro) opydi/o> ra> 
(Ti yap ci Kiddpa x.r.X. 

fita rovro] * owing to this adjust- 
ment, this relation} 

8. of ar' aVSpa] ' the individual 
members' of the Church, who are to 
* form themselves ' (yiVeo-&) into a 
bandar chorus. Forthe characteristic 
Ignatian expression of /car' ai/Spa 
comp. below 20, Trail. 13, Smyrn. 
5, 12, /Wx<r. i. 

So Rom. 2 Iva eV 


\opos yevopfvoi q<rr)T ra Trarp e 
Xpto-rai 'IT/O-OU : comp. Clem. Alex. 
Strom, vii. 14 (p. 885) /; 
Kvpiov o irJ^vfiariKos dytof 

9. xpw/xa 0eoO] ' M^ J^rt/^ of 

God** : comp. e.g. Antiphanes in 
Athen. xiv. p. 643 eTreira ra jj.e\rj 
/ifra/3oXai$ KCU ^pco/^ao-u/ car ey xe/cparat, 
Plato Resp. x. p. 6oi eVei yv^vdiBfvra 
ye rcov r^s p.ov(riKrjs ^pco/iarcov ra rcov 
Troi^reo^, aura e'0' aurtoi/ Xeyop-ei/a K.r.X. 
(see also Legg. ii. p. 655). The term 
Xpco/zara ' hues ' applied to sounds is 
only one illustration of the very com- 
mon transference, by analogy, of 
ideas derived from one sense to 
another (see Farrar Chapters on 
Language p. 297 sq). The word 
Xpoifia then, as a musical term, de- 
signated an interval between two full 
tones; comp. Aristid. Quint, p. 18 
<as yap ro /xerau Xeu/foC /cat p.\avos 
Xpco/za KaXetrat, otrra> Kai TO did p.O~a>v 
dfXpolv dcapovpevov ^pco/xa Trpoo~fiprjTai. 
Hence it gave its name to the 
chromatic scale, which was called 
\pa>p,aTiKov yevos, or XP^/^" simply, 
as distinguished from the two other 
scales used by the Greeks, the dia- 
tonic (diaroviKov yeVoy or didrovov) 
and enharmonic (eVap/zoj/iov yeVos or 
dpfjLovid) -, see Aristoxenus Harm. pp. 
19, 23 sq, 44, Euclid. Intr. Harm. 
p. 534 (ed. Gregory), Dion. Halic. 
de Comp. Verb. 19, Plut. de Mus. u, 
32 sq (Mor. pp. 1134, 1142 sq), 
Sext. Emp. adv. Math. vi. p. 366, 
Vitruv. Arch. v. 4, Macrob. Somn. 
Scip. ii. 4. See on this subject West- 
phal Harmonik u. Melopb'ie der 
Griechen pp. 129 sq, 141 sq, 263 
sq, Marquardt on Aristoxenus Harm. 
p. 246 sq and elsewhere. Of the 



<j)(*)vfj JULIO- Sid 'Irfcrov XpicrTOv TCO Trarpi, 'tva v 
aKOvcrrj Kal vtrvyivuHrKif, Si coif ev Trpda'creTe, jULe\ri OVTCLS 
TOV vlov avTOv. ^prjcri/uiov ovv ecrTiv VJULCIS ev djuicoiuLU) 
evoT^Ti eivaiy \va Kal Qeov TrdvroTe /xere^re. 

V. ,i fydp 70) ev fULiKpto %pdvw TOiavTrjv crvvn- 5 
Qeiav ea-%ov Trpos TOV eTricTKOTrov VJULWV, OVK dv6pu)7rivrjv 

i 5i&] GL; om. A (attaching 'Irja-ov Xptoroi) to the following words and render- 
ing patri domini nostri iesu christi: the omission may be owing to homoeoteleuton 
(MIAAiA). The paraphrase in g is h evbT-r\Ti eV yevijirde rrj ffvfjKpwvtq. ry dey Trarpl 
vly ai/rou 'I. X. /c.r.X. 2 eTrrywciHrKTy] cognoscat LA ; 

chromatic scale itself there were three 
recognised modifications ; Aristox. 
Harm. p. 5 Tpels 5 ^pa)/u,artKai, TJ 
T TOV paXaKov ^pcojuaro? KOI ij TOV 
tyfUoXtov Kal T) TOV Toviaiov (comp. Aris- 
tid. Quint, p. 19, Sext. Emp. 1. c., 
Euclid. 1. c. p. 537 sq). Such sub- 
divisions or modifications of any of 
the three great yevrj were called 
Xpoat, ' colorations ' or ' shadings ' ; 
e.g. Aristox. Harm. p. 24 Kara ra 
yevrj re KOI Tas xpoas (see Marquardt's 
note), comp. ib. p. 69 Kaff eKaa-rrjv 
Xpoav c'0' fKao-rov yevovs. These sub- 
divisions (xpoai) of the xpw/Lia were 
also themselves called ^pw/zara : 
see Euclid. 1. c. Ignatius may have 
been led to choose a term which 
pointed chiefly to the chromatic 
scale, because this scale was espe- 
cially adapted to the instrument 
which suggested this elaborate meta- 
phor, the KiOapa : comp. Philochorus 
in Athen. xiv. p. 637 sq hvo-avdpos 
6 SiKuomos Ki6apio~Tris TrpcoToy /uere- 

0~TT)<Tf TTJV \lfl\OKtdaplO~TlKr)V .... XP~ 

paTO. re eu^poa TrpoSro? e'/a$apio-e /c.r.X., 
Plut. Mor. p. 1137 E ro> 

see Westphal p. 131 sq. The Latin 
translator here roughly renders xP^^ a 
by melos. 

ev voTr}Ti] The phrase occurs again 
5, 14 below, Philad. 2, 5, Smyrn. 

12, Polyc. 8. The words 
CVOTTJS, evao-is, are frequent in these 
letters, as might have been antici- 
pated from their general purport. 

2. Si <nv ev TrpaWere] ' through 
your good actions] as in 14 di <BJ> 
7rpao~o-ovo~iv ofpOijo-ovTat ; comp. 15 
fit 1 wi> XaXei Trpdaa-rj K.T.\. There is no 
ground for the conjectural reading 
81 ov. The Latin has not per quern 
(as it has hitherto been read), but 
per qucB; and the Armenian trans- 
lates inbonis laboribus vestris. For 
eu Trpao-o-fiv in the sense, not of 
'faring well,' but of 'acting well/ 
comp. Smyrn. n. 

' members] as Trail. 1 1 ovTas 
avTov (see the note there). 
There is no play here, as Markland 
and others have supposed, on the 
other meaning of the word, 'songs? 
Such an allusion would confuse the 
metaphor hopelessly, and would be 
unmeaning in itself. 

V. ' I myself have found much 
happiness in my brief intercourse 
with your bishop ; much more then 
must you, who are closely united 
with him, as the Church is with 
Christ, and as Christ is with the 
Father. Let no man deceive him- 
self. None shall eat the bread who 
stand apart from the altar. The 
united prayers of the bishop and 





ovcrav d\\a TrvevjJiaTiKriv, Trocrw fjLa\\ov v/mas 

roi)s dvaKKpafj.evov<s OVTWS, w's r\ KK\rj(ria 'Irjcrov Xpi- 

(TTto Kal fc)S ' IrjCTOVS XpHTTOS TW TTCtTp't, 'iVd TTCLVTa V 

evoTriTi crv/ui<pa)va 77. p,ri$eis TrXavda-Qw eav {my TIS 
77 ei/ros TOV BvcriacTTripiov, v&TepelTcu TOV apTOV [TOI> 

G; al. g. 4 /xer^x^Te] /ier^ere G. 8 TOI)S 

g* (but vv.ll.); roi>s evKeKpa/j.ti>ovs G; qui mixti estis A; con- 
junctos L : see the lower note. oi/rws] GL ; avru [g] ; raw ^ [A]. 

ii 7} evr6s] G Dam-Rup i; sit intra L; c^ris 17 g. uoTepetrcu] varepeire G. 

rou 9eoO] GLg Dam-Rup; om. A. 

the whole Church are all powerful. 
Whosoever comes not to the con- 
gregation is self-willed, and falls 
under the condemnation of the 
Scriptures. Let us obey our bishop, 
if we would be God's people. 3 

6. OVK dvdpGMrivrjv] i. e. ' not world- 
ly,' 'not after the ordinary ways of 
men'; see the note on 9 *car' 
dvOpmirav fliov. 

8. dvaKeKpapevovs] l closely attach- 
ed" 1 to him. This, rather than ey- 
KfKpafjifvovs, seems to be the proper 
word, when attachment, friendship, 
is meant. See Pollux Onom. v. 113 
eTTiTrjdfiois dvaKKpa/jiai Trpos avrov, 
where he gives o-vy/ceVpa/zat as a 
synonyme, but not ey/cc'/cpa/ini ; and 
so again, viii. 151 : comp. also Bekker 
Anecd. p. 391 'Ai/a/cpn$f ires' dvaKc- 
pao-OtvTfs, oXo^v^to? KoXXco/iei/ot. For 
this use see Epict. Diss. iv. 2. i 
firj TTOTC apa TWV Tvporepdiv crvvr/Owv 77 
<pi\a>v dvaKpaflfls nvi OVTCOS wore 
K.T.X., M. Antonin. x. 24 Trpoo-rerr/Koy 
KOI dvciKfKpcifjLevov r<5 crapictSia), Clem. 
Hom. ix. 9 T fl tyvXfl dva.Kipva.VTai 
(comp. 11, 13, 15), Clem. Alex. 
Exc. Theod, 36 (p. 978) r eVi r di 
rjims fjLfpio-dfVTt dvciKpaOwfjiev, Orig. 
C. Cels. viii. 75 di>aKpa$a>a-t TO> TOV Qeov 
Xoyw, Euseb. V. C. iii. 12 : comp. 
Phil'o de Praem. ct Poen. 16 (n. p. 
424), Plut. Vit. Rom. 29, Vit. Cat. 
25, and the words in Eur. Hipp. 253 

peTpias els aXXr/Xovs (pi\ias 
BVTJTOVS dvaKLpvatrBai (with Valck- 
naer's note). 

10. /ATjSejy nXavdada)] As Smyrn. 
6. So too the Apostolic phrase 
(S. Paul and S. James) pr/ nXavaa-Oc, 
1 6 below, Magn. 8, Philad. 3 
(see the note). 

n. TOU 6v<ria(rrr)pLov] The same 
expression occurs again Trail. 7 
o VTOS tivo-iao-TT] piov u>v KaOapos 
ecrriv K.T.\. The dv(Tia(TTijpiov here is 
not the altar, but the enclosure in 
which the altar stands, as the pre- 
position fvros requires. This meaning 
is consistent with the sense of the 
word, which (unlike ^W/JLOS} signifies 
* the place of sacrifice ' ; and it is 
supported also by examples of its 
use as applied to Christian churches; 
e.g. Cone. Laod. Can. 19 povois eoi/ 
eivai TO'IS ifpariKols el (Tie vat els TO 
dva-iaar^piov (i.e. the sacrariuni), com- 
pared with Can. 44 ou Set 
ev TO) 09<na0TJ)pilf f 
(Labb! Cone. I. pp. 1533, 1537, ed. 
Colet.). This seems also to be its 
sense in Rev. xi. i ptTprjo-ov TOV vaov 
TOV Qeov Kdl TO 8vo-iao-Tr)piov Kal TOVS 
7rpoo~KvvovvT(is ev aurw, Kal TTJV av\rjv 
TT/V e^codev TOV vaov 6K/3aXe e^wdev, Kal 
prf avTTjv fJLfTpijo-ys, OTI eftoflr) TOIS 
edveo-iv ; comp. xiv. 17, 1 8 aXXos 
ayyeXos e^fjKOev IK TOV vaov . . . Kal 
ayyeXos [f^X^ev] fK TOV 6vo~ia- 




Geoi/]. ei yap eVos Kal SevTepov Trpocrev^ri Toa-avrrjv 
ior'xyv X ei > 7ro '"^ ) [M&Xov rj re TOV eTTUTKOTrov Kal ira- 
<rr]s TTJS EJCJcAfftrias. 6 ovv JULTI ep^o/ze^os 67ri TO avTO 
OI)TOS rfSrj V7reprj(f>avel Kal eavTOV SieKpivev' yeypaTTTai 


2 re] Gg Dam-Rup; om. LA. 4 OUTOJ] GA; sic (oflrws) L; al. g. 

virepij(f)avi] virepupavet G, and so VTrepi<f>dvou just below. 5t^/c/Hvev] G; 

Dam-Rup; condemnavit L; al. g; def. A. 5 yap] GLA; 3 

(For the vaos, as confined to 
the holy place and distinguished 
from the court of the altar, see Clem. 
Rom. 41.) 

The reference here is to the plan 
of the tabernacle or temple. The 
6vo-tao-TT]piov is the court of the con- 
gregation, the precinct of the altar, 
as distinguished from the outer court. 
The application of this imagery, 
which Ignatius had in view, appears 
from the continuation of the parallel 
passage already quoted, Trail. 7 o 8e 
ficros 6vo~iao-TTipiov <Si/ou 
TOVTO~TIV, o ^copty tVicr/coTrou Kal 
QvTfpiov KOI diaxovov 7Tpa(T(ra>v rt, 
ovroy ov KaOapos eo-riv rfj mnvtd^flrrt. 
The man who separates himself from 
the assembly of the faithful, lawfully 
gathered about its bishop and pres- 
byters, excludes himself, as it were, 
from the court of the altar and from 
the spiritual sacrifices of the Church. 
He becomes as a Gentile (Matt, xviii. 
17) ; he is impure, as the heathen is 
impure. See esp. Clem. Alex. Strom. 
vii. 6 (p. 848) f(m yovv TO Trap fffuv 
dvcnaaTijpiov evravda TO eViyeiov TO 
Tu>v rat? 

p,av (oo'TTfp fX ov <BI "7 I/ T *] v Kotvrjv KOI 
fj.iav yvtofjujv K.T.\. (with the whole 
context). Thus Qvo-tao-Tijpiov, being 
at once the place of sacrifice and the 
court of the congregation, was used 
metaphorically for the Church of 
Christ, the Qvaiao-rripiov e/Ln/ru^oi', as 
S. Chrysostom terms it. Somewhat 

similarly in Polyc. Phil. 
OTI ela-iv Qvo-iao-TJpiov Qeov, it is ap- 
plied to a section of the Church, the 
body of ' widows ' ; see also Apost. 
Const, iii. 6, 14, iv. 3. 

Thus S. Ignatius does not here 
refer to a literal altar, meaning the 
Lord's table. Too much stress per- 
haps has been laid on the fact that 
the early Christians were reproached 
by the Gentiles with having no 
temples and no altars, and that the 
Apologists acknowledged the truth 
of the charge, explaining that their 
altars, temples, and sacrifices alike 
were spiritual: e.g. Minuc. Fel. Oct. 
32, Orig. c. Cels. viii. 17. But, inde- 
pendently of this, the literal inter- 
pretation will not stand here, because 
the place for the Christian laity would 
not be fvros TOV Ovo-iao-rrjpiov. In fact 
the imagery here is explained by 
the following words, where o enio-Ko- 
TTOS Kal Traa-a fj {udupria corresponds 
to 6vo-iao~TJJpiov, while 77 Trpoo-fv^n is 
the spiritual sacrifice therein offered ; 
as e. g. Clem. Al. /. c. 77 6vaia TT)S 
cKK\rjo~ias Xoyoy OTTO TOO*' ayiwv 
dvaOvp.K0p.evos, Orig. /. c. a 

Kal vorjTws ru&dr) 6vfj.idfj.aTa al 
OTTO trvi/eiS^'o-ecos Kadapds. 
For the prayers of the Christians, as 
taking the place which the sacrifices 
held under the old dispensation, see 
the note on Clem. Rom. 44 Trpoo-evey- 
KOVTUS TO. dwpa. In Philad. 4 6vo-iaaTi]- 
piov seems to be used (see the note 



ovv fmr/ dvTLTd(Tcrecr6ai Tea eTnovcoTnw, \va w/aev 
Qeov vTroTaffcrofJievoi. 

VI. Kal 6<rov /3\e7T6i TLS (rvycovra eTncncoTroy, 

Dam-Rup; al. g. 6 ovv} GLS X ; om. A [Dam-Rup 5] [Anton 3]; al. g. 

dvTtTdffa<Tdai] LA Lj Sj Dam-Rup Anton ; avTiTaffaeffde G ; al. g. 7 eoO] 

G; 0ef Dam-Rup Anton; deo LSj; dub. A; al. g. 8 Kal flow] G Dam-Rup 

Anton; et quantum L; off if ovv [g]; et quando A; quia quantum (quanta} S r 
Dam-Rup; r6v eirlffKoirov [g] Anton. 

apTos [9eov], with the note. 

I. ci yap evos K.r.A.] An allusion to 
our Lord's promise, Matt, xviii. 19, 
2O, eav 8vo (rv[ji(f)(i)vr]O'ovo'iv c vp.uiv 


4. cavrbv duKpivev] ' separates him- 
self then and then.' He pronounces, 
as it were, the sentence of excommu- 
nication on himself. For this force 
of the aorist see Gal. v. 4 (note), and 
comp. Winer Gramm. xl. p. 345 
(Moulton). The Latin condemnavit 
does not imply a different reading 
KaTfKpivev (as Zahn), but is a mere 
mistranslation, just as this same 
version renders KaTr)pTi<rp.ei>oi per- 

fecti ( 2), as if it were airr^pTio-^vo^ 
and dSiuVpiToj/ ( 4) incomparabile^ as 
if it were ao-vyitpiTov. 

5. 'YTreprjcpdvois K.r.A.] A quotation 
from Prov. iii. 34. It is quoted also 
i Pet. v. 5, James iv. 6, Clem. Rom. 
30 ; see the note on the last passage. 
In all alike [o] Geos is substituted for 
Kvptoy of the LXX ; but Ignatius is 
alone in placing vnfpr)(pavois first. 

6. c*ij.(v Qeov K.r.X.] 'we may be 
God's by our subjection ' ; comp. 8 
6X01 OVTCS Qeov, Magn. lo OVK CQ-TIV 
TOV Qfovj Philad. 3 oo~oi GeoO flo\v... 
OVTOI Qeov (o~ovrai, Rom. 7 e/iol (v. 1. 

CfJLOv) yiV0~6f, TOVTfCTTlV TOV QfOV. 

The substitution of the dative was 
so obvious, and almost inevitable, 
that I have adopted the genitive 
against the preponderance of autho- 

VI. * If a bishop is silent, he only 

there) as here and in Trail. 7 (already 
quoted). For other applications of 
the term, likewise metaphorical, see 
Magn. 7, Rom. 2. These five are 
the only passages in which it occurs 
in the Epistles of Ignatius. 

TOV apTov TOV Qfov] i.e. 'the spiritual 
sustenance which God provides for 
His people.' There is probably a 
reference to the eucharistic bread 
here, as there is more plainly in 
Rom. 7 (see the note there). The 
eucharistic bread however is not ex- 
clusively or directly contemplated, 
but only taken as a type of the 
spiritual nourishment which is dis- 
pensed through Christ. This re- 
ference (like Rom. 7) seems to be 
inspired by Jon. vi. 31 sq, where 
also the eucharistic bread furnishes 
the imagery, while at the same time 
a larger application is contemplated, 
o apTos TOV Geov eo~Tiv o Karaftaivutv 
K TOV ovpavov K.T.X. If SO, the 
metaphor reverts ultimately to the 
manna, and thus harmonizes with 
the preceding Ovo-iao-Typiov. The 
manna was the bread provided by 
God for the congregation of Israel. 
For a more direct reference to the 
eucharistic bread, or at least to the 
agape, see below 20 ; and for a dif- 
ferent application and meaning of 
apTos, Rom. 4. It will be seen from 
the authorities that the words TOV 
Qfov are somewhat doubtful. Per- 
haps they should be omitted : see an 
exactly parallel case, Rom. 4 

4 6 



avTOV <pofleicr6a). iravTa yap ov TrejuiTrei 6 




eJs ISiav oiKOvo/ULiaV) OVTCOS Set 
) ok avrov TOV Tre/m^avTa. TOV ov 
ws avTov TOV Kvpiov Sel 7rpoa-(3\e7reiv. avros 

0ew ev- 5 

vTrepeTraive V/ULOV 




TraWes /cara d\rj6eiav ^rjre teal on ev VJMV 

i 7rXet6vws] G (written TrXeibvusavrbv) ; TrXetov [g] ; TrXe'o*' Dam-Rup 5 Anton 
TreTwret] GLg Dam-Rup 5 Anton; &v TT^TT^ Dam-Rup i; mittct A. 2 otfrws 

Set ^as ai;r6i'] GL Anton ; ourws ^/tas Set Dam-Rup r ; ourojs Set i'/tas Dam-Rup 5 ; 
ourws ayroi' Set ^/ias g. 3 Se'xecrtfat] Gg Dam-Rup 5 Anton ; U7ro5ea<r0cu 

Dam-Rup i ; recipere L. irt^avTa] Gg Dam-Rup i ; Trt/AirovTa Dam- 

Rup 5 Anton; dub. LA. ofo] Gg Anton, and so SjA; yovv Dam-Rup 5. 

4 S^Aoj/ort] GLS^ om. A Anton Dam-Rup. 7rpo<r/3\e'7re'] g Anton 

Dam-Rup, and so LSiA; wpo^Treiv G. 5 /*& oS/] GL; atqtieigitur A; 

7. KaroiKel] * has its permanent 
abode'\ see the note on Clem. Rom. 
inscr. At the same time though no 
one had settled here, Ignatius speaks 
of certain heretics as irapodevo-avras 


8. jrcpl K.r.X.] I have ventured so to 
emend the text, as the Armenian 
Version suggests, and as the sense 
seems to require, substituting HTTG- 
piiHCoy for HTTepiHCoy; see the 
faulty reading of A, wo-Trep for us 
Trepi, in [Clem. Rom.] ii. i. Com- 
pare Philad. 6 eav de a/n^orepoi Trepi 
'Ljo-ou XpioToG /AI) XaXcSo-ti/, ourot 
e/xoi or^Xat cla-iv K.r.X., and simi- 
larly Trail. 9 Koxpco^^re ovv, orav 
Vfuv %(opls 'irjcrov Xptorov XaX t ^ rty. 
Another simple emendation would be 

Xpio-roi/: comp. Magn. 10 
ftmv *Ir)(Tovv Xpiorov XaXe> 
Kal iovdatfiv, Rom. 7 \ir\ XaXeire 
'irjo-ovv Xpi&Tov Koo-pov de eTTt^u/ieTre. 
The Latin aliqiiem amplius quam 
lesum Christum loquentem is ambi- 
guous, and might represent the ac- 
cusative as well as the genitive. 

VII. 'Certain false teachers are 
going about, who profess the Name 
of Christ in guile. Avoid them, as 

deserves the more reverence. The 
master's steward must be received as 
the master, the bishop as Christ. 
Onesimus himself praises you. He 
tells me that no heresy has a home 
among you and that you will not 
listen to one who speaks of anything 
else but Christ.' 

anywvTo] Ignatius returns to this 
subject again 15, without how- 
ever mentioning the bishop. Simi- 
larly he commends the quiet and 
retiring disposition of the bishop of 
Philadelphia (Philad. i), who is not 
named; and he deprecates any one 
presuming on the youth of Damas the 
bishop of Magnesia (Magn. 3). 

2. o oiKofeo-TroTrjs] Apparently an 
allusion to the parable in Matt. xxi. 
33 sq. The words els TJ)J/ I8iav OIKO- 
vopiav are a condensed expression for 
fls rfjv oiKovopiav TOV idiov OIKOV (or 

del K.T.X.] Comp. John xiii. 
2O o Xaju/3ai/a>i/ av nva 7Tp.'\l/'a> c'/xe 

TOV Tre\v\ravTa. /ze, together with Matt. 
x. 40 o Se^o/iei/oy Vfids efte deeTaif KOI 
6 e'/Lte Sf^o/xei/oy Several TOV 
Xai/rti ,f. 




ot/Se/uta aipeo-is KaroiKeC a'AA' ovSe ctKOvere TWOS 7r\eov 
fj Trepi 'Irja'ov XpiffTOv \a\ovvTOs ev d\t]6eia. 

VII. Gia)6a(riv yap Tives $6\w Trovripto TO ovo/ma 

10 TrepKpepeiv, a\\a Tiva TrpdcrcrovTes dvd^ia Oeov* oi/s Se? 

i)/ia a)? Brjpia KK\ivtv eicriv ydp /ci/i/es Xfo-crwi/res, 

\a6poSiJKTai, oi/V Se? i)/zas <pv\d<ro-(r6ai oi/ras SvcrBepa- 

TTCVTOVS. eh ictTpos e(TTiv 9 (rapKiKOs Kal 

[g]. 8 77 TrepJ] ^tttfw (fyrep) L; 17 ^vou g (a paraphrase); e?7rep G. 

In A the sentence is translated et non audiatis quemquam, si non in veritate de iesu 
christo loquattir vobiscum. See the lower note. 9 rb 6vo/j.a] txt GLg (MSS, 

but 1 adds christi}; add. bonorum A; add. xpun-oD Dam-Rup i. See 3 for similar 
glosses. 10 aXXa TWO,] So app. most MSS of g*, and Dam-Rup (Lequien) ; 

oXXa riva (sic) G ; sed (aXXA) quaedam L; et revera (om. nva) A. 12 \adpo- 

d-fJKTai] G Dam-Rup; \a6podijKToi. g (MSS). 13 els] txt GLA Athan 

Theoclt Gelas Sev-Syr 5, 6; add. y&p Anon-Syr^ al. g. <rapKiKos] txt 

[L] [A] Athan Gelas Theodt Sev-Syr (twice) Anon-Syr^ add. re G; al. g. 

wild beasts. They are like mad 
dogs, whose bite is hard to heal. 
There is only one sure Physician, 
flesh and spirit, create and increate, 
God in man, Life in death, the Son of 
Mary and the Son of God, passible 
first and then impassible, even Jesus 
Christ our Lord.' 

9. ro oi/o/za K.r.X.] Comp. Polyc. 

Phil. 6 Tl> \f/V$aftf\(f><M)V KOI TCOl/ fV 
V7TOKpi(rl (facpOVTOiV TO OVO/Jia TOV 

Kvpiov. For the absolute use of ro 
oi/o/ia see above 3. 

10. aXXa TWO] ''certain other things? 
It seems necessary to read aXXa, 
since the oppositive conjunction 
aXXa would be quite out of place 
after oXo> frovrjpm. 

11. fypia] So Smyr?i.47rpo(pv\d(T<r(0 

8e V/J.CIS OTTO T<0>v Brjpiutv TtHv av6pu>TTO^6p- 

cpav K.r.X. In Philad. 2 they are 
called 'wolves.' 

12. Xa0po&r;Krat] Various forms of 
the word occur, \adpo8ij KTTJS, as here, 
being the commonest, comp. Chrysost. 
Horn, in Ephes. xv. KaOdnep ol \aBpo- 


vXa/crovo-tv ^f.r.X. (Op. XT. p. 115 

A) ; \a0poofjKTos (?) in the correspond- 
ing passage of the Pseudo- Ignatius: 
\(i0po8dKTr)s Pallad. Vit.Chrys.(Chxys. 
Op. XIII. p. 2l); \a8pai68TjKTos, Photius 
in Oecum. ad Phil. iii. 2 ; \a0po8aKvrjs, 
Antiphanes in Anthol. Grcsc. II. p. 
189 (Jacobs); \adpo8aKvos (?), Nilus 
Epist. i. 309, p. 196 A (Migne). The 
recognised classical equivalent was 
\aidapyos (\d6apyos), e.g. Arist. Eq. 
1068. Phrynichus (Bekker Anecd. p. 
50) on \ddapyos KVU>V says, rovro 8e ol 
TroXXot irapcKpdfipavTfs \a8po8ij KTTJV KCL- 

dvo-OepaTTfi/Tovs'] i.e. 'their madness 
is a virulent disease which is hard to 
cure and which they communicate to 
others by their bite': comp. Soph. 
Ajax 609 dvo-QepaTrevTos Aia?...$e/a 
pavtq vvav\os. 

13. fls larpos] 'There is only one 
physician who can cope with it': 
comp. Clem. Alex. Qitz's div. salv. 29 
(p. 952) TOVT&V de TWV rpau/i<moi> p.6vos 
laTpos 'Irja-ovs K.r.X., Orig. c. Cels. ii. 
67 (i. p. 438) j?X#e (rcoriyp 6 Kvpios 
ijplv p.a\\ov MS IctTpos dyaBos K.r.X. 
For the connexion of tarpos and 

4 8 



Kai dyevvrjTOs, ev dvBpwTra) 0eos, ev BavaTto 
(lo;) d\tj6ivti, Kai e'/c Mapias Kai e/c Oeov, TTpcoTOV TraBrj- 
TOS Kai TOTE d7ra6tis 9 'lti(rovs XpiarTOS 6 Kvpios 

i yevvyrbs Kai dytwirros] G, and so app. Athan (though some MSS and the 
edd. read yevrjrbs Kai ayevrjros}; genitus et ingenitus L; factus et non factus A 
Gelas Sev-Syr (twice) Anon-Syr^ yevv^rbs 4 aycw^rov Theodt. The words 
substituted in g are 6 /xovoj a\ri9u>bs 6ebs 6 ayevvrjTos . . .rov 8e povoyevovs trarTjp 
Kai yewfirwp. See the excursus at the end of this epistle. ev avdpA-rrv 

0e6s] Athan Theodt Gelas Sev-Syr (twice) Anon-Syrj ; deus et filius hominis 
[A] (reading r<jLJ^3 l jilius hominis' for r^lat-ir^La in homine ; see Peter - 
mann); ev aapKl yevoftevos Oeos GL; al. g. ev davary far} a.\t)dwfi\ Athan 

Theodt Sev-Syr (twice) Anon-Syr t ; vera vita et in morte vivus [A]; in morte 
vita aeterna Gelas ; ev ddavdru far) d\rjdivrj (the dative is intended, for this MS 

yp,as oparovy rbv d^rjXdcfrrjrov, {rbv 6V "\lsr)\a<f)r)r6v], rbv diradfj, rbv fit' 
Tipas 7ra0T]r6v K.r.X. See also Tertull. 
de Cam. Chr. 5 'Ita utriusque sub- 
stantiae census hominem et Deum 
exhibuit,hinc natum, inde non natum, 
hinc carneum, inde spiritalem, hinc 
infirmum, inde praefortem, hinc mori- 
entem, inde viventem,' a passage 
which too strongly resembles the 
words of Ignatius to be independent. 
It is worth while observing that in 
the immediate context Tertullian 
quotes the incident from Luke xxiv. 
39, which Ignatius elsewhere (Smyrn. 
3) gives from another source. Comp. 
also Melito Fragm. 13 (ed. Otto) 
'judicatum esse judicem [et incom- 
prehensibilem prehensum esse] et in- 
commensurabilem mensuratum esse 
et impassibilem passum esse et im- 
mortalem mortuum esse et caelestem 
sepultum esse. Dominusenimnoster 
homo natus...mortuus est, ut vivifi- 
caret, sepultus est, ut resuscitaret'; 
Fragm. 14 'quum sit incorporeus, 
corpus ex formatione nostra texuit 
sibi...a Maria portatus et Patre suo 
indutus, terram calcans et caelum 
implens, etc.' 

I. yevvrjros Kai dyewrjros] ''generate 
and ingenerate] i.e. 'generate as re- 
gards His human nature and ingene- 

see Clem. Horn. Ep. Clem. 2 
TOP rrpoKa6f6fjievov Sel tarpou TOTTOV 
7rX eiv ) v Qrjpiov aXoyov fX iV " 
Compare 1 5 efs ovv 8i8aaKa\os. 

/c.r.X.] The antithesis of 
and TrvevpariKos is intended 
to express the human and the Divine 
nature of Christ respectively; comp. 
Smyrn. 3 coy (rapKiKOS, Kaijrep nvevpa- 


For the constant recurrence of the 
combination adpg and irvevpa in Ig- 
natius in various relations, see the 
note on 10 below. The expressions 
yevvijros, fv avdptoira), tv 
, e< Mapi'ay, TraQrjTos, here are 
introduced to emphasize the reality 
of Christ's humanity against the 
phantom theory of the Docetics : see 
the note on Trail. 9. For the use 
of nvevpa in early Christian writers, 
as opposed to <rdp and expressing 
the Divine nature of Christ as the 
Aoyos, see 2 Clem. 9 Xptoror o 
Kvpios...a>v p,ev TO Trpwrov Trvevpa, 
(yfvero <rdpg, with the note. The 
alternative is that a-apKtKos /c.r.X. 
should be taken closely with larpos 
l a. physician for flesh and spirit a- 
like' ; but the antitheses which follow 
seem to require the other explanation. 

For this sentence of antitheses 
compare Polyc. 3 rov doparov, rbv 6Y 






TIS v/uLas e^aTrardra) , uxnrep ovSe 
o\oi oWes Oeou. OTO.V yap fjiri^efJiia TTI- 
Bv/uLia evripeia-Tai ev v/uuv r\ Swajmevrj iy/zas ficuraviarai, 

does not write the iota subscript) G ; in immortali -vita vera L ; al. g. i Kal 

At] GLA Athan Theodt Sev-Syr 5; IK (om. K al) Sev-Syr 6 Gelas Anon-Syr i; 
al. g. 3 'ITJO-OUJ Xpurrds 6 Krfptoy ^wj/] A Theodt Sev-Syr (twice) 

Anon-Syrj ; dominus noster iesus christus Gelas ; domimis christus noster L ; om. G ; 
al. g. 5 orav 701/3] 2 commences again here and continues to the end of 

the chapter. *n-t0u/tte] ZA g; fyts GL, see below. 6 ^i}porai] 

plantata est SA; complexa est (irdpifnu?) L; cvelpia-rat G; virdpxy [g*]. The 
impossible word eveipio-rat is retained even by the latest editors (e.g. Hefele, 
Jacobson, Cureton, Dressel, Petermann, Lipsius, etc.), except Zahn and Funk. 
Dressel has accidentally transposed the words, eveiptarai pts, in his text. 

rate as regards His deity.' The 
words yfvvrjTos /ecu dyfvvrjTOf are here 
used to signify 'create and increate,' 
in which sense the more careful 
dogmatic language of a later age 
would have employed in preference 
the forms yfvrjros KOI dycvrjros with 
the single v. See the excursus at the 
end of this epistle. 

fv ai/#p6)7ro> 9eor] This reading is 
demanded alike by the great pre- 
ponderance of authorities and by the 
antithetical character of the sentence. 
The substitution / (rapid yndfttmt 
Qeos may have been due to the fear of 
countenancing the Apollinarian doc- 
trine that the Logos took the place 
of the human vovs in Christ. 

tv 6avaT<j) Ac.r.X.] For His death is 
our life, His passion is our resurrec- 
tion ; comp. e.g. Smyrn. 5 ro irdQos 
o ecrriv YHJ.U>V dvaa-rao-ts. Here again 
there is reference to His two natures. 
He died as man : He lives and gives 
life as the Eternal Word. 

2. (K Mapias] See below 18, 
Trail. 9, and comp. Smyrn. i. 

7rpa>roi>] He might have said with 
equal truth Trpeorov dTraOrjs KOI rore 
Tra^ror, as in Polyc. 3 (already 
quoted) TOV d7ra6fj, rov 81 TI^ICLS iradrjTov, 
but in these antitheses he commences 
with the humanity, as being the point 
attacked by the Docetic teachers. 


VI 1 1. 'Suffer not yourselves to 
be led astray ; for now ye are wholly 
given to God. So long as ye are 
free from any evil craving, ye live 
after God. I would gladly devote 
myself for the renowned Church of 
Ephesus. Carnal men are incapable 
of spiritual things, as spiritual men 
are incapable of carnal things. With 
you, even the things done after the 
flesh are spiritual, for they are done 
in Christ.' 

5. ovrfs Qfov~\ See the note on 

5 tva eo/ii/ 6foC. 

(Tn.6vfj.ia] The combination of 
authorities leaves no doubt that 
this is the correct reading; comp. 
Ephes. iv. 22 KOTO, ras cntOvfjiias rfjs 
dirarris. For the connexion of unre- 
strained desire (JxtOvfua) with false 
teaching see 2 Tim. iii. 6 
ovTfs yvvaiKdpia...dyo/j.fva 
TroiKiAcur, 2 Pet. ii. 18 SeXed^ovcriv cv 
fTTitivpiais o-apKos (comp. ver. 10), Jude 
1 6, 1 8. The reading ?pts, though not 
inappropriate in itself (comp. Clem. 
Alex. Strom, vii. 16, p. 894, epiv fjv *v 
rats- aipeo-ecri TrpoKptreoz/), must be 
rejected here. It may have found its 
way into the text from a marginal 
note attempting to give a derivation 

6. ei/r/peto-rai] l ts inherent, is 
fixed! So it is necessary to read 



apa Kara Qeov ^Jre. 
vjuicov ',<pea'i(*)v 



i apa] apa G (so certainly). Trepl\f/fj/j.a v^wv Kal ayvlo/\ G (but 

with a smooth breathing ayviofj,ai) ; peripsima vestri et castificer (i.e. a.yvLfaiia.1, but 
the MSS castificef] a vestra etc. L*; gaudeo in vobis et supplico pro vobis 2 A. In 

for evciptorai, in which the editors 
generally have acquiesced, but which 
they do not attempt to justify. The 
frequent itacisms in the MS render 
the change obvious. Bunsen (Br. p. 
88) saw that eWpwmu was impossible, 
but substituted IvcpyrJTai. Zahn first 
introduced the correct word into the 
text. For evepeideiv (-decrdai) cornp. 
Dioscorid. ii. 23 (p. 367, Kiihn) T&V 
fvrjpeiKOTOtv orojua^o) Kal Koi\ia ^oXca- 
8>v, a use that would be appropriate 
to the metaphor at the close of the 
preceding section; see also Plut. 

Mor. p. 327 B /SeXet OTTO ro|ou TO 
(rrepvov evpeio~6evTi } ib. p. 344 C TOIS 
Trepi TOV pao-Tov fvepeiarOevTos OO-TCOIS 
Kal KaTairaytvTos. Comp. Clem. Alex. 
Strom, ii. 2O (p. 487) dirdTrj (ruvex 5 
evairepeio'oiJLevT) TTJ tyvxf), whence e'ra- 
rrepeio-p,aTa 'impressions' in the con- 
text. For the form of the perfect see 
Lobeck Phryn. p. 33, Veitch Greek 
Verbs s. v. e'pei'Sa> ; and for the indica- 
tive with oTav, Winer xlii. p. 388 sq. 
Merx would read eppifaTai or cWppi- 
o>Tat (p. 41), because the Syriac and 
Armenian have 'plantata est,' but 
this seems to be only a loose render- 
ing of evr)pet(rrai. 

I. Treptyrjfji.a vp,o3f] sc. etui. For the 
omission of the substantive verb, and 
for the general form of the sentence, 

COmp. Rom. 4 dTTf\ev6epos 'Irjaov 
Xpio-Tov (sc. ecro/itu) Kal dvao-Tija-opai fv 
avT( fXfvOepos. Otherwise we might 
read nfpi^rrjp.d flp,i vpc5v, as ei/xi in 
this position might easily have drop- 
ped out amidst the recurrence of 
similar letters. 

ncpn/rq/ui, literally 'filth, scum, 
offscouring,' was used like 

especially of those crim- 
inals, generally the vilest of their 
class, whose blood was shed to expi- 
ate the sins of the nation and to 
avert the wrath of the gods. Photius, 
Lex. s.v., says ovrcos eVeXfyov r<5 
K.O.T eviavrbv e'p,/3aXXo/xei>a> TTJ 6a\dcro'r] 
vfavia eVl aTraXXay^ rStv (rvvexovTwv 
tcawnv Hepi'^rjp.a rj/jiav yevov, rjroi 
KOI dTToXvTpaxns, Kal OVTO>S 
TTJ 6a\dcr(rri, wcravel rw IIo- 
0v(riav dirorivvvvres ' Comp. 
Amphiloch. cxxxiii. (Op. I. p. 731, ed. 
Migne), where Photius well explains 
the force of the word as used by S. 
Paul. In Athenian language these 
persons were called (pappaKoi, Arist. 
Ran. 731 Kai Trovrjpois KHK Trovrjpmv els 
anavra xpco/uetfa, vorarots a^ty/ne'i/oi- 
(riv, oicriv TI TToXts Trpo rov ovde 0ap/xa- 
Kola-tv fiKrj paStcos XP 1 l (raT ' av - On 
these human victims see Hermann 
Griech. Alterth. Gottesdienst. 60. 
Hence the idea in the word as used 
here is twofold : first^ ' I am as the 
meanest among you,' and secondly, 
'I devote my life for you.' For its 
biblical use see Jer. xxii. 28 (Symm.) 

P.T) Trepi'v/^/ia (pav\ov Kal diro{3Kr)Tov o 
av6pa>7ros ; Tobit v. 2O (LXX) dpyvpiov 
... TTpL'\l^rjfia rov TratSiov rjfimv yevoiro, 
I Cor. iv. 13 to? Trept/ca^ap/zara rov 
Koo-pov eyfvtfdTjiJLev, Travrav 
ea>s apn. See also below 18 
\lfrjp,a TO epov TrvfvfjLa rov oravpoO, 
Barnab. 4 ypa<peti/ tarirovftacra eya) 
7repi\^7/ia r5pc5i/, tb. 6 eya> Trepi^^/xa TTJS 
dyd-rrrjs vpav. Hence Origen in loann. 
xxviii. 14 (IV p. 393), explaining 
the prophecy of Caiaphas, applies 
the term to our Lord with an apology 
for so using it. In the middle of the 



ol crapKiKOi TO, TrvevjULaTiKo. Trpdcrcreiv ov SvvavTai oi/Se 
ol TTvev/maTiKOi TCC crapKiKci, utcnrep ovSe r\ TTLCTTL^ TO. Trjs 







g it is altered into irept\l/T]fjt.a vpuv /ecu TTJS ayvordrrj^ l<f>. IKK\. See the lower 
note. 3 ol ffapKiicol] GLAg (but 1 adds enim) Dam- Vat 5 Dam-Rup 7; 

ol y&p vapKiKol 2 [Antioch 12]. Trpdcraeiv] G Antioch Dam-Vat-Rup; irpdr- 

Tfiv g. oi>] Gg Dam-Reg-Rup Antioch; otfre Dam-Vat. 5 5] 

GLA; 7&p S. 

third century, as appears from Dio- 
nysius of Alexandria (Euseb. H.E. 
vii. 22), 7rfptyr)fj.a vov had become a 
common expression of formal com- 
pliment 'your humble and devoted 
servant' (see Heinichen on Euseb. 
1. c. Melet. xv.). This expression, he 
says, which with others was a mere 
form of speech, had been actually ful- 
filled in the case of those devoted 
Christians who had caught the plague 
and died, while nursing others into 
health. Thus Trcpfyrjfui is closely al- 
lied in meaning to dvrtyvxov, which 
is also a favourite Ignatian word (see 
below 21), but superadds to the idea 
of 'self-devotion,' which is common 
to both, the further idea of 'abase- 
ment, vileness.' 

ayvifrfjiai K.r.A.] '/ am devoted to 
your Church? \ com p. Trail. 13 ayvl- 
&TCII \ayvifTf MS] v/itai/ TO e'/uoi/ Trvev- 
pa. It appears to mean literally 'I 
make myself a ayt/ioy-ia, a piacular 
offering, for your Church.' The verb 
ayvifav sometimes means 'to sacri- 
fice,' 'to devote' (see esp. tyayvifav, 
K.a6ayvieiv)', and ayvivpa. is 'an expi- 
atory victim,' e.g. ^sch. Eum. 315. 
Of the genitive case after a-yi/i'^o/zai 
I can find no other instance : but it 
might fall under the category of 
verbs of admiration, affection, and 
the like ; and, as rpv^eo-^ai, fVirv^eo-- 
6ai, etc., are found with this case (see 
Kiihner II. p. 324), it can hardly be 
considered out of place after ayvi- 
Ceo-Qai, when this secondary sense 
predominates. Several corrections 

have been suggested; e.g. the sub- 
stitution of ayvuTfj.0. for ayi/i^o/nat, Of 
the insertion of v<p' or of \nrtp before 
vpuv. But, as Trail. 13 (already 
quoted) agrees in the same expres- 
sion, it is highly improbable that the 
scribes should have made the same 
error and introduced the same diffi- 
culty in both passages. A much 
more easy change than any hitherto 
proposed would be <\r<\zoM<M f r 
AfNfzoMAi; but no correction seems 
to be required. 

2. KK\r)(rias] governs vfjiaiv, and 
does not stand in apposition with it, 
as the article before StaftorJTov shows. 

SiaftoiiTov K.r.A.] ' 'renowned through 
all ages] literally ' bruited about by 
the ages. 1 The word occurs Clem. 
Alex. Exc. Th'-od. 75 (p. 986), Orig. c. 
Cels. i. 51, Euseb. H. E. iii. 36, in 
which last passage it is used of Ig- 
natius himself, 6 Trapa TrXetorois 1 eier- 
e'n vvv 8ia(36r)Tos 'lyvariov. It is 
found also occasionally in late classi- 
cal writers, e.g. Plutarch and Dion 
Chrysostom. Compare also 7repi/36V 
roy, Clem. Rom. I, 47. For the 
dative see Xen. Ephes. i. 2 r^v Se 
diafiorjros rols 6e<t>iJivois anaviv K.r.A. 
The alwvfs are here 'future genera- 
tions,' and the dative is one of the 

3. 01 aapKiKol K.T.A.] A reminis- 
cence of i Cor. ii. 14 sq. 

5. a de KOI nr.r.A.] i.e. 'even your 
secular business is exalted into a 
higher sphere, is spiritualized, by your 




Kara <rdpKa 7rpd<T(reTe, TctvTa TrvevjULctTiKa e&Tiv' ev 
'Irjcrov yap XpKTTw TTCLVTO. 7Tpd(rcreTe. 

IX. ''Gryvtov Se TrapoSevcravTcis Tivas eKeWev, 

OVK i(raTe cnrepai e 

L. And so again 


i Trpaercrere] GAg; fecistis S; operetta stint 

just below, except g, in which the passage is quite changed. 3 

GL; 5i' vfjiwv [g]; ad vos A. 6 TrpoTjTot/ucto-yu^i'ot] Trpo- irrot(Ji.a.<rfjitvoi G 

(written Trptr, not Trpocr, as stated by Markland and others); patris, parati L; 
patris vestri dei, parati A; 0eov...i]Toifji.a(rfji.fros [Antioch i]; <?/ parati estis [S] 

IX. 'At the same time I learn 
that certain false teachers from a 
distance have been passing through 
your city ; but ye stopped your ears 
and did not suffer them to sow the 
seeds of evil in you. For ye are 
stones of a temple, prepared for the 
building of God, hoisted up by the 
Cross of Christ, the Spirit being 
the rope and your faith the engine, 
while love is the way leading to God. 
Ye all take your part in the holy pro- 
cession, bearing each his God and 
his Christ, his shrine and his sacred 
things, dressed in the festive robes 
of Christ's precepts, while I by letter 
am permitted to share your rejoicing 
and to congratulate you on your un- 
alloyed love of God.' 

3. TrapodevaravTai] SC. Triv*E<})c(rov. 
They had taken Ephesus on their 
way, though they had not settled 
there ; see 6 ev vfuv ovdepia alpca-is 
KaToiKet (with the note). These are 
the itinerant false-teachers who are 
described in 7 as 86\<o irovrjpm TO 
oi/ofia TrepicpepovTfs. The inter- 
pretation of Baur (/. B. p. 29) and 
Hilgenfeld (p. 191), who take irapo- 
Bevo-avras metaphorically, ' taking a 
by-path,' 'going out of the direct 
way,' cannot stand. The word al- 
ways signifies 'to pass by,' 'to pass 
through on the way,' e.g. Plut. Mor. 
P- 973 D T ts a-vvr)6<i)s Trapo 
rw TOTTOV, Lucian Scyth. 10 
7rapo8ev<ras rrjKtKavr^v 7ro\iv. It is 

used several times in the LXX, and 
always in this sense: Ezek. xxxvi. 
34, Wisd. i. 8, ii. 7, v. 15, vi. 24, 
x. 8. See also the note on Rom. 9 

eKfWev] i fromyonder' > ', comp. Mart. 
Polyc. 2O rots- fireKeiva aSe\0oi$-. The 
martyr uses the same reticence here 
as regards place, which he uses else- 
where as regards persons ; Smyrn. 5 
TCI de di/o/nara avr<5i>, ovra aTTtora, OVK 
edo^cv fjiot eyypa^at, aXXa /arjSe ycvoiTo 

pot pvrmovcvfiv K.T.A. But what place 
is meant? Bunsen (/. v. A. p. 38) says 
'from Smyrna,' translating it 'from 
here' ; but eKeldev could not have this 
sense. Baur (/. B. p. 29) answers 
'from Ephesus'; and this, if I under- 
stand him rightly, is the view of 
Zahn also (7. v. A. pp. 258 sq, 356 
sq, and ad loc.\ who takes the whole 
sentence to mean 'I learnt that cer- 
tain persons passed through where I 
was (at Philadelphia) from Ephesus.' 
But neither again could a writer well 
use eiccWev of the place to which he 
addressed his letter. The reference 
in eneWcv therefore must remain un- 
certain : but, if it were necessary to 
name any place, Philadelphia would 
answer the conditions. It appears 
from notices in the Epistle to the 
Philadelphians (see the introduction), 
that Ignatius had passed through 
their city on his way to Smyrna, 
so that he would know the facts; 
and we also gather from the same 





5 /3v(ravT6s TO. cJra ek TO jmrj TrapaSe^acrBai TO. (TTreipo- 
fcis oi/Tes \i6oi vaov TrporiTOijULacriuievoi 
Qeov TraTpos, dva(f>ep6iuLevoi ets TO. v\[srj Sia 
' Irjcrov XpicTTOv, os e(mv (rravpos, (T^OLviu) 

(all the previous part of 9 being omitted) ; al. g : see the lower note. 
commences again here and continues to i] dva&povcra eis 6eoj>, omitting the last 
part of the chapter. 7 6eoD Trarpos] GLS Antioch; ddav irarpos [g]; 

templi spiritualis A. 8 6's] G; o Antioch; per machinam . . .quiz est 

crux L; dub. S; al. Ag. <rxo'iy] G; ffxoivy [g] [Antioch]. 

letter, that heresy had been busy 
there ( 2, 3, 6, 7, 8). The substi- 
tutions for CKcWcv in the Armenian 
Version and in the interpolator's 
text are mere expedients to get rid 
of an obscure expression. 

4. o-TTcipat] See the metaphor of 
Pordvr] below, io. Here the ' sowing' 
is regarded as taking place through 
the ear. 

5. ftixravrcs ra a>ra] Ps. Ivii. (Iviii). 
4 danidos Kto(pfjs KOI /Suoucnjy ra cora 
CLVTTJS. It was an action expressive 
of horror, when any blasphemy was 
uttered; Acts vii. 57 o-vvecrxov ra tora 

Iren. in Euseb. H. E. v. 20 

'JLS ra eora CIVTOV (of Polycarp, 
when he heard any heresy talked), 
Iren. Hcer. iii. 4. 2 'si aliquis annun- 
tiaverit ea quas ab haereticis adin- 
venta sunt...statim concludentes aures 
longo longius fugient,' Clem. Recogn, 
ii. 37 'aures continuo obcludens, velut 
ne blasphemia polluantur' (comp. ib. 
ii. 40, 52). In Clem. Alex. Protr. io 
(pp. 73, 83) aTroftvfiv ra eora is used of 
resisting good influences ; comp. 
Clem. Hom. i. 12 ftvovres TWV o~wco'- 
'6ai 6c\ovTa>v Tas aKods. For the pur- 
port comp. Trail. 9 Kax^cotf/jre ovv 

6. Xi'$oi vaov] The metaphor, and in 
part even the language, is suggested 
by Ephes. ii. 20 22; comp. i Pet. 
ii. 5. The metaphor is elaborately 
carried out in Hernias Sim. ix. See 
below 15 (note). The transition in 

the metaphor is violent, after the 
manner of Ignatius. It can hardly 
be bridged over, I think, by a re- 
ference to the idea of seed sown on 
rocky ground (Matt. xiii. 4), as Zahn 

TrpoTjrotjuaoyieVoi] So I have ven- 
tured to substitute for Trarpos ^rot- 
/iaa-/ieVot, i.e. npOHTOIMACMGNOI for 

npCHTOiMACMGNOi. This was Mark- 
land's conjecture, but it had occurred 
to me without knowledge of the fact. 
Certainly Trarpos is awkward, where 
Trarpos follows so closely ; while 
gives another coinci- 
dence with the same Epistle of S. 
Paul (Ephes. ii. io ols npoT} 6 
0foy, comp. Rom. ix. 23 or/cfv?/ 
eXe'ous a Trpor/rot'/zao'fi' els oai>) which 
has so largely influenced this letter, 
and more especially this context. 
An alternative correction would be 
to substitute irvs for nps, irvevpaTos 
for Trarpos; see the note on Smyrn. 
13. For vaol nvcvparos comp. I Cor. 
vi. 19. But the mention of the Spirit 
comes in properly at a later stage. 

8. fuixar^f] See Hippol. de Antichr. 
59 (P- 3 1 Lagarde) K\i/ia eV our?/ tls 
v^os dvayovo'a cm TO Kepas eifcooi/ 
trr)p.iov TrdBovs XpiaroO, eXovo-a TOVS 
TTHTTOVS els dvdfiacTiv ovpavtov (comp. 
Clem. Rom. 49 TO v-^os fls o dvdyei 
YJ dydTrr) K.r.X.), Method, de Sanct. 
Cruc. i (p. 400, ed. Migne) w^avr) St' 

K\rjO-idS KUTdidcV \l6ov TCTpayOtVOV dlKTjV 





X6ya> (speaking of the cross), Chrysost. 
Horn. 3 in Ephes. (Op. xi. p. 19) wo- 
Trep did TIVOS \K<V ^T)XO.VTJS els 
v^ros avTrjv [rrjv fKK\r]o-iav] dvqyaye 

TO) Trvev/maTi TO) dyicp* r\ Se Tncms vpcov dva- 
VJULCOV, r\ Se dydirr] dSos r\ dva<pepov(ra ek Qeov. 

i T<2 TTvevftaTi r$ ayl(p] G ; r<p 0,7^ irvev[j.a.Ti g ; spiritu sancto L ; ^w/ est spiritus 
sandus"Z,\ ry Trvevfiart. [Antioch] ; def. A. v/j.wv'] GLS; om. A; r//id5v Dam- 

Rup 6, and so in the next line; al. g Antioch. avaywyevs] G Dam-Rup; 

as an inclined plane), up which the 
spiritual stones are raised that they 
may be fitted into the building, is 

3. eVre ovv K.r.X.] The mention of 
the 'way' suggests a wholly different 
image to the writer. The members 
of the Ephesian Church are now 
compared to a festive procession, in 
which each person bears some 
sacred vessel or emblem, a statue of 
a god, a model of a shrine, and the 
like; comp. Epist. Jer. 4 vwl de 
V Ba/3vXom 6fovs dpyvpovs 
)0s /cat v\ivovs eV afyiois 
alpopevovs. How large a place these 
religious festivities occupied in the 
life of a Greek may be inferred from 
Aristoph. Lys. 641 sq tTrra fnfv CTTJ 

(pop ovv TTOT ova a TTCUS KaXrj K.r.X. 
Hence such words as dv6o(popos, Sa- 
?, 6vpo-o(p6pos, navy- 

6s] by attraction for 17; see on 
Magn. 7, and Winer xxi. p. 206 sq. 

I. dvayoyevs] l a lifting- engine: No 
other example of this sense of the 
word is given in the lexicons earlier 
than Eustath. Opusc. p. 328 (ed. Tafel) 
*A.pyov...ov 17 iroirjTov TrXaoTi/cjy els 
TroXXovs rjvoi^ev ocfrQaXfjiovs KOI ftpveiv 
<oo"7rep TroXXaty c7roir)(Tei> o'^reo'iv^ cis 
pvpia o/i/xara Kararpijcraa-a, us dtappflv 


ore TToXvrprjrov TWOS dvaya>yeajs vfitop 
TToXvppow fa.KovTifTai. This com- 
parison to the many eyes of Argus 
seems to show that the dvayuyevs 
described by Eustathius is, as a 
friend suggests to me, an engine like 
Barker's Mill. The dvayuyevs con- 
templated by Ignatius may not have 
been of the same kind, for the word 
itself is not special ; but there would 
be no anachronism in this identifica- 
tion, since (as I am informed on com- 
petent authority) the principle of Bar- 
ker's Mill was known before his time. 
I have not found the word in the 
Mathematici Veteres, where it might 
have been expected to occur. 

The metaphor is extravagant, but 
not otherwise ill-conceived. The 
framework, or crane, is the Cross of 
Christ; the connecting instrument, 
the rope, is the Holy Spirit; the 
motive power, which sets and keeps 
the machinery in motion, is faith ; 
the path (conceived here apparently 

To<p6pos, vdpo<f>6pos, etc. At Ephesus 
itself the saint's imagery would have 
an especially vivid illustration in the 
fact that treasures belonging to the 
temple of Artemis were solemnly 
borne in procession into the city by 
one road and taken back by another 
at stated times, as we learn from a 
recently found inscription : see Wood's 
Discoveries at Ephesus Inscr. vi. i, 
pp. 32, 34, 42 (see above, p. 17 sq). 
A description of such a procession 
in Ephesus at an eTrixwpios eopr?) of 
Artemis is given also in Xenoph. 
Ephes. i. 2, Trapyeo-av de Kara (rri'^oi/ 
ot TrojjiTrevovTes TrpaTOV pev ra tepa Kat 
dades KOL Kava KOL $u/ua/>iara, cVi de 

K.r.X. Accordingly elsewhere 
(<T. /. G. no. 2963 c) we read of oi 

ry /zey- 

['Apre/ujSoff Trpo 7rdX[ea>]s 
[/cat iepjoi/eiKat. Again there is 
a mention in another inscription 
(Wood's Discoveries Inscr. vi. 19, p. 68) 
of a S(nrvo(popiaKT) TTOJJLTTIJ in this same 
city. Again we read of yet another 
Ephesian festival, the xarayeoyta, in 
which persons went along poTraXd re 


ecrre ovv KCLI (Ti/VoSo* Trai/res, 6eo(f)6poi KCLI vao<popoi, 

paraphrased 7r/<rret avayofj,vov$ [g]; ayiayetis [Antioch]; dux \-i', praeparator A. 
2 dpa0^/>oi>(ra] G Antioch; referens L; <u>a> 0e/>oi>cra Dam-Rup; dub. SA; al. g. 
eis] G; et's TOP Antioch; ?rp6s Dam-Rup; TT/J^S rd? [g]. 3 mo0o'/>ot] GLg; 

om. A; paraphrased pads GeoC by Antioch. 

secondary meaning to ayaX/za, 'an 
image' or 'representation' in its 
philosophical sense. From Philo 
the application of dyaX/iaro<pope/ is 
borrowed by the Christian fathers. 
See also Epictet. Diss. ii. 18. 12 sq 
, rdXas, *at dyvocls' 
\eyfiv dpyvpovv nva 17 XP V ~ 
o-ovv e^ndfv ; eV cravTU (pepcis avrov 
/c.r.X. Similarly Clem. Alex. Protr. 
4 (? 53) W^ yap, Wfls ea-fjifv oi rrjv 
fiKova TOV 6eov TTfpKpepovrcs fv rep 
^eoi/ri /cat Kivouftei/o) rovrw dyaX/xari, 

raJ di/^pcuTTO) *c.r.X. See also the note 
on dyiocpopos below. 

crvvodoi] ' 'companions on the way! 
This word occurs several times in 
Epictetus, Diss. ii. 14. 8, in. 21. 5, 
iv. i. 97 (and so it should be writ- 
ten in iii. 13. 13). Similarly trdpodos 
'a wayfarer,' LXX 2 Sam. xii. 4, 
Ezek. xvi. 15, 25; npoodos 'a pre- 
cursor,' Clem. Horn. iii. 58, viii. 2, 
xvi. 18, xx. 13, 14, 18; e(f>o8os 'a 
patrol,' e.g. Polyb. vi. 36. 6. 

6co<p6poi K.r.X.] i.e. 'each carrying 
his God, his shrine, his Christ, his 
holy things.' On this word 6eo(p6pos 
see the note, inscr. above. 

vao(p6poi\ 'shrine bearers? The 
metaphor is taken from the portable 
shrines (containing the image of 
some patron deity), which were 
made either to be carried about in 
processions, or to be purchased by 
pilgrims to any famous sanctuary 
as reminiscences of their visit and 
worn about the person as amulets. 
For the former see e.g. Herod, ii. 
63 ro de ayaXua eov eV 
vXtVa> KaTaKfXpvo-aufva 
ovai K.T.X., Diod. Sic. i. 97 TWV vaatv 

S. Timoth. in Ducange Gloss. Graec. 
p. 607: see Lobeck Aglaoph. p. 177). 
But indeed this was not character- 
istic of one or two special occasions. 
At all the great festivals of Ephesus, 
the Taupeta, in honour of Poseidon, 
the 'A/i/Spoo-ta, in honour of Dionysus, 
etc., the same sight would probably 
be seen. 

Ignatius is not the only writer, to 
whom this characteristic feature of a 
heathen religious ceremonial suggests 
the image in the text: comp. Philo 
Leg. ad Cai. 31 (II. p. 577) eV rats 
\^v^ais dyaX/iaro(popoi)(ri ray ro3i> 
Stare ray p-eVaji/ eiKovas, i.e. they carry 
the commandments in their souls, as 
the pagans bear the images of their 
gods on their shoulders. So again 
de Mitnd. Opif. 23 (I. p. 16) Trpos tva 


6 ev eKaarw [i>o{5s] rooi/ Kara p.epos 

], rpoirov Tiva 6eos a>v TOV 
(pepovros Kai dya\fj,aro(popovvTos 
OVTOV, ib. 47 (I. p. 33) OIKOS yap r) ve<bs 
fepo? fTfKTaivfTo ^vx^s \oyiKrjs f]v 
v ayaX/zaro(pop7;'(reii', dyaX- 
ro tfeoeiSe'oraroi/, and SO fre- 
quently in Philo, who however in 
some passages attaches also a 





6i/TO\a?s 'Irjcrov XpKTTOv* oh Kal 
Si <av <ypa(pa), 


<rvy%aprjvat OTL 

G; et ehristiferi L; om. A [g]; recognized by Antioch, who has 
Oeo(f>6pos yyovv xP i<rro< t>Ps (the whole being transferred into the singular). 
ayio(f)6poi] GLAg; Antioch has ayioSpofios. Kara Travra] GLg; Kal TO. 

iravTa Antioch; et omnino [A]. KKO(T^^voC\ KeKo<rfjUfdj>oi G. fv] 

L; om. G; ev rats [g]; (in) omnibus [A], i d-yaXXiw/tej'oj fjfy&driv'] 

L [g]; dyaXXiufj-cu OTI Tj^iwdrjv G. A begins a new sentence 'exulto quod dignus 
foetus sum loqui vobiscum^ et gaudeo in eo quod scripsi ad vos (thus strangely 

dvaKOfjiiofj,tva>v dp,<porepo)i> cis opos are the divinarum bajuli caeremo- 

K.T.X., XX. 14 fTTffM^aV 6 KOI TOIIS K 

TU>V icpav ^pvo-ovy vaovs roTy d(pidpv- 
pao'i rrpbs rrjv iKeaiav. Of the latter 
the miniature representations of the 
shrine of the Ephesian Artemis fur- 
nish the best illustration, and we 
may suppose that Ignatius had these 
more or less in mind; see Acts 
xix. 24 (with the passages collected by 
commentators). Comp. Amm. Marc. 
xxii. 13 'deae caelestis argenteum 
breve figmentum, quocumque ibat, 
efferre solitus.' See also the con- 
jectural reading of Wordsworth on 
the Scholiast of Aristides, Athens 
and Attica p. 108 IIaAXaiW...ra>j' 
TrtpiavTocpopuv KoXovp-evav. The appli- 
cation of the metaphor is to the body 
of the Christian, as the shrine of 
the Spirit; see below 15 Iva </*/ 
avrov vaoi (with the note). 

i. xP to " ro 0op 01 ] Comp. 2 Cor. iv. 
IO Trai/rore TTJV veKpoxriv rov 'iqtroC eV 
TO) <T(Ofj,ari TrepifpepovTfs, Magn. 1 2 
'lya-ovv yap Xpioroi/ e^ere eV favrols. 
The saint himself is called xprro<o- 
pos in Mart. Ign. Ant. 5. So Phileas 
in Euseb. H. E. viii. 10 ol xpio-rocpo- 
poi paprvpes. Other compounds of 
Xpio-ros in Ignatius are xP ia " ro ! J ' a ^' ia 
Philad. 8, xpivrovopos Rom. inscr. 

ayio(p6poi] l bearers of holy things] 
such as sacred treasures, votive offer- 
ings, and the like, which it was cus- 
tomary to carry in procession. They 

marum, Firmic. Matern. Astron. 
iii. ii. 9. The word occurs again, 
Smyrn. inscr. ; comp. lepocpopos 
C. /. G. 1793 b, Ifpa(p6pos ib. 
2384 b (Appx.). So too the Latin 
'sacra ferre' (e.g. Virg. sn. iii. 19) 
of priests. But see esp. Plut. Mor. 
352 B TOLS d\r)0a>s Kal Si/ccuW iepa- 
(popois <al lepoaroXois Trpcxrayopevo- 
pevois' OVTOI 8e fi<nv ol TOV tepoi/ Xd- rfj fyvxfl <p*P OVTes > <oo"nfp 
iv Kiarrrj, Kal TrepioreXXoi/res (with 
Wyttenbach's note), Virg. Georg. ii. 
476 'Quorum sacra fero ingenti 
percussus amore'; in both which 
passages the image is applied as 

KCKoo-Mpevoi] ' 'adorned, decorated] 
as with festive robes, chaplets, trink- 
ets, and the like ; comp. i Pet. iii. 3 

<OI/ eOTQ) OVX O ^(t)6 

Kal TTCpideo-fcos xP V(T ^ (av 
iuariav Ko<rp.os K.r.X., I Tim. ii. 9 sq 
fzera aldovs Kal (raxppoo-vvrjs Koo-pelv 
favras. ..di epycov ayadav. See Xenoph. 
Ephes. i. 2 <?8ei de Tropircveiv 7rd(ras 
ras 7Tixa>piovs irapOevovs 
pevas TroXvreXws Kal TOVS 
describing a sacred procession at 
Ephesus. Mention is made of certain 
officers as xpvo-o<popoGz/rey in connex- 
ion with these festive processions in 
honour of Artemis; Wood's Dis- 
coveries Inscr. vi. pp. 32, 34 (comp. 
iii. p. 20). This seems to mean 




KCLT dvOpcoTTcov /3iov ovSev dyawaTe, el fjit] JJLOVOV TOV 
5 Oeov. 

X. Kal VTrep TWV d\\a)v Se dvBpwTrwv a&a/VetTTTWs 

deranging the connexion of the words). 4 /car' dvdp^-rruv filov /c.r.X.] 

/car' &\\ov plov /c.r.X. GL; see the lower note. My conjecture is supported by 
the paraphrase in g ov5t Kara <rapKa byaTrare dXXa /cara deov. The text was early 
corrupted, as appears from the confused rendering of A, alium quendam non diligitis 
sed eum qui secundum deum vivit. 6 /cat virp rdv aXXwv 5] GLg ; et pro 

aliis A ; super omnibus S. 2 commences again here and continues as far as dderrjd^. 
GLg ; om. SA. See the lower note. , 

comp. Rom. 8 ovKert $eAo> Kara dv- 
6p(07Tovs ijv, Trail. "2. <paivc(T04 pot 
ov Kara dvdpwrrovs <*>vTS. In this 
case et M will be * but only? In 
other words it will not refer to the 
whole of the foregoing sentence, but 
to ov8fv dyanare alone ; comp. Matt, 
xii. 4, Luke iv. 26, 27, etc., and see 
the note on Gal. i. 19. The com- 
mentators fail to make anything of 
Kar' aXXoi/ /3ioi/. Zahn accepts Mark- 
land's conjecture Ka0' o\ov ftiov, but 
this is a violent change and does not 
yield a very good sense. 

X. 'Pray also for unbelievers. 
There is hope of their repentance. 
Let them learn from your deeds, if 
they will learn from nothing else. 
Requite them with good for evil; 
with meekness for their wrath, with 
humility for their boastfulness, with 
prayers for their revilings, with 
staunchness in the faith for their 
errors, with gentleness for their 
wrath. Show yourselves their bro- 
thers by your conduct. Imitate not 
them but the Lord. Vie with each 
other who shall suffer rather than 
do the most wrong. Let no rank 
weed of the devil spring up in you,; 
but live in chastity and soberness.' 

6. dStaXfiTrrcoy] See I Thess. v. 17, 
where also we have the expression 
d8ia\LTTT(i)s npoa'fv^fo'df ] comp. Her- 
mas Sim. ix. u. The same adverb 
occurs also Rom. i. 9, i Thess. i. 3, 

'decorated with gold ornaments or 
wearing gold embroidery ' ; comp. 
Wesseling on Diod. Sic. iv. 83 xpwo- 
(popclv rfi y A.<ppo8irr]. The fondness 
of the Ephesians for fine dresses 
is commemorated by the Ephesian 
Democritus quoted in Athenaeus xii. 
p. 525; it is rebuked by S. Paul, I 
Tim. ii. 9, 10. The interpretation of 
Hilgenfeld (A. V. p. 250), 'durch die 
Gebote Christi organisirt, geordnet,' 
seems to me quite impossible, whether 
the preposition eV be retained or not. 

2. ols Kal K.r.A.] ' 'wherein also 
rejoicing I was permitted to associate 
with you by letter, and to congratu- 
late you, that ye love nothing after 
the common life of men, but God 
only. 1 The reading dyaXAioj/iei/or 
should probably be adopted on the 
ground of external authority ; and if 
so, ols is more naturally taken as a 
neuter with ayaXXia>/iei/o?. It may 
however be a masculine governed 
by Trpoo-o/LuXf/o-cu and explained after- 
wards by see Winer Gramm. 
-xxii. p. 184 sq. For the whole 
expression comp. Magn. I dya\\ico- 
/ifi/os irpoi\ap.riv fv TriVret 'ijjo-ou 
Xpicrrov TrpocrXaX^o'cu v^iiv' Kara^itodels 
yap K.r.X. ; and for eiioCcr$cu, a cha- 
racteristic expression of Ignatius, the 
note on Magn. 2. 

4. K.OT avdputnvv ftiov} So I have 
ventured to emend^ANcoN for &AXON; 
or perhaps read AN i NON =avdpunivov; 


* ea-Tiv yap [eV] avrots \TTIS 




*lva Oeov 

epycov VJJLIV jULaBrjTevBfjvai. Trpos TS opyas CLVTWV 

Trpaels, TTjOos ras pe'yaXopniJLoa'vvas avrcov iJ/xels 

(>poves, TTjOos Tas /3\aa"(f>riiuLias CIVTCOV i/juels Tas Trpocrev- 5 

i 7r/>o<rei;xe<r0e] Trpo<retx eff 9 ai G. Add. dfcww L; add. / redeant ad deum A; 
txt GSg. &>] GL: om. SAg (MSS, but inserted in 1). i e-rriTptyare 

/c.r.X.j The whole of this passage is loosely translated in S ex operibus vestris magis 
discipuli-fiant ; contra verba eorum dura in humilitate animi placabiles-estote et in 
leniiate; contra blasphemias eorum vos estate precantes ; et contra errorem eorum arme- 
mini in fide ; et contra ferocitatem eorum estate pacifici et tranquilli et ne admiremini 
cos, where however the Avord |1"lD*inn admiremini^ is probably an error of 
transcription for pDnfin imitemini. The Armenian substantially follows the 
Greek. ^Trir^^are] G; monete L; rogate A; tiriffTptyare g; om. S. 

o5v] GLg; om. SA. 8 dd\<poi...ddTridfj] In place of these words 

S has simus autem imitatores domini nostri in humilitate et eius qui magis injurias- 

ii. 13, in connexion with prayer and 
thanksgiving. See also Polyc. i Trpoo- 
fv%als o-^oXa^e ddiaXfiirroif. The 
Syriac and Armenian have simply 
'pray' here and simply 'be constant 
in prayer' in Polyc. I. In the passage 
before us therefore the dSiaXeiWwy 
is highly suspicious, and may easily 
have been inserted from St Paul. 
In Polyc. I it is not quite so clear 
that the word is unrepresented in 
the text of the Syriac translator 
(followed by the Armenian), because 
the Syriac ^SBK'&K' 'be constant' 
might be intended to cover both 
o-^oXa^e and aSmXetWotr. On the 
other hand, supposing that the word 
was in the Greek text used by the 
Syriac translator, he may have re- 
jected it on account of its apparent 

1. ea-Ttv yap K.r.X.] Comp. Herm. 
Sim. viii. 7 Kai en, 0?;o-iV, eariv tv 

avrois fXnls /Lteraj/otas (comp. ib. lo), 
quoted by Zahn. 

2. K.CIV K.T.X.] l at all events from 
your works, if they will not listen to 

your words.' This use of K.UV is 
elliptical for KUV .... na6r)Tcv6a>o-iv : 
comp. Mark vi. 56, Acts v. 15, 2 Cor. 
xi. 1 6, 2 Clem. ii. 7, 18. See Winer 
Gramm. Ixiv. p. 730 (Moulton). 

3. vplv p.a6r)Tvdr)vai\ i to be your 
disciples] l to go to school to you'; 
a legitimate and not uncommon 
construction with fj.a0rjTVfiv (-ea-dai), 
e.g. Plut. Mor. 832 B naOrjrcvo-as ro> 
Trarpi, r\v yap oro^tor^y, <B Kal 
fiiddrjv (frao"lv ?ri TraTSa oi/ra 
ib. 837 C, 840 F, Orig. c. Cels. iii. 29 
ai...Xpicnra> /ia^reufleiorai fatXifcrtaCj 
Euseb. H. E. V. 13 nadrjrevBels eVt 
'P(oiJ.r]S) (os avrbs Icrropet, Tariai/co 
(speaking of Rhodon), V. C. iii. 47 
ro> Koii/o) (TtoTTJpi fj.(fji,a0T)Tevcrdai. On 
this verb see the note Rom. 3. 

irpbs ras opyas K.r.X.] See Matt, 
v. 44, Luke vi. 27, 28, Rom. xii. 
14 sq. Comp. also i Pet. ii. 21, 22, 
where our Lord's example is dwelt 
upon as here. 

5. (3\ao-<pr)nias~\ Not 'blasphemies] 
but l slanderings] l railings^ \ comp. 
Luke 1. C. Trpocrfv^fcrdf vnep TWV TTTJ- 



TH ni'crei, 

TO aypiov CLVTWV 


avrovs. dSe\(f)oi avrtov evpedco/uev Tt 
l $e TOV Kvpiov 
10 7r\eov ddiKrjBy, r/s aTroa-Teprjdrj , T/S d 


y* *iva JJLYI TOV 

patietur et opprimetur et defraudabitur. After a0eTi}0y it omits everything till the 
last sentence of 14 ov [701/3 vvv] tTrayye\las /c.r.X. The corresponding words in 
A are sed (in) mansuetudine state et similes del studeamus fieri, the sentence rls 
Tr\toi>...ddT'r)di being omitted. The Syriac Version (S) was probably corrupted 
at an early date, and hence the aberrations of ZA. cvpedw/JAv] So 

G. Dressel prints evptjOu/mev (after other editors) and does not notice any variation 
from his text in G. g TOV Kvpiov] GS ; rbv Kupiov g (with a different con- 

struction); dei LA (comp. i). 10 d8iicr)d'fi...diroaTpT]drj... aOeTijdfj] 

d8ucr)del. . . dirocrTepydei:. . . aOeTijdet G ; injustum patiatur . . . fraudetur . . . contemnatur 
L; def. A. The construction is changed in [g], but the words d8uct]0ds, airoffre- 
pridri, dderiidr) appear. The rendering of S (see above) points to the reading 
adopted in the text. 

Christ, not of them.' The word 
fmctKcta, as denoting the spirit of 
concession and forbearance, which 
contrasts with strict justice, strict 
retaliation, is highly appropriate here ; 
see the notes on Phil. iv. 5, Clem. 
Rom. 59 (p. 284). It was moreover 
especially characteristic of Christ 
(2 Cor. x. i), whose example is en- 
forced here. 

9. ris K.T.X.] This describes the 
proper aim of their rivalry. They 
should try to imitate Christ and 
show * who can suffer more wrong 
than his neighbour.' The words are 
dependent on fuftujrui ; comp. 19 
rapaxq . . .TroOtv K. r.X. For the con- 
junctive in indirect questions, see 
Kiihner 394 (II. p. 187). It is 
unnecessary to emend the sentence 
ris TrXfov ijdiK^dr) K.r.X. (Markland), 
or Tis ir\fov ddiKTjdfis (Hefele), or ov 
TIS ir\eov d8iKr]df} (Pearson), or KO.V ns 
nXcov d8iKT]6f) (Dressel). The whole 
passage is a reminiscence of i Cor. 
vi. 7 8tari ov^i fjLaXXov aiKeur$e 5 dtarL 
; K.T.\. 

upas. For this mean- 
ing of /3Xao-0i7/iia, which indeed is 
more common than the other in 
the N.T., see the note on Col. iii. 8. 

ras Trpoo-eu^as] The interpolator 
has supplied this ellipsis by di/nra- 
are; the Syriac translator has ren- 
dered it by a verb 'be ye praying.' 
For the elliptical sentence, which is 
much more forcible, see Winer Ixiv. 
P- 734 sq, A. Buttmann p. 337 sq. 

6. fdpaloi rfj TTtorei] Comp. Col. i. 
23 ci yc fTTifievcre rfj TTI'OTI T0e/nf- 
Xico/iei/ot /cat edpaioi K.T. X. (comp. 
i Cor. xv. 58), Polyc. Phil. 10 ' firmi 
in fide et immutabiles.' So too 
Smyrn. 13 edpaa-Bai Triarei. 

8. dvTifjup,ij(ra<r6ai] ' requite them 
by imitating their conduct to you] 
i.e. ' retaliate] a rare word. It oc- 
curs Appian Bell. Civ. v. 41 ; comp. 
duriplfUfmS) Thuc. vii. 67. 

d8f\(po\ avratv K.r.X.] i.e. 'The 
right way of showing our brother- 
hood with them is not by imitating 
their conduct, but by evincing our 
regard. Our imitation must be of 



TJS i 



dyveia Kal (rcofypcxrvvri //eVere iv Xpicrrw 'Iti&ov <rapKi- 


Kaipoi. \OLTTOV 

9 (f)o/3rj- 

i /i&ere] G; maneatis L; ut stetis A; as if they had read /i&Tjre, which is 
perhaps correct; al. g. Xpwry 'IT/CTOU A [g]; Irjaov X/HO-TV GL. 

4 "Eo-xaroi Kaipoi. \onrbi> K.T.\.] So it seems to be taken in Dam-Rup 4 &TXCITOI 
Acatpot, ade\<f>oL, \onrbi> alff^wdui^v, and this is apparently the connexion intended 
in L extrema tempora de cetera etc. In g XotTroj/ is connected with what precedes 
tffxaroi Kaipoi \oiir6v etVtv; in A it is omitted. In G there is no stop till after 
a.l<rxyvdu>v.ev. See the lower note. (po^e^fv] Gg Dam-Rup ; et timeamus L; 

om. A. 5 IVa] GL; om. Dam-Rup ; al. g. THJUV ej Kpt/m] G (/cpt/ua) L ; 

weed! Though the 
word is quite neutral in itself and is 
often used in a good sense (e.g. Heb. 
vi. 7), yet it has a tendency to take a 
bad meaning, *a rank or noxious 
herb,' ' a weed'; e.g. Hermas Sim. v. 2 
fldfv TOV dfnreXwva fSoravwv TrXijprj ov- 
Ta...Kai itcuras ras fioravas rag ov(ras 
fv rw a/iTreAdm e^eTtXXei' K.r.X., ib. ix. 
26 coy yap afj,nc\os...V7ro ra>v (Boravwv 
epj^/ioCrai K.T.\. ; comp. Clem. Horn. 
xix. 15, 2O, Pordvai fav&rifMM, Ka/cat, 
Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 7 (p. 770) 
ayptai /3ora/at. Hence /3orai/i'^6ii/ ' to 

weed,' e.g. Theophrast. C P. iii. 20. 
9. This sense it gets, because its 
leading idea is the absence of culture. 
On the other hand Xa^ai/a is used 
jnore especially for 'garden herbs,' 
1 vegetables.' Accordingly /3ora^, as 
a metaphor, is especially applied, as 
here, to vice or to heresy ; comp. 
Trail. 6, Philad. 3. It is opposed to 
the planting, the </>urfi'a TOV 7rarp6s 
(Trail. 11, Philad. 3). It is the rank 
growth which springs up of itself in 
the soil of man's unregenerate na- 
ture ; or it is the malicious sowing 
of the devil, as here, where there is 
probably a reference to the parable 
in Matt. xiii. 25. 

2. ayvfia Kal (raxfrpoavvfl] The same 
combination is found in Clem. Rom. 

58 (see the note p. 169). 

.X.] Comp. 2 Cor. vii. I 
eavrovs OTTO Travros po- 
aapKos Ka\ nvcvfj-aros* This 
conjunction of 'flesh and spirit,' as 
comprehending the whole nature of 
man, is very common in Ignatius ; 
Magn. i, 13, Trail, inscr., 12, Rom. 
inscr^Smyrn. i, 12, 13, Polyc. i, 5. 
But see esp. Polyc. 2 dta TOVTO a-ap- 
KIKOS fl Kal irvcvpariKos K.r.X. In one 
place only there is a triple division 
Philad. 1 1 trapKi, ^v^,^, irvcv^ari. See 
also the note on 7, above. 

XI. ' The end of all things is at 
hand. Let us therefore stand in awe 
of the judgment, or, if we do not 
fear the coming wrath, let us value 
the present grace. From the one 
motive or the other may we be found 
in Jesus Christ. In Him I wear these 
bonds ; these jewels in which I hope 
also to be decorated at the resurrec- 
tion through your prayers. This is 
my hope ; that I may be united in one 
destiny with the glorious Church of 
Ephesus, which was ever a devoted 
follower of the Apostles.' 

4. fcr^aroi Kaipoi] See I John ii. 
1 8 fo~xa.TT) wpa CCTTIV, and esp. i Cor. 
vii. 29 6 Kaipos o-W(o-Ta\fj,evos ecrrlv TO 
\oinov Iva K.r.X. So also Magn. 6 ev 
rc'Xet c(j)dvT). 



TOV QeoVy 'iva 



es Kp/ma 

fj yap TY\V jJL\\ovarav opyriv (po/Srjdwimev fj 

V-ovov ev 

p 'Itjcrov eupeBrjvai ets TO d\r]6ivov ^fjv. X W P^ 
TOVTOV jmrjSev vfuuv TrpeTreTtt), ev u> TO. Seoyza TrepKbepco, 

ei's Kpl/j-a T)fuv Dam-Rup; judicium A; al. g. 7 x&P iV ] GLA 

Dam-Rup; x a pw g* (MSS, but 1 has gratiam}. v TWV Svo] GL; tv r< vvv 

/Si'y g Dam-Rup. Something like this may have been the reading of A which trans- 
lates TT)v tve<TTu><ra.v x&pw K.r.\.gratiam qnam halemus in hoc mundo', unless indeed 
in hoc mundo represents tveoTwav, but if so v rwv dto is omitted. Perhaps v TWV 
Svo was first corrupted into eV rep vvv, and fily added afterwards as a gloss; see the 
lower note. 8 edpe0Qroi] G, and so too g (but inserting words &TTCO fit /c.r.X. 

to help out the construction) ; invenitur L* ; eipedufiev Dam-Rup ; inveniamur A. 
a\r}6ivov] GLA; dX^^ws [g]. 9 tv y] Lg; cujus causa A; ev r$ G. 

'for what remains? and so 
' henceforth? \ comp. Smyrn. 9 (v\o- 
yov ecrnv \onrbv avavrj^ai. For the 
occurrence of Xourov or TO \onrov at 
the beginning of the sentence see 
2 Cor. xiii. n, Phil. iii. i, iv. 8, 
2 Thess. iii. i, 2 Tim. iv. 8, Clem. 
Rom. 58 ; and it should probably be 
taken with what follows in i Cor. 1. c. 
So too I have punctuated it here, as 
this is by far the most usual position 
of AotTToi/ and the most forcible in 
this place. 

5. Kpi'/za] For the accent of this 
word, see the note on Gal. v. 10. 
The Greek MS however accentuates 
it Kplpa here. 

6. yevrjTai] l it turn? SC. 17 paKpo- 
dviiia TOV GeoO. 

7. ev TO>V dvo] See Phil. iii. 13 
tv 5e, ra /xeV 6ViVa> K.r.X. ; compare 
the classical use of bvoiv tidrepov, and 
for examples of similar constructions 
see Kiihner II. p. 244 sq, Winer 
Ixvi. p. 774. See also Magn. i TO 
8e KvpimTcpov, Magn. 3 TO 8e TOIOVTOV. 
The reading eV TO> vvv /3i'o> is shown 
from the authorities to have been as 
early as the 4th century, but cannot 
be correct. 

fjLOVOV K.T.X.] i. C. fJLOVOV 

Hcv wore] fvpcdrjvai. For similar 
elliptical uses of the infinitive see 
Kiihner 11. p. 590. There is a ten- 
dency to ellipsis with povov : comp. 
Rom. 5 fiovov iva 'irja-ov Xpia-Tov eVt- 
), Smyrn. 4 p-ovov fv T<U ovofiaTi 
XpioToG AC.T.X., and see the note 
on Gal. ii. 10. 

8- C*l v ] ( life ' 5 the infinitive being 
treated as a substantive, as above, 
3, and below, 17, Magn. i, 5. This 
veiy phrase TO a\rj6ivov fjv occurs in 
Trail. 9, Smyrn. 4. 

9. TOVTOV] i.e. 'irjcrov XpioroC. 7rp67rVo>] l glitter in your 
eyes? i. e. ' have any attraction for 
you'; as e.g. Find. Pyth. x. 105 
de KOI xpv&bs cv ftacrdvcp 
KOI voos opdos. The word is 
thus a preparation for the imagery of 
* the spiritual pearls ' which follows. 
Ignatius would say 'Do not value 
any decoration apart from Christ.' 

nfpi<pepa>] He uses the same word 
of his bonds again. Magn. i, Trail. 
12. It suggests the idea of ostenta- 
tion. He is proud of this decora- 
tion, with which his Sovereign has 
invested him. On the prominent 




fa <yevoiTO JULOL del 


TOI)S TTvev/mctTiKOvs fj.ap<yap'iTas ev oh ryevoiTO JULOL dva- 

a-Trjvai Trj Trpocrevxfi 

elvai, I'va ev K\qp(t) ' G(peoria)v evpe6co 

Kcti TO?? dTTO&ToXois 7rdvTOTe <T\)VY\vG'av ev 

'lrj(rov XpicTTOV. 5 

3 ev] Lg ; hi G ; al. A ; see Ephes. 20 for a similar confusion of ev, evl, in G. 
4 <rvvr)ve<Tav\ GL; crvvfjcrav gA. The testimony of A shows that the corruption 
(if it be such) was very early. 8 irdpodos c<rre] GL; irapaSodels ye 

place given to his 'bonds' by Igna- 
tius, as by S. Paul, see the notes on 
3, above, Magn. i. 


Horn. xiii. 16 Tipiovs wpyapiras 
Ketrat, TOVS <j-(i)<f>povLovTas \oyovs. See 
also a similar image in Polyc. Phil. 
i, where, referring apparently to Ig- 
natius and his companions, he says, 
TOVS evfi\r]p.evovs rols ayionpfTreo't Setr- 
pols, ariva, fcrnv biabrniara TWV aXrj- 

8(0$ V7TO 06OU KOI TOV KuptOK Tj^WV 

cK\e\eyiJ.V(ov. So too in the Epistle 
of the Gallican Churches, Euseb. 
H. E. V. I (Bare KOI ra Sf(r/xa 
avroiy, cos 

) Cyprian. Epist. 76 (p. 
829, H artel) ' ornamenta sunt ista, 
non vincula, nee Christianorum pe- 
des ad infamiam copulant sed clari- 
ficant ad coronam,' Victor Vit. de 
Pers. Vand. Hi. ad fin. 'rigentium 
pondera catenarum quasi quaedam 
monilia pervidebat, quia non fuerunt 
ilia vincula, sed potius ornamenta ' ; 
see Cotelier ad loc., Pearson V. I. p. 
588, and comp. Magn. i (note). 

dvao-Trjvai] He can hardly mean 
that he desired literally to rise in his 
chains ; but that he hoped through 
the prayers of the Ephesians to re- 
main steadfast to the end, and so to 
appear at the resurrection invested 
with the glory of discipline and suf- 
fering, of which his chains were the 
instrument and the symbol. For 

other references to his condition at 
the resurrection see Rom. 4, Polyc. 7 
(v. L). 

3. cv K\rtp(o] Comp. Philad. 5 
Iva ev co K\ijpcd rjhfr/Qrjv eVtru^o), Ep. 
Vienn. 7 in Euseb. H. E. v. i [eV] 
rw K\ijpcj) ra>i> /iaprupcoi/ 7rpocrT0T]. 
Voss, followed by some later editors, 
reads eVi (for V), but this poetic form 
would hardly be possible in a writer 
like Ignatius. 

4. rols aTTooroXotff] S. Paul and 
S. John primarily, for these resided 
and taught at Ephesus ; possibly S. 
Peter as well, for he corresponded 
with the Churches of Asia Minor, if 
he did not visit them (i Pet. i. i); 
perhaps also S. Andrew and S. Philip, 
whom early tradition represents as 
living in these parts ; see Colossians 
p. 44 sq. The interpolator names 
Paul, John, and Timothy; but Timo- 
thy was not an Apostle: see Gala- 
tians p. 96. 

o-vvyvecrav] I have, with some hesi- 
tation, preferred this reading to awij- 
<rai>, only because letters were more 
likely to have dropped out than to 
have been inserted. 

XII. 'I know that it ill becomes 
me to address such exhortations to 
you. I am only a weak criminal, 
while ye have obtained mercy and 
are strong in the faith. Ye have ever 
escorted the martyrs on their way to 
death. Ye were fellow-students of 
the mysteries with Paul the blessed, 



XII. OlSa TIS eifjii Kai TI(TLV ypdipM. eyco Kara- 
i/^uel? n\tipevor eyw VTTO KivSwov, 

Trdpofios ecrre TWV ek Oeov 
FlavXov (rv/ULjULvo'Tai TOV riyiao'fJievoVy TOV 

g* (MSS). The reading TrdpoSos underlies the rendering in A ad vos viatorts 
qui propter deum martyres-fiunt. 9 ^ytew/t&ov] So G; not ayta<rp,frov 

as stated in Dressel. 

in whose footsteps T would fain 
tread, and who makes mention of 
you in all his letters.' 

6. eyo> K.r.X.] See a similar pas- 
sage in Rom. 4 Ovx &s Ticrpos KOI 
IlavXos 8iardo-(rop,ai,' (Kflvoi 
aTToaroXot, eyco KaraKpiTos K.r.X., and 
comp. Trail. 3 Iva a>v Kuraxpiros 
6>r aTTocTToXos 8mra<rcra>/iai. In 
all these passages his civil status, 
as KaraKpiTos, is an emblem of his 
spiritual status : ' I am under sen- 
tence of condemnation ; while ye 
have obtained mercy and are par- 

7. I^TTO Kivdvvov] Comp. Trail. 
13 CTI yap viro KivSvvov tp.i. He 
alludes to the danger of his flinching 
before the terrors of death, or other- 
wise yielding to the allurements of 
the world. 

8. TrapoSos e'o-rf] l ye are a way of 
transit? They had escorted S. Paul 
first, and now they were escorting 
Ignatius on his way to martyrdom. 
Their spiritual position, he seems 
to say, corresponds to their geogra- 
phical position. As they conducted 
the martyrs on their way in the 
body, so they animated their souls 
with fresh strength and courage. 
The reference to S. Paul will hardly 
be satisfied by the interview with the 
Ephesian elders in Acts xx. 17 sq, 
for he was not then on his way to 
death, if (as is most probable) he was 
liberated from his first captivity : but 
the notices in the Pastoral Epistles 
show that he was again at Ephesus 

shortly before his final trial and mar- 
tyrdom (i Tim. i. 3, 2 Tim. i. 18). 
Probably Ignatius was thinking of 
other martyrs also of whom we know 
nothing. See e.g. Polyc. Phil, i TrpoTTfp.^fao-iv . . . rovs 
rols ayioTrpfTTccrt 8c(rp.ols 
K.r.X., and ib. 9 acrieelv Tracrav vrrop-ov^v 
rfv KOI etdere KOT 6(p6a\p.ovs y ov p.6vov 
ev rols p.aKapiois 'lyvarito KOI Zoxri'/io) 
Kal 'Povcpa* K.r.X. 

reoi/ els Qebv K.r.X.] ' who are slain 
unto God* a condensed expression 
for 'who are put to death and thus 
conducted to God'; comp. i SeSe- 
ptvov OTTO Svpias (with the note). The 
word avaipovp.vo>v is a Trapa irpocrSo- 
Kiav, where we should look for some 
such expression as irpo7rfp.nop.cvwv. 

9. Elav'Xov a-vp.p.v(rrai] i. e. ' fellow- 
recipients, fellow - students, of the 
mysteries, with Paul.' For the word 
see Orig. in fes. Naue Horn. 7 
(II. p. 413) ' Paulum nobis commu- 
niter adhibeamus magistrum ; ipse 
enim est symmystes Christi,' Hippol. 
in Daniel, p. 174 (Lagarde) ws crv/i- 
HIHTTCLI KOI 6eoo~^els avdpes (i.e. CO- 
religionists), Constantine in Theodt. 
H.E. i. 19 6 rfjs TvpavviKfjs (op.6rr]Tos 
o-vp.p.v(TT7)s. This was signally true 
of the Ephesians, among whom 
S. Paul resided for an exceptionally 
long time (Acts xix. 10 sq, xx. 31), 
with whom he was on terms of the 
most affectionate intimacy (Acts xx. 
1 8 sq, 36), and who were the chief, 
though probably not the sole, recipi- 
ents of the most profound of all his 


, dftOficucapltrTOV) ov yevoiTo JULOL VTTO TO. 

epistles. The propriety of the lan- 
guage here is still further enhanced 
by the fact that S. Paul, in the 
Epistle to the Ephesians more es- 
pecially, dwells on the Gospel dis- 
pensation as fj.v(TTi]piov (i. 9, iii. 3, 4, 
9, v. 32, vi. 19). Elsewhere (Phil. iv. 
12) he speaks of himself as ^c^vrj- 
pevos. In later ecclesiastical lan- 
guage the words fjLva-rijpiov, HVO-TTJS, 
HVCTTIKOS, a/ivoroj, a/xur/ro?, etc., were 
used with especial reference to the 
sacraments, more particularly to the 
eucharist (Bingham Christ. Ant. I. 
iv. 2). But there is no trace of this 
meaning in Ignatius, who still uses 
these terms, as they are used by 
S. Paul, of the doctrines and lessons 
of Christianity. For the force and 
significance of this use in the Apo- 
stle, see the notes on Col. i. 26. 

If it be asked why S. John also 
is not mentioned here, the answer is 
simple. Ignatius is speaking of the 
relations of the Ephesians with 
martyrs (r<3i/ els Qeov dvaipov/zez/eov) ; 
but S. John died peaceably in extreme 
old age at Ephesus. He is doubtless 
included in the 7rooroXoi mentioned 
before; but here there is no place 
for him. It should be added also, 
that the life of S. Paul had a peculiar 
attraction for Ignatius, owing to the 
similarity of their outward circum- 
stances. He too, like Paul, had been 
an exrpGjjia ; he too, like Paul, was 
journeying from Asia to Rome, 
there to win the crown of martyrdom. 
If Ignatius shows a full knowledge 
and appreciation of the teaching of 
S. John, his heart clings to the ex- 
ample of S. Paul. 

TOV /ze/zaprvpTjjwe'i/ou] ' attested] and 
hence ' approved] l of good report ' ; 
as e.g. Acts vi. 3, x. 22, xvi. 2, xxii. 
5, i Tim. v. 10. So Clem. Rom. 47 
p,(fiapTvprjfj.fvois ; see also 

Clem. Rom. 17 (note), 18, 19, 44, and 
Philad. 5, n. It must not however 
be confined to the opinion of the 
Church, but will refer rather to the 
testimony of God as given in S. 
Paul's own life and work : comp. 
Heb. xi. 2, 4, 5, 39 naprvprjOevrfs 8ia 
rfjs 7ri<rra>s. Thus indirectly it may 
refer to his martyrdom ; because this 
is God's chief act of attestation. But 
the Anglo-Latin translator is wrong 
in rendering it martyrizati, i.e. ' put 
to death as a martyr ' ; because the 
passive is not used in this sense 
even in very late Greek. 'To be 
a martyr' is not /xaprvpeTo-0cu, but 
fiaprvpf'iv ' to bear testimony.' Even 
in Latin the passive martyrizari 
is a solecism, though a common 
one ; and martyrizare is the more 
correct word. On the use of these 
words, paprvs, napTvpetv, etc., as re- 
ferring especially to the testimony 
borne by the death of the witness, 
see the note on Clem. Rom. 5. 

i. aiofia/tapiVrov] See the note on 
this word above, inscr. 

VTTO TO. ix 1 "?] Comp. i Pet. ii. 21, 
and esp. Mart. Polyc. 22 IIoXvKapTros 
ov yevoiro cv TTJ /3a(rtXeia 'irjo-ov Xptorov 
irpos ra 1\vr\ fvpfdfjvai IJ/JLUS. In the 
Mart. Ignat. Ant. 5 it is related 
that the saint on his journey to 
Rome desired to follow in the A- 
postle's foot-prints, not only figura- 
tively, but literally also, KCLT ?x vos 
fBa8ieiv e6e\a>v rov drroa-roKov IlavXov; 
but adverse winds prevented him 
from landing at Puteoli and so enter- 
ing Rome by the Appian Way as 
S. Paul had done. 'YTTO ra i^mj here 
stands for the more usual Kara ra 
1\vr] or ev rois 1xvf<riv. With the accu- 
sative VTTO often signifies 'close to,' 
e.g. Thuc. V. IO VTTO ras Tru'Aar, 
Soph. El. 720 I/TT' avrr/v O")(a.rrjv 
crrr)\rjv (see the note on vnfvavrios, 



evpeOfjvcu, OTOLV Oeov eTriTv^w os eV Trdorri e7ricrTO\rj 
jun/rj/uLoi/evei vfjia)i> eV XpicrTO) 'Irjcrov. 

3 fj,vrjfjt.ovVi] GLg; 

Col. ii. 14); but the instances are 
very rare in which, as here, its local 
meaning is preserved while yet the 
idea of subjacence has altogether 
disappeared ; comp. Plut. Vit. Pelop. 

1 6 fllKpOV df VTTO TO. \rj V(OS CVTIV 

'ArroXXwi/oy. It almost universally 
refers to objects which are more or 
less raised. Comp. Ov. Met. iii. 17 
' .rasequitur pressoque legit vestigia 
gressu.' The Armenian translates 
inrb ra i^vr) ' under his footstool.' 

2. 0eoO eVtriJ^o)] A phrase used 
especially of his martyrdom ; see the 
note cmMagn. i. 

v irdo-Tf cTTtoroXjp] l in every epis- 
tle? Besides the epistle which 
bears their name, S. Paul refers to 
Ephesus and the Ephesian Chris- 
tians, either alone or with others, 
in Romans (xvi. 5), i Corinthians 
(xv. 32, xvi. 8, 19), 2 Corinthians 
(i. 8 sq), and the two Epistles to 
Timothy. These references would 
be quite sufficient to explain the 
hyperbole in the text ; comp. e. g. 
I Thess. i. 8 tv iravr\ TOTTW, Col. i. 23 
tv Trda-Tj KTiVei rfj vno TOV ovpavov. 
But, as Ignatius must have been 
born before the Apostle's death, it 
is not improbable that he had oral 
information respecting the Apostle's 
relations to the Ephesian Church, 
which has not come down to us and 
by which his language here is colour- 
ed. Others would translate tv irdo-r) 
eViaroXfl 'throughout his letter,' 
supposing him to refer to the 
'Epistle to the Ephesians'; e.g. 
Pearson V. I. p. 487 sq, and ad loc. 
But for the omission of the definite 
article with nas in this sense no 
example has been produced which 
is analogous. The instances alleged 


are either proper names, as Matt. ii. 3 
iraaa 'lepocroXvp-a, Rom. xi. 26 Tray 
'la-paijX (quoted by Hefele) ; or they 
are highly poetical passages, as Eurip. 
Med. 114 iras 86^05 eppoi (quoted by 
Jacobson) ; or they are false readings, 
as Ephes. 5 KOI Traa-rjs fcffXjprfas (quoted 
by Pearson V. /. p. 488, who has taken 
the incorrect text of Voss, the MS 
having KOI Trdcrrjs rfjs fKK\r)(rias}', or 
they are misinterpreted, as 2 Tim. 
iii. 1 6 Trao-a ypcupj (quoted also by 
Pearson V. L I.e. and wrongly ex- 
plained ' tota scriptura'); or they 
illustrate wholly different uses of 
Tray, as Soph. Aj. 275 Kclvos re \vjrrj 
nas eXijXarat KCLKJJ (again quoted by 
Pearson, 1. c.) ; or they are false 
Latin analogies, as e.g. Cicero's 
' omne corpus ' which might stand 
quite as well for irav TO aco/za as for 
nav tr<5/za, and which therefore fails 
in the main point (quoted also by 
Pearson, 1. c.). It is strange that 
no one has adduced Ephes. ii. 21 
where Trao-a oiKoSo/x7 is the best sup- 
ported reading ; but even though 
this reading be accepted, the context 
(esp. o-woiKoSopflo-dt) shows that 
many oi<o8o/*ai are required to make 
up the one temple (comp. Matt. xxiv. 
i, Mark xiii. i, 2), and that therefore 
' every building ' is the right render- 

3. fj.vr]p.ovevt] l makes mention? 
This would be singularly unmeaning, 
if not untrue, supposing the reference 
to be to the Epistle to the Ephesians. 
Hence Valois and others would im- 
port into the word more than it 
contains, * vos cum laude memorat.' 
The interpolator has changed what 
seemed to him a very awkward ex- 
pression, and substitutes os 





XII T. CTTOvSd^ere ovv TrvKVOTepov crvj/ep^ea'dai ek 
pKTTLav Qeov Kat ets Soai/' OTCLV yap TTVKVWS CTTI 
TO avTO ryivecrOe, KaBaipovvTai al Swa/meis TOV Ca-rava, 
Kai XveTai 6 o\e6pos avTOv ev TY\ ojuovoia VJULCOV Trjs 
ov^ev <TTIV AfJttvov eiptivrjs, ev r\ Tras TroAe/xos 5 
eTrovpaviwv KCCI 

2 0eoO] here, GLg (MSS, but 1 has ad eucharistiam et gloriam dei); after dot-ay 
[SJ; om. A. ets 86av] GLSjA; 86%ai> (om. els) g. TTVKVUS] G Dam- 

Rup 4: crcbro L; vvvexus g; al. A. 3 7^e(r0e] G Dam-Rup; convenitis 

L ; ytv-rjffde (v. 1. ytvrjaOe) g. Kadatpovvrai at Sym/zets] Gg ; Kadaipovvrai 

dvvd/jieis Dam-Rup; destruuntur potentiae L; diruiliir vis Sjj inftrmatUT vis A. 
4 /cat] GLA; om. Dam-Rup; al. g. 6] G; om. Dam-Rup; al. g. 6\edpo$ 

avrov] GL Dam-Rup; airrou...6Xe0/)os [g]; S x has COi^MOr^ imperium ej'us, but 
this is probably a corruption of coi.iar^ exitium ejus. The rendering of A 
shows another corruption, memoria ffM.f = crHV^O.l. 5 ovS^v] GLS 4 Ag 

ev rats 8f?7(r(rti/ 
An anonymous critic (see Lardner 
Credibility Pt. ii. c. 5) conjectured 
p.vr)fj,ovev(i) ; and this is now found to 
be the reading of the Armenian 
Version. This would be true to 
fact, for Ignatius does mention the 
Ephesians in five of the six remain- 
ing epistles, Magn. 15, Trail. 13, 
Rom. TO, Philad. 11, Srnyrn. 12. 
But the parallelism of the clauses, 
as well as the general tenour of 
sentence, shows that S. Paul, not 
Ignatius, is the subject here. 

XIII. ' Gather yourselves together 
more frequently for eucharistic praise. 
By your frequent gatherings the 
powers of Satan are frustrated. The 
concord of your faith is their ruin. 
Nothing is better than peace, which 
vanquishes the antagonism of all 
enemies, spiritual and carnal.' 

I. irvKvorepov] As Polyc. 4 TTVKVOTC pov 
crvvay(>ya\ yii/e'o-$o)o-ai',[Clem. Rom.Jii. 

17 TTVKVOTfpOV TVpO(Tp\O}JiVOt TTflpto/JLfQa 
TTpOKOTTTflV K.T.A., Doctr. ApOSt. 1 6 7TVK- 

vws de a-wa^fl^ae crde ; see also Magn. 
4 Sta TO pi) /3f/3at<y /car' eVroXiyi/ (rvva- 

(with the note). Compare 
for similar injunctions in early times, 
Heb. x. 25 p.rj eyKaToKfiTTOVTes rrfv 
Barnab. 4 eVi 
vvfyrelrf K.T.\., 
Clem. Horn. iii. 69 71770 5e TTCLVTUV, el 

The meaning 
is not * in larger numbers,' as it is 
taken by some (e.g. Pearson, here and 
on Polyc. I.e.; Zahn /. v. A. p. 345, 
and ad loc.}, but ' more frequently,' 
which sense is demanded alike by 
the passage Polyc. I.e. and by the 
common usage of the adverb in later 
Greek (e. g. Acts xxiv. 26). The 
former rendering would have been 
more correct, if the reading had been 

2. fv^apio-Ttai/] * thanksgiving? The 

word is quite general in itself, but 
doubtless refers indirectly to the 
Holy Communion, which was the 
chief eOxapto-Ti'a o f the Church, and 
which elsewhere Ignatius regards as 
the special bond of union ; Philad. 4 
(see the note there). The genitive 
Ofov must be supplied also with 86gav. 



6 7 

XIV. '(A)V ovSev \avQdvei v/mas, eav reAe/ws 

'Irjcrovv XpicrTOV e'^re TY\V TTLCTTIV Kai TY\V dyaTrrjv 

eoTTiv dp-^ri 0*775 Kai TeAos* dp%ri fjiev 7ri(TTis, TeAos Se 

10 dyaTrrj' TO. Se Si/o ev evorrjTi yevo/uieva 0eos ecrTiVy ra 

(but 1 adds enim) [Dam-Vat i] [Dam-Rup 2] [Anton 2]; add. yap S^ 
TroXe/aos] Gg Dam- Vat Dam-Rup ; Tras 6 TroXe^os Anton ; dub. LS^A 
6 KarapyeiTai] g Dam- Vat Dam-Rup; /cara/ryeire G; evacuatur L; 
Anton; impediuntur A ; frustrantur S 1 S 4 . 7 reXetws] GLS 4 Ag; om. Dam- 

Rup 6. et's] GLg Dam-Rup; om. S 4 A. 8 'Ii^ow XptoTdj/] GLS 4 [A] ; 

Xpivrbv itjcrovv Dam-Rup; xpicrroi' [g]. ^'rts &rTh/] GS 4 g Dam-Rup; quae sunt 

L; jwz/ A (om. ^Vts). 9 fays] GLg Dam-Rup; al. S 4 ; om. A. 7r/<ms 

...(170^7;] Gg; i] Trl(ms...Ti dyaTTtj Dam-Rup. 10 yevo/meva] Gg; yiv6fj.eva Dam- 

Rup. Geo's ^(trti'] LS 4 A Dam-Rup; 0eou ^<rrti' G ; 6eov avdpuirov diroTeXei g. 

3. Ka0atpovj/Tai...Avrat] See 19, 
where the words are similarly con- 

ai 8vaneis] i.e. 'the hosts, the forces 
of Satan] whether they are evil an- 
gels (fTTovpdvioi) or wicked men (eVt- 

4. o o\0pos avroG] i. e. ' the de- 
struction which he is preparing for 

5. Tras Tj-oAf/ior K.T.A.] i.e. ' every 
antagonism which wars against the 
Church.' It is not the war between 
the powers of heaven and the powers 
of earth, but the war of his spiritual 
(fnovpavioi) and his carnal (eVi-yftoi) 
enemies alike against the Christian, 
of which Ignatius speaks. For eVou- 
pdvioi, as applied to the powers of 
evil, comp. Ephes. vi. 12 Trpbs TOVS 
KoapoKpaTOpas rov (TKOTOVS TOVTOV, Trpbs 
ra TTvevfiaTiKa TTJS irovrjpias V rols 
7rovpaviois, a passage which the 
interpolator has introduced into his 
text here. 

XIV. 'All these warnings will be 
needless, if you abide in faith and 
love. Faith is the beginning of life, 
and love is the end. Where these 
two coexist, there is God. Faith 
cannot err, and love cannot hate. 
The tree is known by its fruits : pro- 
fession is tested by practice. The 

work to which we are called consists 
not in empty profession, but in an 
effective and abiding faith.' 

7. ovdv \ai>6dvfi] Comp. Polyc. 
Phil. 12 'nihil vos latet.' 

8. TJTIS ca-Tiv] An irregularity of 
construction for aiTives eiViv. This 
leaves an ambiguity, which is cleared 
up by the explanatory clause dpx^ 
fjicv K.T.A. 

9. dpxfj (<>>f)s K.T.X.] See Clem. 
Alex. Strom, vii. 10 (p. 864) a/i$o> 
8c 6 XptO'Tos', o re $e^ie'Aios rj re (iroi- 

t' ov Kai T) ap^jy KOL ra re\r)... 

r re 

Kai 77 dydnrj K.T.\. ; comp. ib. \\. 13 
(p. 458) TTpOTjyelrai pev TTtWiy, 0o/3op 
8e oioSo/j.eT, reXetoT 8e T) dydirrj. See 
also the confused passage in Barnab. 
i in the Greek MSS, where the con- 
fusion has perhaps arisen partly from 
the insertion of some such passage 
as this, written originally as an 
illustration in the margin. For the 
second clause comp. I Tim. i. 5 ro 
8e re'Xos- TTJS napayyeXias C<TT\V dydnrj. 

10. Geos eVni/i Comp. Trail, n 
TOV 0eou evaxTiv eVayyeXXo/ieVov os 
fo-riv avroy. See also a similar 
expression in Magn. 15 /cexr^/xeVot 
d8id<pirov irvevpa, os e&Tiv 'irjorovs 
Xpurros. The combination of autho- 
rities leaves no doubt about the 






e d\\a Trdvra ets Ka\OKaya6iav aKoXovGd ecmi/. ov- 
Se*s TTLGTIV eTTCfyyeAAojuei/os d/mapTdvei ov$e 


AYTor OVTCOS ol eTrayyeXXoiJievoi Xpurrov elvai, 
Trpda'O'ova'iv 6<p6ri<rovTai. ov yap vvv eTrayyeXias TO 5 
epyov, d\\' ev StW/xe* TriarTetas edv rts evpeBrj ek re/Yos. 

i f(TTtv] Gg ; etVu* Dam-Rup. 2 eirayyeXXo/jievos] GLS 4 g Antioch 6 ; add. 

IX"" A Dam-Rup. otSe] GLS 4 g Antioch, and so prob. A; ovdels Dam-Rup. 

3 KfKT'rj/ji.ei'os] GLS 4 Ag Dam-Rup; Zx uv Antioch. <j>avepov] GLS 4 Dam-Rup; 

add. yap [Antioch]; praef. quoniam A; al. g. 4 avrov] GLS 4 A Dam-Rup; 

om. avrov [g] (changing the whole context); ylverai (om. avrov) Antioch. oi/'rws 

ol tTrayye\\6fji.ei>oi] GL Dam-Rup ; ita et gut promittunt A ; ol tTrayye\\6/JLVoi [g] 
(om. ourws) ; 6 ovv tira.yy\\6fjLvos [Antioch], substituting the singular throughout. 
'KpiffTov] gA Dam-Rup Antioch ; xP lffTiav l GL. 5 01 /c.r.X.] S commences 

again here and continues as far as \a\ovrra /J.TJ clvai 15. yap vvv] 

reading. The interpolator has sub- 
stituted an easier expression for a 
more difficult one. 

i. ds Ka\oKaya6iav K.r.X.] i.e. 'at- 
tend upon these and lead to per- 
fection.' For this pregnant use of 
the preposition see the note on I 
8f8ep.evov OTTO Svpiar. The word *aXo- 

KayaBia does not occur in the LXX or 
N. T., but seems here to denote 
Christian perfection (reAetorj/y, Heb. 
vi. i). 

3. (fravfpov K.r.X.] Matt. xii. 33 oc 
yap TOV Kapnov TO devftpov yivocxrKfrai ; 
comp. Luke vi. 44. 

5. ov yap vvv K.T.X.] * for now (i.e. 
in these evil times, in this season of 
persecution) the Work is not a mere 
matter of profession? For this abso- 
lute use of TO epyov, meaning 'the 
preaching and practice of the Gospel,' 
comp. Rom. 3 o\ Treto-^oi/^y TO epyov 
aXXa peyeQovs eVrti> o ^prrtai/io-/ioy, 
orai/ /itor^rat VTTO Koo-/iov, a passage 
which explains the force of vvv here. 
See also Acts xv. 38, Phil. ii. 30 
(with the note). Similarly we have 
TO ovo/ia (see note 3 above), [TO] 
(see note 20 below), 17 

(e.g. Smyrn. 1 2), and the like. 

6. aXX' ev dvvdpei K.T.X.] i but is 
realised only if a man be found in 
the power of faith (with an effective 
faith) to the end? The words ev 8wd- 
pi TriWeo)? are sometimes attached 
to the preceding clause, and Trto-Tos is 
understood with evpeOfi; but the con- 
struction which I have adopted seems 
simpler. It is not uncommon to 
throw some of the dependent words 
forward with eav and similar 
particles, for the sake of emphasis ; 
e.g. John x. 9 6Y ep-oO eav TIS eiaeXdrj, 
I Cor. vi. 4 /SicoTtm /x,ei> ovv KpiTijpia 
eav e%TjT, xi. 15 yvvf) de eav Kop.q. 
The connexion evpedfi els TeXos how- 
ever is possible in itself (comp. 
Rom. 2 evpeOfjvai els dvo-iv). 

XV. ' It is better to keep silence and 
to be, than to talk and not to be. The 
great Teacher never spoke without 
doing : and even His silence is of 
the Father. He, who apprehends 
the word of Jesus, understands also 
His silence. With a man so taught 
speech is action and silence is ar- 
ticulate. Even our most secret 
thoughts lie open before the Lord. 




r elvai 1 

XV. AjJLGWOV etTTiv cricoTrav Kai eivai rj \a\ovvTa 
KaXov TO SifidcTKeiv, edv 6 Xeywv Trotf]. els 
ovv $i$d(rKa\os, os elrreN KAI epeNero' Kai a criycov Se 
10 7T7roir]Kev d^ia TOV TraTpos <rTiv. 6 \6yov 'Iricrov 
KKTrj /uevos d\r)6(Jos SvvaTai Kai T^S ^(Tu^ia^ avTOv 
aKOveiv, 'iva re'Aetos r\* 'iva Si cov \a\el Trpdcrcrrj Kai Si' 

GL Rup; om. [S][A]; al. g. 6 aXX' ev] GL; a'XXd Rup; al. Ag. 

7 \a\ovvra] GLSS 4 A ; XaXoOvras [Antioch 4] ; al. g. 8 fj.^ elva.i\ The 

next sentences are omitted in S, and the words Iva 5t' wi>...<riyq. yuxbcncrjTai follow 
immediately. After these it omits everything till the beginning of 18. 
^6 X^ywi'] GLg Antioch; quod dicit (o \4yei) S X S 4 ; al. A. 9 SiScur/caXos] 

G; 6 5i5<i(7/faXos Antioch; dub. LS 4 A; al. g. os] GLS 4 A; us Antioch 

(ed.); al. g. a] GL Antioch; om. S 4 A; al. g. The same authorities omit 

VTLV in the next line. 10 'I^croO] GLA; add. xP lfrT v Antioch; al. g. 

12 rA.eios ft] G [L]; -ft rAetos Antioch; al. g. XaXe? irpaffff-gl Antioch; 

10 J 

rAetos Antioch 
G; al. g. 

Let us remember therefore that we 
are His temple, and He dwells in 
us. This is so now, and it will 
hereafter be made manifest.' 

7. *A/j.fiv6v K.r.A.] Iren. ii. 30. 2 OVK 

V TO) \fyCLV, aAA' V TO) flVdl, 6 KpLTT03V 

deiKwcrOai 6<pfi\i '. comp. Rom. 3 
Iva P.TJ p,6vov Aeya> nAAa KU\ $e'Aa>, and 
see the note on Clem. Rom. 38. This 
is an indirect defence of their bishop 
Onesimus, on whose quiet and retiring 
disposition men were apt to presume : 
see above 6. 

9. Ka\ cyevfro] ''and it came to pass] 
taken from Ps. xxxii (xxxiii). 9, where 
the LXX has flnev Kai eyevr/Grjo-av, but 
eyevero would be a more literal trans- 
lation of the original. Thus Ignatius 
says in effect, ' It is true of Christ's 
work on earth, as the Psalmist says 
of God's work in the universe, that 
the word was equivalent to the deed'; 
comp. Euseb. H. E. x. 4 (p. 469). 
This reference explains the following 
clause; 'The effects of His silence 
also, not less than of His speech, are 
worthy of the Father.' 

a o-rycai/ Se K.r.A.] 'yea, and what 
He hath wrought by His silence? etc. 

i.e. His retirement in childhood and 
youth, His refusal to allow His 
miracles or His kingship to be pub- 
lished, His withdrawal for the pur- 
pose of prayer, His silence before 
His accusers, and the like; in short, 
the passive side of our Lord's life. 
The impression which His silence 
at His trial more especially made on 
His followers may be inferred from 
Matt. xxvi. 63, xxvii. 14, Luke xxiii. 
9, John xix. 9, Acts viii. 32, I Pet. ii. 
23. There is no reference here to 
the silence before the Incarnation, 
as in 19. The silence here con- 
templated relates not to the counsels 
of God, but to the life of Christ. 

10. o \6yov K.r.A.] i.e. 'He, who has 
truly mastered the spoken precepts 
of Christ, is best able to appreciate 
and copy His silence.' y A.\rj6^s is 
best taken with KeKrrj/ieVoy. 

12. Iva di v \a\fl K.r.A.] i.e. ' that, 
when he has thus appropriated both 
the word and the silence of Christ, his 
speech may be as operative as action 
and his silence as significant as 
speech.' For the latter clause comp. 
Clem. Al. Peed. ii. 7 (p. 202) 6 8e 


ovcev \av6avei TOV 
Ta KpvTTTa rijmcov eyyvs avTto e&Tiv 

o)5 avTOv ev rifjlv KaTOiKOvvTOS, iva wjULev avTOv 
vaoi Kai GCI/TOS ev YIJJLLV Geos* OTrep Kai e(TTiv Kai (pavri- 


', d\\a 


i yii>6(rKr)Tai] G; yivdxTKCTai Antioch (ed.); al. g. ovdtv] txt GL [S 2 ] 

Ag; add. 7^/3 Antioch. i ai/ry] Gg* ; airrou Antioch. tcrrtv] 

Gg; d<nv Antioch. 3 aurou vaoi] GLg; templum ejus A ; templa dei S 2 . 

4 ai>rds] txt gL; add. $ G [S 2 ][A]. 6e6s] txt gS 2 ; add. fowv GLA 

epos vios, CKflvov Xeyeo TOV o~ia>ira>VTa, 
ov Traverai XaXtoi/. Somewhat simi- 
larly Clem. Rom. 21 TO eVieiKes r^y 
y\Gj(ro"r)$ avratv dia rfjs (riyijs (fravepbv 
Troirjo-aTocxrav. See the note QftPkifad. I . 
The meaning of Philo Quis rer. div. 
53 (i. p. 51 1) quoted by Zahn, 6 ?rpo^>i/- 
rjyr, KCU OTTore Xeyeti^ 5o/cet, Trpos 0X77- 
^etai/ jyVvx^et, is somewhat different, 
' When he seems to speak, it is God 
who speaks and not himself.' The 
force of yivwa-KrjTat seems to be 'may 
be recognized, understood by others, 
as if he were speaking.' Otherwise 
yiva>o-Kr)Tat might refer to recognition 
by God (a meaning suggested by the 
words following ovdev \av6avei K.r.X.) ; 
but this is hardly so appropriate. 

i. ovdev K.T.X.] Clem. Rom. 27 
iravra eyyvs aurw eVrtj/. . .Ttavra eVeo- 
TTIOV avroii flcriv KOI ovSev \e\rjdfv TTJV 

2. dOrai] For the dative with 
eyyvs comp. Ps. cxliv (cxlv). iS, Acts 
ix. 38,xxvii. 8, Clem. Rom. I.e., Herm. 
Vis. ii. 3 ; see Bleek Hebrderbr. n. 2. 
p. 209. The genitive is the more 
usual case, and in classical Greek 
the dative is very rare; Kiihner n. 
p. 357. The authorities leave no 
doubt about the reading here. 

4. vaoi] Comp. i Cor. iii. 16, 17, 
vi. 19, 2 Cor. vi. 16; and Philad. 7 

TTjV 0-dpKO. VfJLWV toS VCLOV GfoC TT)plT6, 

Barnab. 16 Iva 6 vabs TOV Kvpiov 
(vdoa>s olKo8ojjiri6r)...dib fv rw KUTOI- 
o) r)fjitov dXrjdws o Qebs KdToiKfi V 

Tatian ad Grcec. 15 et i*ev us 
vaos y, KdToiKclv ev avr<5 /SovXerat Qeos 
dia TOV Trpfo-ftevovTos TrvevpaTos. See 
on Mart. Ant. 2. 

0e6y] 'as God" 1 ; i.e. 'that He may 
be the God of this spiritual temple 
in which He dwells, just as the image 
is the god of the material shrine in 
which it is placed ' : the word Qebs 
being part of the predicate, and not 
the subject to Ken-oucei. c Hfui/, which 
is added in some texts, interferes 
slightly with the sense. See the note 
on 9 eVre ovv K.r.X. above. 

OTrep Kai fo-Tiv x.r.X.] i.e. 'It is the 
case that God dwells in us now, and 
this fact will be made clearly mani- 
fest to our eyes hereafter from our 
deeds of love towards Him'; comp. 
14 5t' a>v 7rpdo~(Tovo~iv 6(pdrjo~ovTai. 

5. 8iKaia>s\ 'rightly,' i.e. l as in 
duty bound' ; comp. Magn. 9 ov 
8iKaia>s dvep.evov, I Cor. XV. 34 eicvij^aTf 
di<ai<0s. Hence it sometimes signi- 
fies 'truly'; see Lobeck on Soph. 
Aj. 547- 

XVI. ' Be not deceived. To vio- 
late the house of God is to forfeit 
the kingdom of heaven. If those 
who desecrated the temple of their 
bodies were punished with death, 
what fate must await such as defile 
the temple of the faith, for which 
Christ died? They are filthy in- 
deed, and will go into unquenchable 
fire they and their disciples.' 

7. M?) nXavao-Oe] See the notes 





XVI. Mr} TT\avdcr6e^ d$e\(f>oi /ULOV oi oiKO(f)6opQi 
Oeoy oy KAHPONOMH'COYCIN. el ovv oi KCITO. 
TavTa TrpacrorovTes aTreOavov, TTO'CTW /ULci\\ov eav 

(but A omits iv ijfjuv). fanep...4)ptc3r] GL; om. S 2 A (perhaps owing to 

homoeoteleuton); al. g. 7 oi] GS 4 Ag; om. Dam-Rup i. 9 irpaff- 

(rovres airtdavov] GLS 4 A ; iraffxovTes aTrtdvyvKov Dam-Rup; al. g. &v] G 

Dam-Rup; qui (plur.) S 4 A (omitting ecu/); si quis L; al. g. 

on 5 fir/dels 7r\avd<r9a> above, and on 
Philad. 3. 

oi oiKo<p66poi] The whole pas- 
sage is founded on S. Paul's lan- 
guage in the First Epistle to the 
Corinthians ; comp. iii. 16 OVK o'i- 
8a.Tf OTI vaos Qeov eVre, KOI TO 
irvev/jLO. TOV Qeov oiKfl ev vplv] ei 
TIS TOV vaov TOV Qfov 0#ei'pei, 
(pdepel TOVTOV o Geos, combined with 
vi. 9, IO, IQ, fir) Tr\avao~6c' OVTC 

TTOpVOt OVT ^tOt^Ol ftc 

Qfov K\r)povofj,rj(rovo~iv...ovK o'l 
OTI TO o~G)fJ.a VIJLWV vaos TOV iv 
ayiov Tri/fu/naros- eVrti/ ; Hence OIKO- 
(pQopos must be interpreted from S. 
Paul. It denotes those who violate 
the temple of their hearts and bo- 
dies, which is God's house, by evil 
thoughts or evil habits. In classical 
Greek ol<o(J)66pos, oiKo<p6opelv, OIKO- 
(pdopia, commonly refer to the squan- 
dering of property, e.g. Plato Phccd. 8 2 
C ; but occasionally they designate the 
ruin of a house by offences of another 
kind, as in Plut. Mor. 12 B ywaiKwv 
oiKo<pdopltu yafjLfTwv, and perhaps in 
Orac.Sibyll. ii. 258 86\toi T oiKotydopoi 
alvoi ; comp. Orig. c. Cels. vii. 63 


KaTa\r)<pd(lo~av yvvaiKa Acal (pQfipeiv 
TOV aXXou avQpwwov OLKOV. Whence 
Hesychius explains oiico(p66poi by p,oi- 
%oi. The word therefore would lend 
itself easily to the application which 
Ignatius here makes of it. If the 

explanation which I have adopted be 
correct, the following airf.Qa.vov will 
probably refer to the incident in 
Numbers xxv. I 9, to which also S. 
Paul alludes in the same epistle, x. 8 
/xr/Se Tropvva>fJiv, Kadws Tives avTotv 

f7TOpVfVO~aVj Kdl 7TO~aV K.T.X. The in- 

terpolator has got altogether on a 
wrong track, for he paraphrases ei Se 
oi TOVS dvdpwTTivovs otxovs 8ia<p6e!.pov- 
TCS OavaTfp KaTdo'iKafcovTai, TTOCTO) 
fj.a\\ov oi TTJV XpicrroO fK<\r)o~iav 

8. f3ao~i\eiav Qeov K. T. X.] See 
i Cor. vi. .9, 10, Gal. v. 21 ; comp. 
Philad. 3, Polyc. Phil. 5. 

ft ovv oi Kara o~dp<a /c.r.X.] Comp. 
Clem. Horn. Ep. ad lac. 7 TroXu -yap 
dftvov TI /ioi^ci'a TOO-OVTOV o&ov TO. dev- 
Tcpfia X LV avTqv TTJS KO\dcre(Of fVel 
ra Trpcorela Tols ev irKdvrj ovo~iv O.TVO- 
St'Sorat, K.O.V cr(i)<ppovQJo~iv, ib. xvi. 2O 
/jLOixeias TTvevfiaTLKrjs TTJS Kara (rapKa 
Xfipovos vnapxovo-riS' This last pas- 
sage illustrates the force of KOTO 
o-a'pKa in the text. The excuse for 
such language lies in the fact that the 
early heresies, which these writers 
combat, were in many cases highly 
immoral in their tendency, maintain- 
ing in direct terms the indifference of 
sins of the flesh. See the note on 
[Clem. Rom.] ii. 9, where also the 
sanctity of the bodily temple is 
maintained against such pernicious 



Oeov ev KaKO$i$a(TKa\ia (pBeiprj, vTrep f?s ' 
OS ecTTavpcoBrj. 6 TOIOUTOS pVTrapos yevo/mevos els 
TO Trvp TO aorf^ea'TOv ^caprlo'ei, d/xo/ws 6 ctKOvtov 

XVII. Aid TOVTO (ULvpov e\a/3ei/ 67ri rjjs Ke(f>a\fjs 5 
6 Kvpios, *iva Trveri Trj 6KK\rj(ria d(j)dap(riav. JJLYI 

i iriariv Qeov] GLA; fidem veram S 4 ; om. Dam-Rup; al. g. KaKo5i8aaKa\ig.] 
Dam-Rup ; KaKrj di5a<rKa\lg, G ; al. g : comp. Pkilad. 2. See Trail. 6, where in a 
similar case Dam-Rup alone has preserved the correct reading KaTato7ri0Tei;6/ue'ot. 
</>0etpfl] G; 00ep Dam-Rup; al. g. 26 rotou-ros] GL; on OUTOJ Dam-Rup; 

al. Ag. pWapos] GL Dam-Rup; al. A. As g paraphrases XtTrai'tfeis /cai 

s, he would seem to have read rpv<t>ep6s. 6 a^rou] Gg ; suo LA ; 

15, comp. Magn. 9 ; though Sia roOro 
sometimes refers to the preceding 
clause, when followed by ti/a, e.g. 
Eph. vi. 13. 

pvpov eXaftcv] A reference to 
the incident in the Gospels ; Matt, 
xxvi. 7 sq, Mark xiv. 3 sq, [Luke vii. 
37 sq], John xii. 3 sq. As on that 
occasion 'the whole house was filled 
with the odour of the ointment,' so 
to all time the Church is perfumed 
with the fragrance of incorruptibility 
shed from the Person of Christ. 
Somewhat similarly Clem. Alex. 
Paed. ii. 8 (p. 205), speaking of this 
same incident, says dvvaTai 8e TOVTO 
(rvpftoXov elvai TTJS o*idao~KaXias TTJS 
KvpiaKijs KOI TOV nadovs avTov ' p.vpq> 
yap evtodet aXet06/zei/ot K.r.X., where 
Clement explains the anointed feet 
of the Lord to mean the Apostles 
who received the fragrant chrism of 
the Holy Spirit. Comp. Clem. Horn. 
xiii. 15 77 o-a(ppa>v yvvr) TTJV KK\r)criaf 
dyadrj Tipf) /jLvpifcij Orig. c. Cels. 
vi. 79 eVet Xpioros K(pa\ij eVrtv Trjs 
fKKXrjcriaS) as elvai ev trw/ta XpioToi/ KOI 
TJ)I/ eKK\T)o-iav, TO pvpov OTTO Ke(paXijs 
KaTaftefirjicev K.T.\. (with the whole con- 
text), Macar. Magn. Apocr. iii. 14 (p. 
23) ro ovpaviov pvpov (said of Christ, 
in reference to the incident at Beth- 

1. iriffTiv Qeov'] l the faith of God J 
i.e. 'the teaching of the Gospel.' 
For this objective sense of Triams see 
Galatians p. 155, and the notes on i. 
23, iii. 23, vi. 10. This use is so fully 
recognised when Ignatius writes, that 
the definite article is dispensed with, 
as e.g. in 6c\rjp.a (see the note on 


^>6fiprf] 'any one corrupt? This 
omission of ns in classical writers is 
not unfrequent ; see Kiihner II. p. 32 

sq, Jelf373- 6. 

2. pvirapbs] 'He, not less than 
the other, is defiled with filth.' 

3. ro Trvp ro ao-ftcarov] See Matt. 
iii. 12, Luke iii. 17, and esp. Mark 
ix. 43. 

XVII. 'The Lord's head was per- 
fumed with ointment, that He might 
shed the fragrance of incorruptibility 
on the Church. Suffer not your- 
selves to be anointed with the foul 
odour of the teaching of the Prince 
of this world. We have received the 
knowledge of God, which is Jesus 
Christ. How then shall we ignore 
His grace bestowed upon us, and 
perish in our folly?' 

5. Aia TOVTO] to be connected with 
the following wa, as in 2 Cor. xiii. 10, 
2 Thess. ii. n, i Tim. i. 16, Philem. 






d\ei(pecr6e va-coav Trs 

cuwvos TOVTOV, } 

rjv. Sid TL Se ov TraWes 

Oeov yvwcriv, o ea-nv ' Irjaovs XpurTOs ; TI 


e/c TOV TTpOKei/mevov 

d7TO\\viuie6a dyvoovvTes TO 
6 Kvpios ; 

MT? dXe{0e<r0e] GLA; 

a o TreTro/uLCpev d\rj- 

ovv dXei0<?<r0oj [Antioch] ; ^ 
7 7-175 5t5a<TKa\ias] G; 5i5ct<r/caXias 

om. g Antioch 2. 

a\et(j)t(r8(t}...r) ay la TOV deov tKK\7j<ria [g*]. 

[g]; doctrinae L; a7rtaT/as Antioch; iniquitatis A. 10 o] G; ^wz (6's) L; 

dub. A; al. g. n xfy'vp -] GL[g]; x^P iV [Antioch]; dub. A. Zahn con- 

jectures xpto-yua. There is a v. 1. xa/5io>ia for xpi<rp- a in i Joh. ii. 27. 7r6ro/<i0ej/] 

GL; Trtirovdev A Antioch (who paraphrases, UTT/) 775 trtirovdev aXydus 6 tctipios) ; al. g. 

any). Zahn truly remarks that the 
allusion here implies a knowledge of 
S. John's Gospel (?) 8e OIKIO eVAr/poo'^ 
K.r.X.), as well as of S. Matthew's 

(Karexffv eVt TTJS <e0aX^y aurov) Or 
S. Mark's (Karexccv avrov rfjs Kf<f)a\fjs). 

6. avroO] not avTov ] see the notes 
on Col. i. 20, 22. 

d(f>dap(riav] 'incorruptibility] ra- 
ther than ' 'immortality] here, as the 
preceding $&ip?7 requires ; comp. 
Ephes. vi. 24, and so prob. Magn. 6 
fls TVTTOV Kal 8t8a.)(7)v d(f)0ap(rias. At 
least the former idea must be promi- 
nent here, though the latter may not 
be absent. Zahn quotes Iren. iii. 1 1. 8 
TravraxodfV irveovTa? TTJV dffrdapariav 
said of the Gospels (so too i. 4. i 65- 
/HT) d(f)dapo-iaS) i. 6. I 771/017 d(pdap(rias). 
Comp. Apost. Const, vii. 27 ei^apio-- 
Tovpev (roi...Kai vncp rfjs fvoadias TOV 
p,vpov Kal inrep TOV ddavarov aiwj/os 
AC.T.X. See Harnack in Zeitschr. f. 
Kirchengesch. IT. p. 295. 

7. dvo-vo'Lav] Liturg. D. Jac. p. 40 
fVQ)8ia<Tov 77/xcoi' TO dv<ro)8fs TTJS ^vx^s 
KOL TOV O-COHOTOS; comp. Ep. Vienn. in 
Euseb. H. E. v. i TTJV cvvo'tav o&u- 

dpa TTJV Xpiorou wore eviovs 
Kal fJLVjxo Kofr/jLLKUt Ke^pt(7^ai av- 
rovs, oi 8f KaTTjfpels Kal Tairfivol Kal 
8vo-ft8els Kal Trdo-rjs do-x^^oa-vvrjs dvd- 
rr\foi K.r.X., where perhaps we should 

read 8vo-&&(is for 8vo-ci8c Is. See also 
Magn. IO OTTO TIJS ocr/i^s \(yx@ 1 l <rfar @ ' 
TOV dpxovrof /c.r.X.] The same ex- 
pression occurs below 19, Magn. 
i, Trail. 4, Rom. 7, Philad. 6; comp. 
John xii. 31, xiv. 30, xvi. 11, o ap^atv 
TOV Koo~fj.ov TOVTOV, I Cor. ii. 6, 8, ot 
apxovTfg TOV aieoi/or rovrou (this later 
phrase however apparently being used 
by S. Paul of earthly powers). 

8. ftr) mx/zaAam'<r77 K.r.A.] ' 'lest he 
lead us captive and carry us away 

from the life etc.' For the condensed 
expression atx/zaAamV> K TOV K.r.X., 
see the note on I dedf^evov OTTO 
Supias- For ai^aXtoriV^ comp. Phi- 
lad. 2 alx^a\(OTi(ova-ii' TOVS 6codpop.ovs, 
2 Tim. iii. 6 aix/LtaAa)Ti'bi>r yufat- 
capia (the correct reading). 

ToD npoKfipfvov tf v ] 'M* ltf e which 
is set before us] i.e. 'for us to pursue.' 
For this sense of irpoKfiptvos comp. 
Heb. vi. 1 8, xii. i, 2. For the sub- 
stantival use of f)v see the note on 
ii above. 

9. \ap6vrcs] ''by receiving: It 
might however be translated ' seeing 
that we received] but the words in 
the following clause, /itopeSy, dyvoovv- 
Tes, point to the former interpretation. 

10. o fcrnv K.r.A.] Comp. Magn. 10 
pfTafiaXeo-Of els veav {vprjv o eVrti/ 
'Ir]o~ovs Xpto-ros, Col. ii. 2 iriyva)o-iv 


XVIII. nepiyfafJia TO efjiov Trvevjjia TOV (TTavpov, 

O i<TTiV <TK.a.V&a\OV TOls dTTlCTTOVOrLVy Y\\MV Se (TCOTrjpia 

Kai farj aiwvLOS. HOY co4>6c; HOY CYZHTHTHC; TTOV Kav- 

6 <yap 

i irepi\f/fj[j,a /c.r.X.] begins again here and continues to ~wr? al&vios. It omits 
the rest of the chapter and commences again with 19. rov (rravpov] 

GLSA; crucis tuae Anon-Syr 2 ; al. g. 2 o] G; quae (i.e. 

crux = os) L; dub. SA Anon-Syr 2 ; al. g. fob 82] GL Anon-Syr 2 ; 

vfuv 5t S; sed vobis fidelibus A; rois dt TTHTTOIS [g]. <<hnot] 

GLAg; in salutem et in vitam aeternam S Anon-Syr 2 . 4 <rvj>T&i>] 

GLA Tim-Syr 2; SWCLT&V g. 5 o] G; om. G' Theodt; al. g. UTTO] 

GG' Theodt; tic [g]; r L; dub. A Tim-Syr. Mapks] txt GLAg 

TOV pvoTrjpiov TOV 6eo, Xpicrrou eV w 
01 0rj(ravpol TTJS (ro^)tay Kat 
aTroicpvcfioi (the correct read- 
ing). The knowledge of God is co- 
extensive with Jesus Christ. For o, 
where we should expect IJTIS, see the 
note on Col. iii. 14 T^V dyaTnjv o eWti> 

O"Vvdf(TfiOS TTJS Tf\lOTTJTOS (tllC COrrCCt 

reading). It is not uncommon in 
these epistles; Magn. I.e., Trail. 7, 
Rom. 7. The reading however is 
doubtful here ; see the upper note. 

XVIII. 'I am the devoted slave 
of the Cross. It is a scandal to the 
unbeliever, but salvation and life to 
us. In it the boast of this world's 
wisdom comes to nought. Such was 
God's scheme for our redemption. 
Jesus Christ our God was born as a 
man. He was Himself baptized that 
by His passion He might cleanse the 
waters of baptism for us.' 

i . Ufptyrip-a] ' the offscouring" 1 ; see 
the note on 8. Here also the idea 
is twofold, abasement and self-sacri- 
fice ; ' My spirit bows itself at the foot 
of the Cross,' and 'My spirit devotes 
itself for the sake of the Cross.' ' I 
am content,' Ignatius would say, 'to 
give up everything, and to become 
myself as nothing, for that Cross in 
which others find only a stumbling- 
block.' Zahn points out a passage 

in Ephraem Syrus Op. Syr. III. p. 
494 E 'crucem tuam adoravi,' which 
seems to be a reminiscence of the 
Syriac version of irfpfyrma TO epbv 
irvevpa TOV oraupoO here, 'adorat spi- 
ritus meus crucem tuam.' 

2. o eo~Ttv o~Kav8o:\ov] A reminis- 
cence of i Cor. i. 18, 23, 24; comp. 
Gal. v. 11. The Cross was still a 
stumblingblock, as it had been in 
the Apostolic age; but the persons 
who stumbled at it were different. 
The stumblers, to whom Ignatius 
seems especially to allude in ovcav- 
daXov here, are the Docetics ; see on 
Philad. 8, and I. p. 359 sq, 568 sq. 

3. Troi) o-o06s K.T.A.] An inexact 
quotation from I Cor. i. 2O7rou o~o(pov; 
TTOV ypap,p.a.Tevs ', TTOV O-VV^TTJT^S TOV 
alwvos TOVTOV ', which words them- 
selves are a free paraphrase of Isaiah 
xxxiii. 1 8. The following clause, TTOV 
Kavxr)o~is TOI> Aeyo>v o"werd>i>, is 
Ignatius' own ; but it is suggested by 
the quotation from Isaiah xxix. 14, 

CtTToXo) TT)V O~O<piaV TO)V O~O(pQ)V KO.I TT)V 

crvveo-iv TO>V <Tvv(Ta>v a6eTr)o-a>, which 
S. Paul introduces into his context 
(i. 19), combined with other expres- 
sions of the Apostle in this neigh- 
bourhood (i. 31 6 Kavx&Hfvos *v Kvpi'o> 
Kavxao-6(0, a condensed quotation of 
the passage in Jeremiah ix. 23, 24, 




5 'lr](rovs 6 XpicrTos KVO(popti6r] VTTO Mapias KCIT OLKOVO- 
juu'av, K (nrepjjLaTO^ fjiev AaveiS Tn/eJ/xaros Se djiov 
os eyevvrjOrj Kai e/SaTTTLO-Orj iva TW Trddei TO vSwp 
Ka6api<rri . 

Tim-Syr ; add. TTJS irapOfrov G'. /car' oiKoi>o/j,iav] Ka.ToiKovo/j,Lai> G. 

olKovo/mlav] g* ; add. dd patris [A] (the whole sentence being in brackets) ; add. 
dei GG'L Theodt Tim-Syr 6 ActveiS] 5a5 GG'. Tn/etfjuaros] 

GG'Lg* (with a v.l.); CK irvetpaTos Theodt, and so prob. Tim-Syr; dub. A. For 
fjiv .. Tim-Syr has a simple connecting particle e semine dauid et e spiritu sancto. 
7 iva...Kadapiffr)] GG'L; ut aquas passibiles purgaret Tim-Syr, so that his trans- 
lator apparently read rov Tradeiv for T<$ iradei ; ut purgaret aquae corruptionem A j 
'iva. TO Qvt\rov r)fjt,v Ka.Qa.piad'Q Theodt; al. g. 

pi] Kavxd(r6u> o (ro(pbs fv rfj <ro<f>iq avrov 
/c.r.X.) and elsewhere (Rom. iii. 27 
TTOV ovv TJ Kai>xr)(ris ;). 

4- o yap Qtos THJLWV] See the note 
on this expression in inscr. above. 

5. Kvo<j>opr)Qrj] 'was borne in the 
womb? For the word comp. Clem. 
Rom. 20. It is found once in the 
LXX, Eccles. xi. 5, and occurs several 
times in late classical writers. 

VTTO Mapms] See above, 7. 

KOT' olKovo/jiiav] l according to a 
dispensation' The word oiKovopia 
came to be applied more especially 
to the Incarnation (as here and below 
2O rjs qp^dfMTjv oiKovofjiias /c.r.X.), be- 
cause this was par excellence the 
system or plan which God had or- 
dained for the government of His 
household and the dispensation of 
His stores. Hence in the province 
of theology, otKovopia was distinguish- 
ed by the fathers from OfoXoyia 
proper, the former being the teaching 
which was concerned with the Incar- 
nation and its consequences, and the 
latter the teaching which related to 
the Eternal and Divine nature of 
Christ. The first step towards this 
special appropriation of otKovopia to 
the Incarnation is found in S. Paul; 
e.g. Ephes. i. 10 fls oiKovopiav TOV 
TWV /catpaJf. See the note 

on that passage, where the history of 
the word is more fully traced. In 
this passage of Ignatius it is more- 
over connected with the 'reserve' of 
God (19 tv rjwvxiq Qfov eVpa^^j;). 
Thus 'economy' has already reached 
its first stage on the way to the sense 
of 'dissimulation,' which was after- 
wards connected with it, and which 
led to disastrous consequences in the 
theology and practice of a later age. 

6. CK (TTTfppaTos Aau*tft] This is 
the way in which Ignatius delights 
to represent the human nature of our 
Lord ; comp. 20 below, Trail. 9, 
Rom. 7, Smyrn. i. It is generally 
counterbalanced by a reference to 
His Divine nature, as here (o Qebs 
;/ua>j/, TrvcvpaTos ayiov) ', except where, 
as in Trail. 9, his object is merely to 
assert the reality of the human na- 
ture against the Docetics. See esp. 
Tertull. Cam. Chr. 21. 

7. fyevvijtir)] not ' begotten] but 
' born] as in Trail. 9 ; comp. Smyrn. 
i. So Luke i. 13, 57, xxiii. 29, etc. 

Iva rep naQfi .r.X.] The baptism of 
Christ might in a certain sense be 
said, in the language of our liturgy, 
to 'sanctify water to the mystical 
washing away of sin' (comp. Tertull. 
adv. Jud. 8, de Bapt. 9) ; but it was 
the death of Christ which gave their 


XIX. Kal e\a6ev TOV ap-^ovTa TOV aJw 



i Kal] GG'LAg Orig (Gk, but omitted in Jerome's version) Euseb Andr- 
Cret Tim-Syr; sed Anon-Syr 2 ; om. S. 2 Maptas] txt 

GL etc. ; add. rrjs denrapOtvov Kal OeorbKov G'. TOKCTOS] GG'g etc. ; 

purifying effect to the baptismal wa- 
ters. The baptism was only the in- 
auguration of this sanctifying process. 

XIX. 'This divine economy was 
hidden from the prince of this 
world. The virginity of Mary, her 
child-bearing, the death of the Lord 
these three mysteries, though des- 
tined to be proclaimed aloud, were 
wrought in the silence of God. The 
announcement was first made to all 
the ages by the appearance of a star, 
which outshone all the celestial 
lights, and to which sun and moon 
and stars did obeisance. They were 
terrified at this strange apparition. 
Magic vanished before it ; ignorance 
was done away ; the ancient kingdom 
of evil was destroyed, when God ap- 
peared in the form of Man. Thus 
the eternal counsel of God was inau- 
gurated. And the whole universe 
was confounded because the disso- 
lution of death was purposed.' 

I. Km f\a6cv K.r.X.] This passage 
is more frequently quoted by the 
fathers than any other in the Igna- 
tian Epistles. It is cited or referred 
to by Origen (Horn, in Liic. vi, Op. 
III. p. 938 A), by Eusebius (Quaest. ad 
Steph. i, Op. iv. p. 88 1, ed. Migne), 
by Basil (Horn, in Sanct. Chr. Gen. 
3, Op. ii. p. 598 B), by Jerome 
(Comm. in Matt. i. i, Op. vn. p. 
12 B), by Jovius Monachus (de Oecon. 
vii, in Phot. Bibl. ccxxii, p. 622), 
by Andreas Cretensis (Horn, in 
Nativ. B. Virg. ii, in Pearson V. I. 
p. 87), and by an anonymous Mono- 
physite writer preserved in a Syriac 
version (Cureton C /. p. 219 ; see 
ib. p. 359), besides Timotheus of 
Alexandria (Cureton C. I. p. 211) 

who has quoted also the previous 
context. Of these writers however, 
Basil and Jerome have obviously 
taken the reference, not from Igna- 
tius himself, but from Origen, whose 
comment they mix up with the state- 
ment of Ignatius, as Cotelier has 
pointed out. The passage was appa- 
rently also in the mind of the com- 
mentator who bears the name of 
Theophilus of Antioch (in Evang. i, 
p. 280 Otto), of Ephrem Syrus 
(Hymn. 19, quoted by Merx, p. 74 
sq), of S. Ambrose on Luke i. 27 
(Op. I. p. 1281 'ut virginitas Mariae 
falleret principem mundi'), of Cyril- 
lonas the Syrian poet (Bickell Consp. 
Rer. Syr. Lit. pp. 34, 35, quoted by 
Zahn /. if. A. p. 187), of Anastasius 
(de Rect. Ver. Dogm. quoted by Pear- 
son V. I. p. 81), and certainly of a 
Syrian Commentator on S. John 
(Cureton C. I. p. 285 ; this was either 
Harith-bar-Sisin, or Lazarus of Beth- 
Kandasa ; see Wright Catal. Syr. 
Mamiscr. Brit. Mus. pp. 608, 610). 

The idea that the Deceiver was 
himself deceived by God's mysterious 
reserve is found in many connexions 
in the early fathers; see for instance, 
besides the passages already quoted, 
Justin Martyr in Iren. v. 26. 2 2a- 
Tavas /i^SeTrco etSa)? avrov TTJV Acara- 
Kpio-iv, Hippol. Op. p. 38 (Lagarde) 
I8ov 6 Kvptos irapayiveTcu Xiros, povos, 
yvpvoS) dnpoa'Ta.TfVTOfj evdvpa e^cov 
TO dvGpaTTivov <ro>/za, Kpinrrav df TO 
TTJS QeorrjTOS di'a>/Lta Iva \adr) TOV 
8paKovTos TO 7ravovpyr)pa...aX\a KOI as 
avOpunos \iros KOL VTTo 
exXivfV TTJV ne(J)a\r)V OVTOV 
vai K.r.A. (a passage which may have 
been suggested by the words of 


Y\ TrapOevia Mapias Kal 6 rofcero? ai/TT/s, OJJLOIUIS KCU 6 

T(>KOS Andr-Cret. avTrjs...6 davaros] GG'LS 3 (which omits 6/tofws) A 

(which has verum etiam for 6/zofws Kal) g Euseb Andr-Cret Tim-Syr Anon-Syr 
(comp. Jov Kal rty oTatfpwcri*') ; om. 2 2 : see the lower note. 

would be equally valid against o TO- 
KCTOS CIVTTJS as against o Odvaros roO 
Kvptov. Again Theophilus of An- 
tioch (if indeed we could venture to 
consider this commentary his genuine 
work) does not directly refer to the 
passage at all, and therefore any allu- 
sion to the death would be altogether 
out of place. Eusebius, the next 
writer in point of time who quotes 
the passage, quotes the clause *at o 
Gavaros K.r.X. also. Cureton alleges 
likewise the Pseudo- Ignatius (Phi- 
lipp. 8), who mentions the virginity 
and birth alone as being hidden from 
Satan; but here again the answer is 
the same. This writer is not con- 
cerned at all with the death of Christ. 
Moreover this very instance shows 
the fallacy of the argument from si- 
lence ; for this Ignatian forger cer- 
tainly had Kal 6 Oavaros rov Kvpi'ov in 
his text here, as his own recension 
shows. (2) It is urged that the state- 
ment involved in o davaros roO Kuptov 
is false ; for, since Satan is repre- 
sented in the Gospels as prompting 
Judas to the betrayal (Luke xxii. 3, 
John xiii. 2), he could not have been 
ignorant of the death. Nor is the 
answer given by Uhlhorn (p. 48) and 
Hefele, that this ignorance of Satan 
applied to the predeterminate counsel 
of God and not to the historical 
event, satisfactory. It is not how- 
ever the fact of the death, but the 
significance and effects of the death, 
to which Ignatius refers. The prince 
of this world instigated the death of 
Christ, not knowing that it was or- 
dained to be the life of mankind. 
Thus the deceiver was himself de- 
ceived. See esp. i Cor. ii. 7 sq Xa- 

Ignatius), ib. p. 146 TOVTO de OIKO- 
vofjiia rov TTvevp.aTos eyiVero, >a p.^ o 
8td(3o\os (TWIT/ ra VTTO TO>I> 7rpo(pr)T<nv 
ev Trapa/SoXrus 1 \e\a\rjfjifva K.r.X. So 
too Greg. Nyss. Orat. Catech. 26 (n. 
p. 68 Migne) aTremzrcu -yap *ai av'rof 
rai rot) ai/#pa>7rou Trpo^X^an o Trpo- 
airaTri<ras rov avOpanov r<u TTJS ^8ov^s 
SeXeaoTzart, and for other passages 
in writers of the fourth and later 
centuries see Baur Christl. Lehre 
v. d. Versohnung p. 73 sq. 

2. o/AotW Kal K.T.X.] For this mode 
of connexion see 16, Trail. 13: 
similarly axravTa>s KCU Clem. Rom. 43. 

In one of the two MSS (2 2 ) of the 
Curetonian text this clause is omitted, 
and the words run 'the virginity of 
Mary and the birth of our Lord and 
the three mysteries of a cry. ' Thus 
the three mysteries are dissociated 
from the virginity and child-bearing. 
This reading has been adopted by 
Cureton (C. 7. p. 284 sq), Lipsius 
(Aecht. p. 128 sq, S. T. pp. 9, 36, 194), 
and others, as the text of the original 
Ignatius ; and is adduced as an argu- 
ment for preferring the Curetonian 
letters to the Vossian. The reasons 
urged in favour of this view are two- 
fold, (i) It is said that the earliest 
writers who quote or refer to the 
passage (Origen and Theophilus of 
Antioch) stop short of the death of 
Christ. The answer is, that they 
were speaking of the virginity of 
Mary and the birth of Christ alone, 
and therefore quoted, or referred to, 
just so much only of Ignatius' words 
as served their purpose. In the case 
of Origen the argument is suicidal ; 
for he ends with 77 irapOcvla Mapias, 
so that the testimony of his silence 



Qeov o~o<piav ev /ivcrr^pia), rrjv 
, rjvrrpotopicrev o Qeos 
Trpo TtoV alavw els 86gav jpwv, TJV 
ov8e\s T&V dpx VTa)V TOV almvos 
TOVTOV eyvuiKev' el yap eyvvaav, OVK 
av TOV Kvpiov rffs bogies eo-ravpaxrav 
K.r.X., where, as here, the reference 
is to the mystery of the atonement 
through the cross of Christ, and on 
which passage Chrysostom says r6 de 
OVK eyvaaav e/uoi ftoKfl ov irep\ Xpt<rrov 
fvravda. flpfjcrdai dXXa trcpl avr^s TOV 
Trpay/iaros TTJS oiKOvo/Jiias, oioi/, ri 
/3ovXfTo 6 ddvaros KCU o (rravpos, 
OVK T-fSeto-av. As Ignatius has quoted 
the context of this passage of S. Paul 
just before, we must suppose that he 
had the Apostle's words in his mind 
here. It is probable indeed that by 
ol ap^ovres TOV alwvos TOVTOV S. Paul 
means earthly rulers, such as Pilate 
and Herod ; but very many ancient 
commentators (e.g. Marcion in Ter- 
tull. adv. Marc. v. 6 ; Origen Sel. in 
Psalm, ii, II. p. 538 ; TMS in Chry- 
sost. on I Cor. ii. 6; Ambrosiaster 
ad loc.}, and some modern, have 
interpreted the words of spiritual 
powers, and Ignatius is likely to 
have done the same. Even if he 
did not, he would still regard the 
earthly rulers as acting under the 
apx<*v TOV aiwvoy TOVTOV in this crime. 
Indeed the mention of the 'death 
of Christ' is required by the context. 
Here, as elsewhere in Ignatius, the 
irdQos is the centre round which his 
thoughts revolve. The Incarnation 
has its importance mainly in the 
fact that it leads up to the Passion. 
It is only the beginning of the end 
(dpx*l v Se (\dn(Bavev). The whole 
passage opens and closes with the 
death of Christ. It opens with the 
mention of the 'Cross' which is 
'salvation and life eternal' ( 18 be- 
ginning) ; it closes with the reference 
to the 'dissolution of death' through 
the sacrifice of Calvary ( 19 end). 

Both these passages, it will be ob- 
served, appear in the Curetonian 
letters themselves. And, while the 
mention of Christ's death is thus 
suggested by the parallel in S. Paul 
and required by the context of Ig- 
natius himself, this mode of regarding 
it entirely accords with the language 
of other fathers, who speak in the 
same way of Satan's ignorance re- 
specting it; e.g. Orig. Sel. in Psalm. 
xxxiv. 8 (commenting on the words 
\6(T(i> avTols irayls rjv ov yivcao-Kovo-i 

K.T.X., Op. II. p. 650) VOfJiia) TTfpl TOV 

o~Tavpov \yciv CIVTOV, eis ov e/u-7r7rra)Kev 
o ia/3oXos dyvowv K.r.X., Comm. in 
Matt. T. xiii 6, Op. in. p. 583 (comp. 
Comm. in Matth. T. xiii 9, Op. in. 
p. 583? '*'' ot TrapaXajSoires avTov. . .ex TOV 
Kvpiov KfJLVKTT)pio-0<uo-iv, els KaraXu- 
a-ivTrjs Idias /Sao-tXftas KCU apxys -rrapd 
7Tpoo~doK.iav 7rapa\a(36vTfs...8i ov ev 
KaivoTrjri {"a) f/ s TrepiTrarov/Liei'). The 
Marcionites used similar language 
of the demiurge, Adamant. Dial, de 
Rect. Fid. ii o 8rjfjLiovpyos...7r^ov- 
\evo~ev avTW, p.rj (I8a>s OTI 6 
TOV dyadov (rcor^pia dvQpaTr&v cyc 
See also the references in the pre- 
vious note on the idea of the De- 
ceiver deceived. 

On the other hand the shorter 
reading, which omits the reference 
to the death, is condemned alike on 
grounds of external and internal 
criticism, (i) Though one of the 
two MSS (2 2 ) of the Syriac has the pas- 
sage as given above, the other (2 3 ) 
reads it ' the virginity of Mary and 
her child-bearing and the death of 

the Lord 

and the three mysteries of 

crying,' thus only differing in sense 
from the Greek text by the insertion 
of 'and' before ra Tpi'a fiuo-n/pm (an 
insertion which a thoughtless tran- 
scriber would readily make). It is 
said indeed, that this MS (2 3 ) must 


QdvaTQS TOV Kvpiou' Tpia jULVcrTtipia Kpawyfjs, anva ev 

i TOV Kvplov] GG'LSAg Tim-Syr Anon-Syr ; rof ' XP^TOV Euseb Andr-Cret. 
rpia /Avo-T-ripia] GG'LA (which adds mirabilia) g Euseb Andr-Cret Tim-Syr; et 
tria mysteria S 2 S 3 . Kpavyrjs] GG'LS etc ; (ppiKTa Andr-Cret ; see the 

lower note. &Tiva] GG'LS etc; om. A. 

have been corrected from the Greek 
text. But such a solution is highly 
improbable in itself; for elsewhere 
2 3 follows the Curetonian text closely 
in all the omissions and divergences 
from the Greek. In the only other 
passage of importance in which it 
exhibits a variation, Rom. 9 KOI yap 
al pr) 7rpoo~^Kovaai p.oi TJJ o<5, where 
with the Greek it retains the nega- 
tive M, which 2 2 omits, it clearly 
preserves the original reading (see 
the note there). Even in smaller 
matters it is not uncommonly more 
correct than 2 2 (see Zahn I. v. A. 
p. 187). Again the Armenian Ver- 
sion, which was translated from the 
Syriac, has the clause here as in the 
Greek ; and it is quoted or referred 
to in Syriac writers (see the re- 
ferences given above), who were 
scarcely likely to have got it from 
the Greek. Moreover the omission 
in 2 2 is readily explained. The eye 
of the transcriber would be confused 
between words differing so slightly 

as cn.liosaa 'and her child-bear- 
ing,' and cn^araa 'and the death 
of,' so that the latter word might 
easily drop out ; and as a matter of 
fact this same confusion is actually 
made in Rom. 6, where TOMTOS is 
rightly translated in the Curetonian 
text dolores partus, but an extract 
elsewhere preserved gives it with 
the corrupt reading r^\OSfl for 
r^lAQ2tt, and accordingly the Ar- 
menian version has dolores mortis 
(see the notes on the passage). (2) 
The reading of 2 2 , which distin- 
guishes the three mysteries from 

what has gone before, has never yet 
been adequately explained. What 
in this case are the 'three mys- 
teries of crying'? Cureton altogether 
evades this difficulty when he says 
(C. 7. p. 286) that they may 'refer to 
the song of the angelic host,' Luke 
ii. 14; for there is nothing in this 
song which explains such a reference. 
Ritschl (EntsteJwng p. 578, ed. i) 
and Lipsius (Aecht. p. 133) agree 
that two of the three were (i) the 
voice at the baptism, (2} the voice at 
the transfiguration. For the third 
Lipsius suggests the angelic an- 
nouncement of the conception as 
made either to Joseph (Matt. i. 20) 
or to the Virgin herself (Luke i. 26) ; 
while Ritschl supposes that Ignatius 
used some other Gospel containing 
a third proclamation similar to the 
two others. But, if the transfigura- 
tion is allowed a place here, why 
not the death ? And again, in what 
sense can the announcements of 
Matt. i. 20, Luke i. 26 be called 
Kpavyrjs, seeing that they were strictly 
private ? Volkmar (see Lipsius S. 
T. p. 9 sq) finds all the three fiva-Tij- 
pia Kpavyfjs in S. Mark, explaining 
them of the voice at the baptism, 
the voice at the transfiguration, and 
the exclamation of the centurion at 
the crucifixion (Mark xv. 39). As 
he includes this last, it is difficult 
to see on what grounds he rejects o 
Qavaros TOV Kvpiov. 

i. Kpavyris] ' of crying, of pro- 
clamation] a stronger word than 
: see Athenag. Suppl. n 
evTavda TOV \6yov et-aKov- 
orov fiera Tro\\f)s Kpavyrjs yfyo- 




ia Oeov 7rpd^6r]. TTWS ovv e<pavepw6r] TO!? 
d(TTrip ev ovpavw eXajUL^ev vmp TravTas TOVS 

i Qeov] GG'LSA Euseb Andr-Cret Tim-Syr ; om. g. TTWS ovv . . .avrois] 

In place of all this S has merely a latere (a Syriasm for OTTO or e* or Trctpd) stellae. 

VOTOS eVl napprjaiav dvayayelv cos eVt 
/3acrtXeo)i> <piXo<ro(pa>v anoXoyov/j-evov 
(com p. Luke i. 42 Kpavyfj fieyaXi/, 

probably the correct reading). Comp. 
also Philad. 7 eicpavyao-a, with the 
note. Here Kpavyrj is the corre- 
lative to rjo-vxia, as revelation is to 
mystery. 'These mysteries,' Igna- 
tius would say, ' were foreordained 
and prepared in silence by God, that 
they might be proclaimed aloud to 
a startled world.' It is an exag- 
gerated expression of the truth stated 
in Rom. xvi. 25 TO <r)pvyp.a ITJO~OV 
Xpiorov Kara dTrojeaXin^ti' fj,vo~rr]piov 
Xpovots alaviois (rco-iyTjpevov <pa- 
vepaBfVTos e vvv K.T.X., Ephes. iii. 


pevov airo TO>V alwvav ev rw 0ew 
...Iva yvQ)pi<r6fj vvv rais appals KOI 
rats eawriau eV rois faavpavlots K.r.X. 
(with the parallel passage Col. i. 26 
sq) ; comp. also i Cor. ii. 7 sq (already 
quoted), 2 Tim. i. 10. For the use 
of /j-varripiov in S. Paul as suggesting 
the idea of revelation, see the note 
on Col. i. 26. The expression pv- 
on/pia Kpavyfjs involves a studied 
contradiction in terms ; for, as Chry- 
sostom says (Op. II. p. 375), e6a pv- 
orjfpia, TroXXj) viyf). 

The substitution of <ppiKra for *pav- 
yfjs in Andreas Cretensis is not to 
be explained with Merx (p. 76) as 
a corruption of Kpvnrd, this again 
being corrupted from Kpavyrj s. It is 
merely the substitution, in a loose 
quotation, of a common epithet of 
p.vo-Tijpiov (occurring in the liturgies) 
for a not very intelligible expression. 
The epithet <ppi/a-oi> is found with 
pvo-rypiov, e.g. Joseph. B. J. ii. 8. 5, 
Hippol. p. 17 (Lagarde), Lit. D. 

Marc. p. 1 6, Lit. S. Basil p. 164 
(ed. Neale). So in Chrysostom the 
nva-rr/pia (i. e. the eucharist) are styled 
(ppixra, 0pa>fy, Op. VII. p. 310, VIII. 
p. 273, X. p. 393, and elsewhere. 
Bunsen would read evapyfj for *pai>- 


ev ff(Tv\la...firpax6ri\ Comp. Magn. 
8 o (pai/epa>oras eavrov 8ia 'Irjcrov XpurTov 
rov vlov avroi), os ftrriv avroi! \6yos 
dno o-tyfjs TrpoeX^wi/ (with the note). 
On this silence of God compare 
Dionys. Areop. de Div. Norn, xi irfpl 

pfV OVV aVT^S } O Tl TTOTC 6OTt, TT)S 

6cias flprjvrjs KOI favxiat K.T.\. See 
also the language of Marcellus of 
Ancyra quoted on Magn. 8. 

1. TOIS atcSo-ti/] 'to the ages' past 
and future, which are here personi- 
fied. It seems probable that in S. 
Paul's expression, pvo-Tiipiov diroKf- 
icpu/i/iei/oi/ oVo ro5i/ aiwvav (Eph. iii. 9, 
Col. i. 26), the preposition should be 
taken as temporal (see the note on 
the latter passage); but Ignatius 
may have understood it otherwise. 
At all events this personification of 
'the aeons' is a step towards the 
Valentinian phraseology, and affords 
another illustration of the Gnostic 
tinge which colours the language of 

2. do-T^p] In the evangelical nar- 
rative (Matt. ii. 2 sq) the incident 
of the star is very simply told ; but 
this simplicity was early overlaid by 
gross exaggerations. So we find it 
treated in the Protevangelium, 21 

rols ao~rpois TOVTOIS Kal dfj.^\vvovTa 
avrovs, a><rre TOVS dcrrepas /u,?) <paiWo-0at. 
[I may here mention by way of 
caution, that Lipsius (Aecht. p. 135) 




w? avrov dv6K\d\rjTOv r\v, 

Trap el- 

avrov' rd Se XOLTTCL irdvra darpa d 

erroneously quotes after Cureton as 
a separate authority, though closely 
allied, an extract from the MS, Brit. 
Mus. Add. 14, 484, which Cureton 
himself correctly gives as a Syriac 
translation of this passage in the 
Protevangelium (C. /. p. 286). See 
the account of the MS in Wright's 
Catal. p. 99.] Compare also Clem. 
Alex. Exc. Theod. 74 (p. 986) avi- 
TciXev fvos d<rTr)p KOI Kaivos, Kara- 

\VO)V TTJV ira\a.l(lV dorpO$e(7iai', Kdll'W 
00)Tl 0V KOOyUKW XofMTTOfJifVOS, 6 KdlVaS 

oSout Kai (TtoTTjpiovs rpeTro/xei/os 1 , avros 
6 Kvptos avQpwiTtov odiyyos K.r.X., where 
the resemblances to this passage of 
Ignatius are perhaps too great to be 
accidental. Still more extravagant 
is the extract which Cureton (C. /. 
p. 287) gives from the Syriac work 
called the Cave of Treasures, wrong- 
ly ascribed to Ephrem : * For two 
years before the birth of Christ the 
star appeared to the magi ; for they 
beheld the star in the firmament of 
heaven, which shone with a light, 
the appearance of which was greater 
than all the stars; and there was a 
girl in the midst of it holding a boy, 
and a crown was placed upon his 
head, etc.' This extract is taken from 
the MS Brit. Mus. Add. 25, 875 : see 
Wright's Catal. p. 1064. A similar 
account of the appearance of the 
virgin and child in the star is found 
also in the ,/Ethiopic Conflict of 
Adam and Eve, of which the Syriac 
Cave of Treasures is apparently only 
another recension (see Dillmann Das 
Christliche Adambuch des Morgen- 
landes p. 9 sq, in Ewald's Jahr- 
bucher no. v), but nothing is there 
said of the two years. The star how- 
ever is there stated, as here, to have 
'shone in the heavens in the midst 


of all the other stars' 1 (Dillmann 1. c. 
p. 135). Whether Ignatius derived 
his statement from some written nar- 
rative or from oral tradition, it would 
be impossible to say. In the only 
other passage where he seems to step 
outside of the Canonical Gospels, 
Smyrn. 3, either hypothesis is ten- 

In the Curetonian letters the 
whole passage, iras ovv...j dvopoios 
avroTs-, is abridged into these words 
r^La^a^ .i.^ pa 'a latere 

stellae,' which if it had been trans- 
lated from the Greek, would pro- 
bably represent OTTO rov aore'pos. 
But even if it be rendered 'from the 
time of the star's appearing' with 
Weiss, Lipsius (Aecht. p. 132), and 
others (see below, III. p. 90), no good 
sense is attained. Bunsen boldly 
substitutes f<r]p\>x&r] for eVpaxd? ; but 
what is the meaning of e'i> lyo-y^t'a 
8foi) eKTjpvxtir)? Cureton does not 
attempt to explain the words. 

3. ai/f/tXoAqroi/] Not a common 
word; see I Pet. i. 8, Iren. i. 14. 5. 

frvurpitv] ' amazement, perplexity? 
as arising from a sense of strange- 
ness; comp. i Pet. iv. 12 /XT) gevi- 
f(r&c rrj tv 7rupa>'<rei npos TTCI- 
pa< vp-lv yivopevr), ws evov vplv 
o-u/x/Sai'i/oi/ros, which explains the 
meaning. See the note on ^vLo-drj- 
o-oi/rtu [Clem. Rom.] ii. 17. The 
substantive occurs occasionally else- 
where in the sense which it has here ; 
e.g. Polyb. xv. 17. I vvyKivd TTOHS 
exaoroi/ r\\iSiV 6 in<rp,6s. 

4. ra 8e Xowra K.r.X.] The conception 
here is obviously taken from Joseph's 
dream, and it may therefore be a 
question how far Ignatius intended 
this as a description of actual phy- 





rj\i(t) Kctl <re\rivr] %cy)os eyeVero TCO da-Tepi, avros Se 
V7rep/3d\\a)v TO (pcos avrov vTrep 


i xP*] Gr' ; x w P s Gr (but with a blot which may be intended as a correction 
into xP*)' tytverd] GG'; eytvovro g. 2 re] GG'Ag; autem (5) L. 

3 odev] GG'; li'flei' [g]. From this point S reads fft'a#2 adhuc in manifestation* JtfR 
coepit aboleri magia et omnia vincula evanuerunt et regnum vetus et error malitiae 
destruebatur. inde commota sunt simul omnia et dissolutio mortis excogitata est, et 
erat inithim illi quod in deo (apud deum) perfectum esf, where the epistle ends, so 
that 20, 21 are omitted altogether. eXi/ero...5te00epero, 6eoO /c.r.X.] 

Tracra /xcryeta (/icryta), /cat 7ras 5ccr/ios Tj^avi^ero KaKlas, Hyvoia KadypeiTO (Kadi]- 
, TraXcua /SacriXeta die^delpero, 6eoO /c.r.X. GG'L, and so it is universally read by 
the editors. But I am disposed to think that 5ie00ei7>ero ought to be omitted, and 
the punctuation will be readjusted accordingly, as is done in the text. With perhaps 
the exception of Severus, I cannot find any trace of 5ie00et/>ero in our other authori- 
ties: (i) g paraphrases e/nupalvero <ro(f>la KOfffUKri, yoyreia vdXos T\V /cai ^Xws 17 
payeia, iras 0e<r/j,os /ca/cks y^avlfrTO, dyvoias 6<pos die<rKeddvvvro, Kal rvpavvLUT] 
dp-XT] /ca^T/petro, 0eou K.r.X., where rvpavviKT] dpxn is the substitute for TraXcua 
Pa<n\ela: (a) A has et hinc solvebatur omnis incantatio astrologorum (= t\6ero iracra. 
fj.ayeia Kal TT&S Secr/x-oy) et deceptiones mali jiniebantur (rj^avi^eTo /ca/cfas dyvoca) et 
vetus regnum destruebatur (KadypetTo TraXata jSacriXeia) per revelationem dei etc. 

sical phenomena. The parallel pas- 
sage of the Excerpta ex Theodoto 
already quoted shows how the 
symbol and the thing symbolized 
might be blended together : see also 
Ephrem Syrus, Op. Syr. iv. p. 416 
'A star shone forth suddenly with 
praeternatural light, less than the 
sun and greater than the sun. It 
was less than the sun in manifest 
light; it was greater than he in 
secret strength by reason of its 
mystery. A star in the east darted 
its rays into the house of darkness, 
etc.'; Marcellus in Euseb. c. Marc. 
ii. 3 (P- 48) OVTOS yap rjv 6 rrjviKavra 
(fravels do-Tr/p 6 fapcov re Kal dr)\a>v rr\v 
Ty/xe'pai/ roiy /uayoty, explaining Ps. 
cix (ex). 3. There is the same contra- 
distinction as here, between aorpa 
'the constellations' and darrfjp 'the 
single star,' in Protev. 21 (quoted 

i. xP s eyevtro] Comp. 4, Rom. 


2. v7rep/3oAXi> K.r.X.] ^surpassing 

all in its light] where ro (pa>s is pro- 
bably the cognate accusative, de- 
scribing the thing in which the excess 
took place; as e.g. Aristot. H. A. 
ix. 29 (p. 6 1 8) rrjv dciXiav vnepfiaXXei 
TOVTO ro opveov. At least I do not 
remember any instance where v?rep- 
/3aXXe> signifies 'to make to exceed.' 
In 2 Mace. iv. 24 uVep/SaXwi/ TOV 
lacrava raXavra apyvpiov rptctKocria, 
the second accusative is one of 
quantity (see Grimm ad loc.). 

rapaxr) re r}v] i.e. ' there was trouble, 
perplexity, to know whence came 
this strange appearance which was 
so unlike them."* For Kaivorrjs comp. 
Orig. c. Cels. i. 58 (i. p. 373) TOV 
6(p0VTa dvrcpa cv TTJ dvaToXfj Katvov 
flvai vofj.iop,ev Kal firjdfvl TO>V (rvvrjOwv 
7rapa7r\T](riov K.r.X. 

3. o6fv cXvero] The critical note 
will explain the diplomatic grounds 
on which I have placed dic(p6cipTo 
in brackets, as probably a later and 
spurious addition. The gain to the 
sense is great and obvious. 


TroQev r\ KaivoTris r\ dvofjioios ai/VoIs. oOev e'Ai/ero Trdcra 
juajeia Kal Tras Secr/uos, tl<pavi(^eTO KaKias ayvoia, KaBrj- 

(3) The sentence is much tumbled about in S (as given above), and retrans- 
lated into the Greek it would run thus, eXuero fmyeia /cat ?ras Scopes ij(pa.vL^To 
Kal Kadypeiro TraXcud /3a<rtXeta Kal /ca/a'as ayvoia. From a comparison of the two 
last it seems to follow that the Syriac Version, of which 2 is a tumbled abridg- 
ment and from which A is a corrupt text of a secondary translation, must have 
run somewhat thus ; solvebatur omnis magia et omne mnculum et error malitiae 
finiebatur et regnum vetus destruebatur , etc. The scribe of the ancestral MS of 
GG'L, having begun with a wrong punctuation, found when he got to the end of 
the sentence that he had no verb for TraXcua /3a<rtXeia and inserted 5te00efy>ero 
accordingly. Sev-Syr 5 quotes only the latter part of the sentence, ignorantia 
dissipabatur, regnum vetus corrumpebatur (destruebatur), where the last verb 
Hill K;>2nni9 is a natural rendering of dte^delpero, which was perhaps already 
in his text. 4 /j.ayeia] /j,ayia G'. 5e<r/i6s] GG'LS; #eay*6s [g]; 

al. A. KaOypetTo] g; destruebatur A; KadrjpiJTO GG'; ablata est L. 

Geou di/tfpwTriVtos (pavepov/j.frov'] GG'L; quum deus homo manifestaretur Sev-Syr; 
deov u>s avOp&irov (fiavepovfjifrov g (treating the whole context paraphrastically) ; 
per revelationem dei qui incarnatus est A; in manifestatione filii S (in an earlier 
place in the sentence ; see above). 

et species in genere damnatur.' The 
large space which magic, witchcraft, 
astrology, and the like, occupied .in 
the popular religion of the heathen, 
may be seen from the denunciations 
of the Christian fathers; e.g. Justin 
Apol. i. 14, Tertull. Apolog. 23, etc. 
See the account of Hadrian in Orac. 
SibylL viii. 56. The lapse of Julian 
into paganism was connected with 
magical rites ; Eunapius Vit. Soph. 
p. 89 sq (comp. Greg. Naz. Or at. 4, 
I. p. 102). For the prevalence of 
magic at Ephesus see Acts xix. 19. 

TTCLS deo-pos] ''every spell'; comp. 
Porph. Ep. ad Aneb. p. 5 (ed. Gale) 
Sco-fieij/ TC lepovs nvas $e<rp.ovs KCI\ 
\\ifiv TOVTOVS. As I have connected 
the words, dea-pos will refer especially 
to witchcraft, incantations, and the 
like, though it need not be confined 
to these, but will extend to any spell 
which the powers of evil exert over 
a man (see Philad. 8). For other 
examples of this sense of 8elv, 
etc., see ^sch. Eum. 303 


is thus connected with Avero, and 
pa<ri\ta with KciGypelro, to which 
they have respectively a natural 
affinity ; whereas in the common 
text they are separated. For the 
connexion of \vciv with dearpbs see 
Philad. 8 ; for the connexion of xaQ- 
aipflv with power and sovereignty, 
see above 13. 

4. nayfia] The idea that magic 
was overthrown by the Advent of 
Christ is frequent in the fathers, and 
this overthrow was commonly con- 
nected, as here, with the visit and 
worship of the magi, as the symbol 
and assurance of its defeat. See e.g. 
Tertull. de Idol. 9, Orig. c. Cels. i. 60 
(l. p. 374 so i) Kadaipovvrai at TO>V 
8aifj.6va)v eWpyeiai /z?) dwdpfvai O.VTL- 
/SXe'x/mi r< rfjs OeoTrjTos <pa>ri, with 
other references given by Cotelier. 
The same too is said in Clem. Alex. 
Exc. Theod. 72 sq (p. 986) more es- 
pecially of astrology ; comp. Tertull. 
1. c. 'attamen cum magia punitur, 
cujus est species astrologia, utique 

8 4 



peiTO TraXcua /3a(ri\eia, \_Sie(f>6eip6TO~], Oeov 
(pavepovfjievov eis KAINOTHTA aiSiov ZOOHC* dp%r)V Se e\ap,- 
fiavev TO Trapd Oew dTrrjpTiorimevov. evGev TCL TTCLVTO, 
Sid TO /meXeTao'dai davaTOV 

)rjs] GG'L Sev-Syr; ad vitam novam aeternitatis A; om. S; al. g. 
dl'Siov] deidiov G'. dpxTlv...Ka.Td\v(riv] GG' (the latter reading fKivfiro for 

aKovo-ei roVoV SeV/xioi/ o~edev (comp. ver. the genitive of apposition ; comp. 
318), Plat. Resp. ii. p. 364 C eWyo>- Winer lix. p. 666. See Rom. vi. 
yals Tio-l Kal KaTadeo-pois ; comp. 4, where also KaivoTrjs fafjs means 
Justin Dial. 85 (p. 311 C) cgopKifcva-i 'the new state which is life,' as op- 
Kal 6vfJ.Lafj,ao-i Kal KaTaSeo-p.ois ^pan/rat, posed to the old State which was 
Tertull. de Sped. 2 'vis homicidium death. Comp. Magn. 9 els /ccuvorj/ra 
ferro, veneno, magicis devinctionibus 
perfici?' Euseb. L.C. 13 4 KaTa8eo-p.ois 
Tialv aneiprjfj.evr}s yorjTeias. 

1. TraXata /3aa-iXfia] The ancient 
kingdom of the Evil One was re- 
placed by the ftao-i\eia Qeov. The 
visit of the magi was regarded from 
the earliest times as the inauguration 
of a new kingdom, this being implied 
in Matt. ii. 2. Their gifts were the 
offerings of subjects to their sove- 
reign. Compare Justin Dial. 78 (p. 
304 D) 01 yap pdyoi, OITLVCS eaKvXev- 
ftevoi yo~av npos 7rdo~as KaKas 7rpdeis 
Tas evepyovpevas VTTO TOV 

eKeivov, e\66vTes K 

Xptoro) (fraivovTai dnoo-TavTes TTJS O~KV- 
\evo-da-TjS avTOVS 8vvd/jLecos eKeivrjs, Iren. 
iii. 1 6. 4, Tertull. adv. Jud. 9, adv. 
Marc. iii. 13, etc. 

Qeov] i.e. ' when God thus appeared 
as a man to claim His own King- 
dom.' The substitution of 'at the 
revelation of the Son' for Qeov dv- 
QpwTrivtos (pavepovpevov in the Cure- 
tonian text seems to be a capricious 
alteration made by the epitomator, 
who has abridged and transposed 
freely throughout this passage. This 
is shown by the reading of the 
Armenian, which follows the Greek. 

2. els KaivoTrjTa K.r.X.] i.e. 'so as 
to introduce a new order of things, 
which is everlasting life,' fafjs being 

8e K.r.X.] i.e. 'the economy 
which had been perfected in the 
counsels of God long before began to 
take effect.' The appearance of the 
star was the beginning of the end. 

3. TO. Trdvra K.r.X.] These words 
may be compared with a passage 
in the Protevangelium, of striking 
power, but in its dramatic character 
singularly unlike the representations 
of the Canonical Gospels, where not 
the universal disturbance, but the 
universal hush, of nature is the con- 
sequence of this birth of the Victor 
of Death; 18 KOI aW/3Xe\^a els TOV 
depa Kal eldov TOV ae'pa eK$a/i/3ov Kal 
di/e/3Xe\// i a els TOV no\ov TOV ovpavov 
KOI eldov avTov eorajra K.r.X. So tOO 
Milton, 'The stars with deep amaze 
Stand fixt in stedfast gaze. 3 

4. davaTov KaTa\vo~iv] Comp. I Cor. 
XV. 26 eo~xaTos e%0pbs Karapyeirat o 
QdvaTos. The actual destruction of 
death is the last scene of all ; but 
the appearance of the star was the 
signal for the commencement of the 
war destined so to end. 

XX. ' If God permits me, I in- 
tend to write to you a second treatise, 
in which I will complete the subject 
thus begun, God's economy in the 
Passion and Resurrection of Jesus 
Christ ; more especially, if it should 


5 XX. 'Gdv jUL KaTai(jO(rri ' Irjcrovs XpurTos ev Trj 

^> i i 

TTpoorev^ri vptov, Kat 6e\rj/uLa r], ev TCO SevTepa) (3t(3\i$ia), 

% / t ' /' < l 

b [JLe\\(x) ypcKpeLV v/uuv 9 7rpO(ror]\a)a'(jo u/uuv r)$ rjp^a/mrjv 

oiKOvo/uiias a? TOV KCUVOV av6pa)7rov 'Irja-ovv XpurTov, ev 

LAg Sev-Syr; the order of the two sentences, 
K.T.\., is transposed in S. 

K.T.\. and 

please the Lord to reveal it to me. 
Only let me hear that you all meet 
together in one in the faith of Jesus 
Christ, who is both Son of God and 
Son of Man, and that you are obe- 
dient to your bishop and presbyters, 
breaking one bread, which is the 
medicine of incorruptibility and the 
antidote against death.' 

5. KciTagiwo-r)] A favourite Igna- 
tian word; Magn. I, Trail. 12, Rom. 
2, Philad. 10, Smyrn. IT, Polyc. i, 

ev Trj Trpoo-evxfl vpwv] i. e. * through 
your prayers.' The same expression 
occurs in a similar context, Philad. 
8, Smyrn. 1 1. Altogether the 'prayers' 
of his correspondents occupy a very 
prominent place in the letters of Ig- 
natius. He either asks their prayers 
for himself ( i, n,Magn. i^ Philad. 
5, 8, Smyrn. 1 1) or for the Church at 
Antioch (Rom. 9, Trail. 13); or he 
gratefully acknowledges the effects 
of their prayers on behalf of the latter 
(Philad. 10, Smyrn. 4, Polyc. 7); 
or he gives them general injunctions 
respecting prayer ( 5, 10, Magn. 7, 
Trail. 12, Smyrn. 6, Polyc. i). 

6. 6e\T)p.a] i.e. * the Divine will: 
It is used thus absolutely several 
times in Ignatius, either with the 
definite article (Polyc. 8 as TO dfXrjpa 
Trpoorao-o-ei) or, as here, without it 
(Rom. I edvTTfp BeXr^ia 77 TOV a^Lcodfjvai 
fif K.r.X., Smyrn. I vlov Qeov KO.TO. 
6e\r)p,a KOI 8vvafj.iv, ib. 1 1 Kara 6e\rjfj.a 
8e KdTT]ia>dT]v). Examples of both 
kinds appear also in S. Paul, Rom. 

ii. 17 sq Kav^aa-at ev 0fo> KOI yiva- 
o-Kfis TO 0eX?7fia, I Cor. xvi. 12 Travras 
OVK rjv fleXrjiia Iva vvv fX6r) ; though 
in the former passage the fact is 
obscured by the proximity of ee<, 
and in the latter BeXrjpa is almost 
universally misunderstood as apply- 
ing to Apollos himself. So too Clem. 
Alex. Strom, vi. 18 (p. 826) BeK^aTi 
6e\r)fj.a Kal ro) ayia> Tri/fu/zari TO aytov 
Trvi>iJ,a Ofcvpflv cdiovTfs. On the other 
hand of the devil Heracleon said that 
he /XT) ex f LV ^ a lf a ^' fTTiGvpias , Orig. 
in loann. xx. 20 (rv. p. 339). The 
translators and transcribers of Igna- 
tius however, not understanding this 
absolute use, have in several instances 
supplied genitive cases : see the 
critical notes on Rom. i, Smyrn. I, 
ii. Compare the absolute use of ?) 

Xap 1 *, T O ovopa, etc. 

fv rw Stvrepo) *.r.X.] There is no 
reason to think that this design was 
ever fulfilled : see above, p. 18. 

7. TTpOO-SjjXcoo-O) K.T.X.] ' / Will gO 

on to expound the economy (of the 
Incarnation) upon which com- 
menced? See the note on 18 xar* 

8. el? TOV Katvbv K.r.X.] ' referring 
to the new Man, Jesus Christ? the 
words being closely connected with 
oiKovofjiias. The KOIVOS avOpanros of 
Ignatius is equivalent to the co-xaros 

'Adafi, the devTepos avOpuiros, of S. 
Paul ( i Cor. xv. 45, 47). The Apostle 
himself seems to use o Kaivos avdpa- 
TTOS in a different sense, Ephes. iv. 24 
(vdvo-ao-6ai TOV KO.IVOV av6po>7rov, though 




rrj avrov Trio-ret Kal ev TY\ avrov dycnry, ev TrdOei avrov 

Kal dvaa'Tao'ei, jULaXiCTTa edv 6 Kvpios JJLOL 

+ OT"t" ol KO.T dvSpa KOivrj Trdvres ev xdpi 

crvvep^ecrQe ev JULIO, TricrTei Kal evl 'lri<rov XpicrTw TCO 

Kara (rdpKa e/c yevovs AaveiS, Tip via dvQpcoTrov Kal via) 5 

3 6'rt] GL[A] ; et n Theodt ; om. Gelas (treating avvepxevde as an impera- 
tive convenite)', al. g: see the lower note. X^/ 31 ] G[g]; rfj x A P LTi 
Theodt. 4 evl] Theodt; in uno Gelas; kv GL, and so S 2 (which has 

it is quite possible that Ignatius 
took this to mean 

ev TV avTov K.r.X.] 'consisting in 
faith towards Him and love towards 
Him! This again must be closely 
connected with oiKovop,ias ; comp. 
I Tim. i. 4 oiKovopiav Qeov TTJV ev 
Trio- TCI, TO 8e re'Xoy TTJS TrapayyeXmr 
earrlv dycnrr). For the genitive case 
see the note on Rom. inscr. So 
again the following cv rrdOet K.r.X. 
must be similarly connected. This 
latter clause describes the objective 
element, as the former described the 
subjective element, which are the 
essential characteristics of the dis- 

3. fonf /c.r.X.] 'for ye all meet 
together in common every indi- 
vidual of you! If the reading be 
correct, this must be the grammar 
and connexion of the clause. He- 
fele however follows Uhlhorn (p. 52) 
in connecting on with aTroKaXv^ * if 
the Lord reveal to me that etc.,' but 
this gives a sense altogether un- 
worthy of the writer and entirely 
opposed to his mode of speaking 
elsewhere (e.g. 3, 6, 9, 11, 12). 
But the reading is rendered sus- 
picious by the fact that Theodoret 
has ei rt, while Gelasius treats o-wcp- 
Xeo-Qf as an imperative. Moreoverthe 
dependent eis ro i>7ra.Koveiv points 
to a preceding imperative or condi- 

tional statement. Zahn (/. v. A , p. 569) 
for on suggests en, or (as preferable) 
simply TI, which he reads in his text, 
connecting it with the preceding 
words. This latter conjecture has 
much to recommend it. For ot *ar' 
avdpa, 'each individually,' see the 
note on 4, where it stands in the 
same relation to ^opos as it does to 
Koifiy ndvTcs here; comp. Smyrn. 12 
TOVS Kar' avdpa KOI KOivfj TrdvTas. In 
this passage it is further strengthened 
by e' ovopaTos ' name by namel 
'severally* ; comp. Polyc. 4 (with the 
note), 8. 

4. eVi 'IT/O-OV] or perhaps ev eVi 'irjcrov. 
The recurrence of the same letters 
GNeNimcoy would account for the 
omission. Comp. Magn. 7 els- CO-TIV 
vs Xpio-ros-, ib. o-wrpe'xere...eVt 
Xptoroz/, Clem. Rom. 46 
. . .eva Xpioroi/ ; in which 
passages the application is the same 
as here. It is equivalent to S. Paul's 
appeal in i Cor. i. 13 pepepio-Tai 6 
Xpto-rdj ; Here, as in 12, Zahn sug- 
gests the impossible form cvL 

no Kara a-dpKa /c.r.X.] This is in- 
serted as a protest against Docetic 
error, by which their unity was 
threatened. But this emphatic men- 
tion of the human nature requires a 
counterbalance. Hence he adds that 
Christ is not only ' Son of man,' but 
also 'Son of God': see above, the 
note on 18 e/c o-rrepp-aTos Aavei'S. 


Oeov, ek TO vTraKOveiv ify/as TO* eTTia-KOTrw KUI TW Trpea-- 
/3vTpiw dTrepKTTrdcTTa) Siavoia- eva dprov fcAwi/res, o 
earriv (pdp/maKOv ddavacrlas, aVr/Soros TOV jmrj aTroOaveiv 
d\\d %fiv ev 'Irjcrov XpKrrcp Sid TTCIVTOS. 
10 XXI. ' AvTi\jsw%ov v/uLcoif eycoy KO.I Ssv 

in una fide in iesu christo}; al. Ag. See the converse error, Ephes. n. 
T<] G; om. Theodt; al. g. 5 Actve/5] Sad G. dvOputrov... 

Qeov] G; TOU dvdpw-rrov...Tov Oeov Theodt; al. g. 7 /cXoWes] gLA; 

K\UVTOS G. o] gL; os G; dub. A. 10 wv] g (but 1 has quern}; ov GLA. 

eternal life, because they partake of 
the eucharistic bread. We need not 
however suppose that Ignatius had 
this very material conception in view. 
8. dvTLo~oTos] This word, when 
used as a substantive, is either ij 
dvrio'oTos (sc. Sui/a/zis, e.g. Strabo iii. 
4. 14 dvTidoTois Tto-i 6Wafieo-i; see 
E. A. Sophocles Lex. s. v.) or TO 
diTi'SoToi/ (sc. (pdpudKov, e.g. Anthol. 

Ad. 8O, III. p. 1 66, TOUTO ydp fCTTl 
KdKWV (pdpfMdKOV dvTlSoTOv) J but nCVCl' 

apparently o dvriSoTos. The femi- 
nine is the more common, e.g. Clem. 
Horn. xi. 9. The dependent geni- 
tive commonly describes the thing 
counteracted and not, as here, the 
result of the counteraction. 

XXI. 'I am devoted to you and 
your representatives at Smyrna, from 
which place I write. Remember 
me, and so will Christ remember 
you. Pray for the Church in Syria, 
whence I was carried in bonds to 
Rome, though all unworthy of the 
glorious destiny which awaits me. 
Farewell in God the Father and in 
Jesus Christ.' 

10. 'Avrfyvxov] So too Smyrn. 10, 
Polyc. 2, 6. The interpolator has 
caught up the phrase, as character- 
istic of Ignatius, and introduces it 
freely, Tars. 8, Ant. 7, 12, Hero 9, 
Philipp. 14. 'AI/T/^U^OI/ is properly 
'a life offered for a life,' 'a vicarious 
sacrifice' ; as [Joseph.] Mace. 

7- drrfpio-Trdo-Ta] ' undistracted' ; 
Wisd. xvi. ii, Ecclus. xli. I. So 
aTreptcrTrao-rcos 1 , I Cor. vii. 35. The 
words are not uncommon in classical 
writers of the age of Polybius and 
later, more especially in Stoic circles ; 
e.g. Epict. i. 29. 52, ii. 21. 22, etc., 
M. Antonin. iii. 6. 

eva aprov K\wvTes] The refer- 
ence will be to the agape, but more 
especially to the eucharistic bread, 
in which the agape culminated, and 
which was the chief bond of Chris- 
tian union ; comp. Philad. 4 O-TTOV- 
daa-are ovv fjiia eu^aptoria ^p^o-^at' 
/ni'a yap (mp roi; Kvpi'ou K.r.X., Smyrn. 

8 TOVS fJLpl(T^,OVS <pVyT...fK(lVT] /3f- 

/3am fvxapKrria ^-yeto-^eo, T) VTTO TOV 


TOV eVia-KOTTov OVTC /3a7m'aj/ ovre 
dydirrjv TTOLC'IV (sec the note there). 
For K\av apTov comp. Acts ii. 46 
(comp. ver. 42), xx. 7, ii, i Cor. x. 16, 
where it occurs as a synonyme for 
celebrating the eucharistic feast, ap- 
parently in all cases in conjunction 
with the agape. 

o] The right reading rather than or. 
The o may refer either to the whole 
preceding clause, 'this concord and 
unity in breaking bread,' or to apros 
alone by attraction with <pdpp,aKov. 
The latter is the more probable ; see 
Irenseus iv. 18. 5, v. 2. 3 (passages 
quoted by Jacobson), who argues 
that our fleshly bodies must inherit 




Oeov TifULrjv ek CfJivpvav o6ev KCII ypd(f>a) VJULIV ev%a- 
TW Kvpiw, dyaTrwv flo\VKap7rov ws Kat vjULas. 
JJLOV, ok Kat v/uwv 'Iri&ovs XpicrTOS. Trpocr- 
vTrep Trjs e'fCfcXfjcr/as T^S eV Cvpia, oQev SeSe- 

3 Kal] GAg; om. L (the omission of et after ut being easy). 

yVov...Kaddpo~iov avrav Troirjo-ai TO 
epov alfia, KOI dvrtyvxov (v. 1. avrl 
^rvX&v) avraiv Xa/3e rr/v eftrjv \lsvfflv, 
ib. ver. 17 &>o-7rep avrfyv^ov yryovoras 
rfjs TOV fBvovs a/xapr/ay: COITlp. I 
Kings xx. 39 KOL earat ij ^X^ "^ 
avri rfjs ^vxys avTov, ib. ver. 42, 2 
Kings x. 24, Clem. Rom. 49. Hence 
S. Athanasius uses it of our Lord in 
a sense nearly equivalent to avri- 
\vrpov, e.g. de Incarn. Verb. 9 (i. p. 
44); comp. i John iii. 16 enflvos virep 
rrjv ^VXTJV avrov eOrjuev KOI tj/j.f'is 
r&v aSeX0c5j/ ras ^vx^s 
The Syriac translator of Ig- 
natius has employed the same phrase, 
' I will be instead of thy soul/ which 
is found in the Peshito in the pas- 
sages of the O. T. The expression 
means therefore properly ' I give my 
life for you,' 'I devote myself for 
you,' and is closely allied to trfpi- 
v/x^a in meaning (see the note on 
8); but the direct idea of a vi- 
carious death is more or less ob- 
literated, and the idea of devotion 
to and affection for another stands 
out prominently. We cannot there- 
fore press the allusion to his ap- 
proaching martyrdom. See the 
similar Jewish use of mDD (Bux- 
torf's Lex. s. v. p. 1078, to which 
Jacobson refers here). It is in a 
different sense that Anselm said of 
Osbern (Epist. i. 4, p. 313) 'anima 
ejus anima mea est,' and that Horace 
calls Maecenas 'meae partem animae.' 
Even if there were any authority for 
this sense of dvrfyvxov 'another self, 3 
we should expect not dvrfyvxov v^v 
eyw, but dvrtyvxov /xou vpcls. 

coi/] i.e. fKcivav ovs, referring to 
Onesimus, Burrhus, Crocus, Euplus, 
Fronto, and others ; see I, 2. This 
is clearly the right reading, in place 
of which ov would easily be sub- 
stituted by careless transcribers : for 
(i) The earlier part of the epistle 
mentions several representatives of 
the Ephesian Church ; (2) The gram- 
mar of ov would be extremely harsh 
as well as ambiguous, since it might 
stand for either tKfivov ov or enflvos 
6i>, and indeed the latter would be 
the more natural construction. (3) 
In the other letters written from 
Smyrna the Ephesian delegates are 
spoken of in the plural; Magn. 15, 
Trail. 13, Rom. 10. 

i. fit Qfov TI/ZTJJ/I As just below. 
So too Smyrn. 11, Polyc. 5; comp. 
Magn. 3, Trail. 12. 

evxapio-Twv] One chief subject of 
his thanksgiving is obviously his in- 
tercourse with Polycarp, for whom 
he entertains a strong affection (aya- 

TTtoV Ho\VKapnOV K.T.A.). 

3. fJiVT]fJLOVfVT flOv] i.C. CV TOiS TTpOO"- 

cvxais vfjiwv ; see Magn. 14, Trail. 
13, Rom. 9. 

y lr)o~oi)s Xpiordff] SC. p,vr][JLOvevcrei or 
fjLvrjp.ovv(Ti : see the note on Smyrn. 

irpovfvXfvQel The same request is 
made in all the other letters written 
from Smyrna; Magn. 14, Trail. 13, 
Rom. 9. 

4. o#e v dedefj.fvos'] As Smyrn. 1 1 ; 
see also above i. 

5. aTrayo/Moi] The word is com- 
monly used of criminals led to trial 
or execution ; comp. e.g. Matt, xxvii. 


5 fJLevos 6*5 ' Pa)iuLf]v aTrayofuuxiy eV^aTOs (Sv TCOV eKei TTICTTCOV, 
alcTTrep ^LwBrjv eis TLJJLTIV Oeov evpeBrjvai. ''Eppworde ev 
Qew TrctTpi Kai ev 'Irjarov XpicrTa) Trj KOivrj \7riSi r\\ 

7 eXwidt rituai/] txt GL; add. 
add. gratia vobiscum ; amen A. 

There is no subscription in GLA. For Sg see the Appx. 

2, Acts xii. 19, in which latter pas- 
sage for the correct reading a?ra^^- 
i/ai D has dnoKTavd^vai. 

Tfov e'/m] i. e. ev Si'pt'u ; COmp. 
Trail. 13 r^y eV Supt'a, o^ev <at ou< 

Reuses similar language also, Magn. 
14, Smyrn. n, ^?<?;. 9. 
6. Jo-Trep] To be connected with 

*Eppa><7#e] This was a common 
salutation at the close of a letter, as 
xaipeiv was at the commencement ; 
Artemid. Oneir. iii. 44 iSioi/ yapTrdo-^y 

fTTLCTToXfis TO XaipflJ/ Kal TO "EppOXTO 

(quoted by Pearson on Smyrn. inscr.). 

They correspond to the Latin Salve 
and Vale respectively. "Eppwo-o (ep- 
pcoo-^e), like vyiaive, was regarded 
as essentially a parting salutation, 
' Farewell ' ; ib. i. 82 ov yap Trpoai- 
ovrfs d\\TJ\ots...TavTa Xfyovviv av- 
^pcoTrot, aXX* aTraXXarrofiei/ot : COmp. 
e.g. Boeckh C. 7. G. 3832, 3833, in 
letters. The parting salutation in 
all the seven epistles takes this 
form ; the attached words however 
varying, e.g. tv Kvpi'w, ev ^aptrt Qeov, 

7. TV Kowfi K.T.X.] See the notes 
\ y Magn. ii. 


Excursus on yez^ros KCU ayeV^ro? 7. 

THE Son is here declared to be yew/ros as man and ayeVvr/Tos as 
God, for this is clearly shown to be the meaning from the parallel 
clauses. Such language is not in accordance with later theological 
definitions, which carefully distinguished between yei/iyro's and yew^ro's, 
between ayevryros and ayewrjTos so that yc^ros, ayet^-ros, respectively 
denied and affirmed the eternal existence, being equivalent to KTIO-TO'S, 
a/mores, while ytvvYjTos, aycvv^ro?, described certain ontological rela- 
tions, whether in time or in eternity. In the later theological language 
therefore the Son was ycwryro? even in His Godhead. See esp. Joann. 
Damasc. de Fid. Orth. i. 8 (i. p. 135 Lequien) xp>7 yap etSeW oVi TO 
Sia TOV cvo? v ypa^>o/xevov, TO OLKTLCTTOV 77 TO /AT) 
TO Se ayevv^rov, Sta TWI/ oVo i/v ypa^o'/xei/ov, 817X01 TO /XT) 
K.T.X.; whence he draws the conclusion that /AOVOS d TraTrj 
and /x-ovos d wos yevy^Tos. 

There can be little doubt however that Ignatius wrote 

though his editors frequently alter it into yei/^Tos KCU aye- 
For (i) The Greek MS still retains the double v, though the 
claims of orthodoxy would be a temptation to scribes to substitute the 
single v. And to this reading also the Latin genitus et ingenitus points. 
On the other hand it cannot be concluded that translators who give 
factus et non factus had yev^Tos KCU aycVr/Tos ; for this was after all what 
Ignatius meant by yevviyros K.T.X., and they would naturally render his 
words so as to make his orthodoxy apparent. (2) When Theodoret 
' writes ycwiyros e ayei/vrfrov, it is clear that he, or the person before him 
who first substituted this reading, must have read yei/v^Tos KOL ayeWr/Tos; 
for there would be no temptation to alter the perfectly orthodox 
ycv^Tos Kat ayeVijTos, nor (if altered) would it have taken this form. 

(3) When the interpolator substitutes d /xoVos aA^flivos eos o e dyeW^Tos. . . 
TOV 8e /xovoyevovs TraTrjp Kat ytvvrjriop, the natural inference is that he too 
had the forms in double v, which he retained, at the same time altering 
the whole run of the sentence so as not to do violence to his own doc- 
trinal views; see Bull JDef. Fid. Nic. ii. 2 6 (Works v. p. 114 sq). 

(4) The quotation in Athanasius is more difficult. The MSS vary, and 
his editors write yev^Tos Kat ayeVr/Tos. Zahn too, who has paid more 
attention to this point than any previous editor of Ignatius, in his 
former work (Ign. v. Ant. p. 564) supposed Athanasius to have read and 
written the words with a single v, though in his subsequent edition of 


Ignatius (p. 338) he declares himself unable to determine between the 
single and double v. I believe however that the argument of Athanasius 
decides in favour of the w. Elsewhere he insists repeatedly on the 
distinction between KTI&IV and yci/vav, justifying the use of the latter 
term as applied to the divinity of the Son, and defending the statement 
in the Nicene Creed yevvrjTov CK TT^S ovcrias TOV Trarpos rov viov o/xoovcrioi> 
(De Synod. 54, i. p. 612). Although he is not responsible for the lan- 
guage of the Macrostich (De Synod. 3, i. p. 590), rov varepa 

ovra KOL ayevvrjTOV yeyevi/^Kevai av<^>iKro)s KOL TTOLCTLV a 
' ToV Se viov yeyevvrj(T@a.L Trpo cutovwv KOI /A^KCTI d/xotws T<3 Trarpl 
elvat KOL avrov, aAA.' dp-fflv ZX LV v y^vvqaravra Trarepa, and 
would have regarded it as inadequate without the d/xoovo-tov, yet this use 
of terms entirely harmonizes with his own. In the passage before us, 
ib. 46, 47 (p. 607), he is defending the use of d/xoovVios at Nicaea, 
notwithstanding that it had been previously rejected by the Council 
which condemned Paul of Samosata, and he contends that both Coun- 
cils were orthodox, since they used d/xoov'o-ios in a different sense. As a 
parallel instance he takes the word ayeWrjros, which, like d/zoovVios, is 
not a scriptural word, and like it also is used in two ways, signifying 
either (i) TO oV /xcv, /r^re Sc yevvrjOev /XT/TC oAw? e^ov TOV amov, or (2) TO 
aKTio-Toi/. In the former sense the Son cannot be called dyevvrjros ; in 
the latter He may be so called. Both uses, he says, are found in the 
fathers. Of the latter he quotes the passage in Ignatius as an example ; 
of the former he says, that some writers subsequent to Ignatius declare 
ei/ TO dyevvrjTOV 6 Trarrjp, /cat ets d e avTOu Did? yvT/o-ios, yevvr/tia dhrjOwov 
K.T.X. [He may have been thinking of Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 7, which 
I shall quote below.] He maintains that both are orthodox, as having 
in view two different senses of the word ayeWrjTov; and the same, he 
argues, is the case with the Councils which seem to take opposite 
sides with regard to o/uoov'o-to?. It is clear from this passage, as Zahn 
truly says, that Athanasius is dealing with one and the same word 
throughout; and, if so, it follows that this word must be ayevi/r/Tov, 
since dytvrjrov would be intolerable in some places. I may add by 
way of caution that in two other passages, de Decret. Syn. Nic. 28 (i. 
p. 184), Orat. c. Arian. i. 30 (i. p. 343), S. Athanasius gives the various 
senses of a'yeVrjTov (for this is plain from the context), and that these 
passages ought not to be treated as parallels to the present passage 
which is concerned with the senses of dytwrjTov. Much confusion is 
thus created, e.g. in Newman's notes on the several passages in the 
Oxford translation of Athanasius (pp. 51 sq, 224 sq), where the three 
passages are treated as parallel, and no attempt is made to discriminate 


the readings in the several places, but 'ingenerate' is given as the 
rendering of ayiv^rov and ayo/j/^rov alike. If then Athanasius also 
read yevi/^ro? KCU ayeW^ros in Ignatius, there is absolutely no authority 
for yenyros KCU ayeV^ros. The earlier editors (Voss, Ussher, Cotelier, 
etc.) printed it as they found it in the MS; but Smith substituted the 
forms with the single v, and he has been followed more recently by 
Hefele, Dressel, and some others. In the Casanatensian copy of the 
MS a marginal note is added, ctvayvwo-reov ayev^TO? TOVT* ecrri fi/rj 
TroirjOeLs. Waterland (Works HI. p. 240 sq, Oxf. 1823) tries ineffect- 
ually to show that aytWqros was invented by the fathers at a later date 
to express their theological conception. He even 'doubts whether 
there was any such word as ayeW^ros so early as the time of Ignatius.' 
In this he is certainly wrong. 

The MSS of early Christian writers exhibit much confusion between 
yev^TOS and yevy-tyro?, dyevrjTOS and dyivvr^ro^ : see e. g. Justin Dial. 2 
(p. 218) with Otto's note; Athenag. Suppl. 4 with Otto's note ; Theophil. 
ad Autol. ii. 3, 4; Iren. iv. 38. i, 3; Orig. c. Cels. vi. 66; Method. 
de Lib. Arbitr. p. 57 Jahn (see Jahn's note 11. p. 122); Maximus in 
Euseb. Praep. Ev. vii. 2 2 ; Hippol. Haer. v. 1 6 (from Sibylline Oracles) ; 
Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 14, pp. 702, 718; and very frequently in later 
writers. Yet notwithstanding the confusion into which later transcribers 
have thus thrown the subject, it is still possible to ascertain the main 
facts respecting the usage of the two forms. The distinction between 
the two terms, as indicated by their origin, is that ayev^ros denies the 
creation, and aycW^Tos the generation or parentage. Both are used at 
a very early date; e.g. ayeV^ros by Parmenides in Clem. Alex. Strom. 
v. 14 (p. 716) ws ayeVrjrov eoV /cat ai/a>Xc0pov eoriv, and by Agathon in 
Arist. Eth. NlC. vi. 2 (p. 1139) dyevrjra Trotetv a<r<r' aV rj TreTrpay/zeva 
(comp. also Orac. Sibyll. prooem. 7, 17); and a'yeW^ros in Soph. 
Track. 6 1 Ka ayei/vvfnoi/ apa pvOoi KaAws TTLTTTOVCTIV (where it is equivalent 
to Svo-yci/coi/). Here the distinction of meaning is strictly preserved, 
and so probably it always is in Classical writers ; for in Soph. Track. 
743 TO yap <f>av6ev rts av Swatr* aycvv^rov TTOLCLV we should after Porson 
and Hermann read Swatr' oV ayeV^rov iroielv with Suidas. In Christian 
writers also there is no reason to suppose that the distinction was ever 
lost, though in certain connexions the words might be used convertibly. 
Whenever, as here in Ignatius, we have ayeW^ros where we should 
expect ayev^Tos, we must ascribe the fact to the indistinctness or 
incorrectness of the writer's theological conceptions, not to any ob- 
literation of the meaning of the terms themselves. To this early 
father for instance the eternal ye'myo-ts of the Son was not a distinct 


theological idea, though substantially he held the same views as the 
Nicene fathers respecting the Person of Christ. The following pas- 
sages from early Christian writers will serve at once to show how far 
the distinction was appreciated, and to what extent the Nicene concep- 
tion prevailed in Antenicene Christianity; Justin Apol ii. 6 (p. 44) ovo/ta 
8c TO> irdvrtov Trarpt Otrov, ayci/vT/TO) OVTI, OVK ZVTIV...O 8e vtds eKetVov o 
povos Xeyd/zcvos Kvptcos vtds, o Xdyos Trpd TWV Trotry/xarcov Kat o~vvwv /cat 
yvva>'yuevos K.T.X., comp. ib. 13 (p. 51); Athenag. Suppl. 10 eVa TOV 
dyivrfTov /cat>' ov ycyeVr/Tat TO TrdV Sta TOV avVov Xdyov...ep<3 
Sta jSpa^ewv [TOI/ vtdv] TrpcoTOi/ yeVvTy/xa etvat TO> TraTpt, ov^ to? yi>o- 
ftt/ov K.T.X. (comp. /^. 4); Theoph. ad Allt. ii. 3 et yap eyevvwv /cat 
[0Ot], ST^XOV on expyv /cat ecus roi) Sevpo ytvecr^at ^eovs 
/c.r.X. ; Tatian ^T*^. 5 o Xoyos ev a'p^ yevvTy^cts avre- 
r>;V /ca^' Ty/xas 7rotr;o-tv (with the context); Rhodon in Euseb. 

H. JE. V. 13 TO Se 7TCOS O-Tt [Aid Oip^lj. fJt,TJ yLVWCTK^LV eXeyeV. . .fJilfJ 7Tt- 

(TTacrOai TTWS ets eo~Ttv ayev^TyTOS eo? ; Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 7 (p. 769) 
ei> /x,V TO V ayivvf]rov d TravroKparwp O9, f 8e Kat TO Trpoyevv^^cv 8t' 
ou Ta TravTa eyeveTO K.T.X. ; Orig. f. CV/jr. vi. 17 (p. 643) ovre yap TOV 
dyevrjrov Kat Trao-rys ytvrjTiis c^uVcws TrpcuTOTOKov KaT* a^tav ctSei/at Tts 
Swarai, tog o' yevvryo^as avTov vrar^p K.T.\., /^. vi. 52 Trepi /ACV yci/ccrews 
KO(TfJiov Kat c/>0opas, ^ ws ayei/r;TO5 Kat ac/>$apTos, ^ oJs yevr/TOS /x,i/ ac/>0apTOS 
8e K.T.X. ; Concil. Antioch. (A.D. 269) in Routh ^/. 6^rr. HI. p. 290 OTI d 

cos aycvvT^Tos, etg, dvap^og, K.T.X TOVTOV 8e TOI/ vtov yevvr/Tov, /ao- 

woV K.T.X. ; Method. */<? Great. 5 (p. 101 Jahn) ye^Tov TO />nj 
X OV Q-PX^v ^ >at/> ?? <*!> ; ov 8^Ta et yap IJLTJ VTroTTtTTTet yeveo-cws 
avayKr;? ayeV^ToV tVTtv ct Se yeyovev, K.T.X. In no early 
Christian writing however is the distinction more obvious than in 
the Clementine Homilies, X. 10 TOV /xoVov ayev^TOv, OT Ta XoiTra TravTa 
ycvr^Ta TvyxdVer ws ovv TOV dyfvirjTov tSiov TO ^eds eTvat, OVTCOS TTOLV 
drtow yf.v6fjif.vov 6fo<s TW 6Wt OVK ICTTIV, xvi. 1 6 TOV TraTpo? TO /XT; ye- 
yfvvrjo~6a,i O"Ttv, vtov oe TO yf.yf.vvr)o~Ba.i' yfvvrjTOV 8c ayev^Tw T; Kat 
avToyewrfra) ov o-vyKptVcTat K.T.X. (where the distinction is employed 
to support the writer's heretical theology): see also viii. 16 en-e ayatfot 
ctTe KaKot ov yewo/xefla a'XXa ytvo'/xe^a, and comp. xix. 3, 4, 9, 12. The 
following are instructive passages as regards the use of these words 
where the opinions of other heretical writers are given ; Saturninus, 
Iren. i. 24. i, Hippol. Haer. vii. 28 ; Simon Magus, Hippol. Haer. vi. 
17, 18; the Valentinians, Hippol. Haer. vi. 29, 30, the Ptolemaeus in 
particular, Ptol. Ep. ad Flor. 4 (in Stieren's Irenseus p. 935); Basilides, 
Hippol. Haer. vii. 22; Carpocrates, Hippol. Haer. vii. 32. 

From the above passages it will appear that Antenicene writers were 


not indifferent to the distinction of meaning between the two words ; 
and when once the orthodox Christology was formulated in the Nicene 
Creed in the words yeyv^eWa, ov TroLrjOevra, it became henceforth im- 
possible to overlook the difference. The Son was thus declared to 
be yew^To's, but not ycv^To'?. I am therefore unable to agree with 
Zahn (Marcellus pp. 40, 104, 223, Ign. von Ant. p. 565) that at the 
time of the Arian controversy the disputants were not alive to the 
difference of meaning. See for example Epiphanius, Haer. Ixiv. 8 
(p. 531) ws yap TLV<S [i.e. the Arians] ^/xas f3ovXovTai o-o<teo-0ai KCLL 
A.eyeiv tcrov TO yev^Tov e?vat TO> yevi/^TU), ov TrapaSeKTeov Se e?rt eov 
Aeyeiv, aAA rj 7ri ra KTiayxaTa /xovov ercpov yap efrrt ycv^Tov Kat erepoi/ 
eo-Ti ycw^ToV, K.r.X. ; where he is arguing against a passage of Origen 
which ran (at least as Epiphanius read it) TW Trarpl TWV oJW e<3 Sia 
rov (TODT^pos ?7/>ia)i/ Kai ap^icpeoo? yci/r/TOv eov K.T.X. But it had no 
special interest for them. While the orthodox party clung to the 
o/xoo^crtos as enshrining the doctrine for which they fought, they had 
no liking for the terms oy^/^Tos and yei/i/rjros, as applied to the Father 
and the Son respectively, though unable to deny their propriety, be- 
cause they were affected by the Arians and applied in their own way. 
To the orthodox mind the Arian formula ou/c fjv irplv yvvr)0rjvai, or 
some Semiarian formula hardly less dangerous, seemed always to be 
lurking under the expression eos ycvvrfrds as applied to the Son. 
Hence the language of Epiphanius Haer. Ixxiii. 19 (p. 866) eaf ot Kau/ot 
i TrpocrSiaAeyo/xevoi ayevv^Tov A.eyovcrt /cat ycvv/yrov, epoi)/u,ev atrrois, 
?7 KaKOVpy^traj/res TO TT^S ovo~ta5 6Vo/w,a ei/ ^pT/o-et TOIS Trarpdcnv 
cos aypa^oi/ ov 8e^O-^e, ovSc 77ju,ts TO ayei/vr^TOv aypa^>ov oV 
K.T.X., i.e. 'As you refuse to accept our o'/xoovo-ios because, though 
used by the fathers, it does not occur in the Scriptures, so will we 
decline on the same grounds to accept your ayeVvr/Tos.' Similarly Basil 
c. Eunom. i (i. p. 215 sq, p. 227 sq, p. 235), iv (p. 281), and 
especially ib. iv (p. 283 sq), in which last passage he argues at 
great length against the position of the heretics, d ayeW^ros, <ao-iV, 
d TraT-^p, yevv^Tos Se o vlo<s, ov rrjs avT^s ovo-ias. See also the argu- 
ments against the Anomceans in [Athan.] Dial, de Trin. ii passim 
(Op. ii. p. 423 sq). This fully explains the reluctance of the orthodox 
party to handle terms which their adversaries used to endanger the 
o'/AoouVios. But, when the stress of the Arian controversy was removed, 
it became convenient to express the Catholic doctrine by saying that 
the Son in His Divine nature was yei/v^Tos but not yer^TdV And this 
distinction is staunchly maintained in later orthodox writers, e. g. John 
of Damascus (quoted above p. 90). 





A^TER leaving Ephesus, says Strabo, the first city is Magnesia 
(xiv. I, p. 647 Trporrq 8' tarlv e 'E<e<rov Mayv^cria). The 
sequence in the Ignatian Epistles is the same as the sequence in the 
geographer's itinerary. 

Magnesia by the Mczander was said to have been originally a settle- 
ment of the Magnesians from Thessaly (Strabo xiv. i, p. 636; Plin. 
N. H. v. 31). The site of the city was well chosen. The valley of the 
Cayster on the north is separated from that of the Maeander on the south 
by a mountain chain running for the most part nearly due east and 
west, but taking a more southerly direction in its western extremity and 
terminating in the promontory of Mycale opposite Samos. Indeed the 
lofty island of Samos itself is only a prolongation of this same mountain 
range which is broken by the intervening channel of the sea. There is 
a very marked depression in the chain towards its western extremity. 
The long range eastward of this depression, bounding the valley of the 
Maeander on the north during the greater part of its course, bore the 
name of Messogis ; the shorter range to the west or seaward was called 
Mount Mycale. A few miles to the north of this depression in the 
valley of the Cayster stood the famous city of Ephesus ; while to the 
south, immediately below the pass, on the ground overhanging the valley 
of the Maeander Magnesia was built. It thus commanded the pass 
through which ran the high road connecting the fertile and populous 
valley of the Maeander with the metropolis of Asia Minor. 

Magnesia is occasionally designated the ' Asiatic ' in earlier times to 
distinguish it from the Thessalian district of the same name ; but in 
later writers, from Aristotle downwards, it is specified as ' Magnesia by' 
or 'on the Maeander', in contradistinction to another Asiatic city of 

IGN. II. 7 


the same name, which had risen meanwhile into importance, ' Mag- 
nesia under' or 'against Sipylus' (see the references given below p. 106). 
It was not however situated directly on the banks of the Maeander, 
as this name would suggest, but on a tributary, the Lethaeus, at a 
distance of some four miles (6J kilometres, Texier Asie Mineure in. 
p. 41) from the larger river; comp. Strabo xiv. i, p. 647, Mayv^tria TroXts 
AioXi?, Xeyo/xerty Sc ITTL MatavSpov' Tr\f]viov yap avrov tSpurai ' ?roXv Se 
TrX^onairepov d AyOaLos 6ju,/3a'XX(oi/ ets rov MatavSpov. Hence Pausanias 
persistently speaks of Magnesia or the Magnesians ' on the Lethaeus ' 
(i. 35. 6, v. 21. 10, vi. 17. 3, x. 32. 6; comp. Nicander in Athen. xv. p. 
683 A.r)9a.Lov MayvtyTos e<' vScurw). But in coins, inscriptions, and all 
public documents, as well as in common parlance, it was designated by 
the nobler stream. 

Earlier travellers (Smith, Chandler, Pococke, and others) had identi- 
fied Magnesia ad Maeandrum with the modern town of Giizel-Hissar. 
Its true site was pointed out by W. R. Hamilton in 1803. Its modern 
representative is Inek-Bazar, or more properly Eyineh-Bazar (W. J. 
Hamilton's Researches in Asia Minor i. p. 535) ; whereas Giizel-Hissar, 
otherwise known as Aidin, is close to the site of the ancient Tralles, some 
eighteen miles from Magnesia. These latter identifications alone agree 
with the distances recorded in ancient books of travel, and they are 
rendered absolutely certain by inscriptions found on the respective sites 
(see Leake's Asia Minor p. 242 sq). The scenery and ruins of Mag- 
nesia are described in Arundell Seven Churches p. 58 sq ; in Texier Asie 
Mineure in. p. 35 sq, p. 90 sq, and in some respects more fully in his 
smaller work of the same name in Didot's series EUnivers p. 346 sq; in 
Murray's Handbook for Turkey in Asia p. 305 sq ; in Hamilton's Asia 
Minor i. p. 538 sq ; and elsewhere. It stands on the right bank of the 
Lethaeus and is built partly on the side of Mount Thorax, a spur or 
buttress of the main range, and partly in a plain girt with a back- 
ground of hills (Strabo xiv. I, p. 647, KCITOU 8' ev TreSi'o) TT/OOS opei 
KttXov/AeVo) copaKi ij TTO'XIS; comp. Diod. Sic. xiv. 36). The theatre, 
as usual, is situated on the hill-side ; the principal ruin in the plain is 
the temple of Artemis Leucophryene 1 . The ravine of the Lethaeus to 

1 Though the question respecting the author which seems to have been alto- 
relation of Leucophrys and Magnesia has gether overlooked, but which neverthe- 
no direct bearing on my subject, I ven- less contains the key to the solution of 
ture to discuss it briefly in a note, as the difficulty. 

this will give me an opportunity of call- The facts are these, (i) Xenophon (Hell. 

ing attention to a passage in an ancient iii. i. 14), speaking of the campaign of 



the east of the city, as it descends from its sources in Messogis to join 
the Mseander, is described as singularly beautiful. 

Dercyllidas (B. c. 396) in Asia Minor, 
states that, a parley having been agreed 
upon between the generals of the contend- 
ing armies, the Persians retired to Tralles 
and the Greeks 'to Leucophrys where 
was a temple of Artemis of peculiar 
sanctity (ts Aeiko^pi/v vda rjv 'Apr^uiSos 
lepbv jj.a\a ayiov) and a lake more than 
a stadium (in length), sandy and peren- 
nial, of warm water fit to drink'. In a 
later passage (#. iv. 8. 17), where he is 
giving an account of the campaign of 
Thimbron (B.C. 391) in this same region, 
he speaks of his setting out from Ephesus 
and from 'the cities in the plain of the 
Mseander, Priene and Leucophrys and 
Achilleion.' [This last by the way cannot 
be the place bearing the same name in 
the Troad, as commentators seem to 
assume.] In neither passage does he 
mention Magnesia, though Magnesia had 
existed for centuries. (2) Strabo (xiv. i, 
p. 647), speaking of the temple of the 
Mother of the Gods built by Themisto- 
cles, writes, ' Now however the temple 
does not exist (OVK fort rb Iep6i>), because 
the city has been removed (neryKladai) 
to another place ; but in the present city 
(iv TT; vvv irtiXei) there is the temple of 
Artemis Leucophryene ' etc. 

Boeckh (C. I. G. II. p. 582) discerns 
the true solution. The city of Magnesia 
stood originally on another site, but was 
afterwards transferred to Leucophrys, so 
that the ancient temple of Artemis of 
Leucophrys was now within the city of 
Magnesia itself. This may perhaps be 
also the meaning of Texier (L'Univers 
PP- 349' 35)> but I am not quite sure 
that I understand him. When then did 
this removal take place? Texier (p. 350) 
says, when it was rebuilt after its destruc- 
tion by the Treres, a Cimmerian people 
(see Strabo I.e.). But this is quite im- 
possible, as Boeckh had already pointed 

out (n. p. 700): for, though the age of 
this invasion of the Treres is doubtful, it 
certainly took place long before the time of 
Themistocles, and yet Magnesia was still 
on its ancient site in his time. Boeckh 
continues 'Addo earn (i.e. translationem) 
factam videri ante medium tertium sae- 
culum Christianam praecedens epocham, 
nam vs. 84 nostri foederis Dianae Leuco- 
phryenae templum Magnesiae ad Maean- 
drum tribuitur'. [The words of the 
treaty (about B.C. 244) are 
T-Q wpbs Tip Mcuai'Spy ev rf rrjs ' 
TTJS Aewco0/9ir?7j/?)s.] But indeed we are 
not dependent on conjecture, where direct 
evidence is forthcoming. He and others 
have overlooked a passage in Diodorus 
(xiv. 36) which gives the fact. Diodorus, 
speaking of an earlier campaign (B.C. 
399) of the same Thimbron in these re- 
gions, says that, having taken Magnesia 
and made an unsuccessful attack on 
Tralles, he retired to Magnesia, rairrT/s 
5' oC<rrjs dretxforou, /ecu Sia TOVTO 
jj.vos n~f) Trore xwpiaWj'Tos airrou 
rrjs ir6Xeu>s 6 TiffffCKptpvrjs, fj.fTifKi.aev 
avr^v irpos rb jrXvja'tov 6pos o KO.- 
\ovffi QupaKa. Here then is the whole 
account of the matter. The position 
chosen by Thimbron exactly corresponds 
to the site of the later city as described 
by Strabo. In its original position it 
was defenceless and had been exposed 
to successive captures ; but he removed it 
nearer to the hill-side, as the term Xetf- 
Ko<j>pvs, 'White-brow' or 'White- cliff ', 
itself suggests, so as at once to incor- 
porate the ancient temple of Artemis 
and to make Mount Thorax serve as a 
natural fortress. A few years later (B.C. 
391), during Thimbron's second cam- 
paign, Xenophon can still speak of Leu- 
cophrys, because the migration was still 
recent, perhaps was not yet complete ; 
and the name of the old fortress had not 



Magnesia rose to very considerable importance at an early date. 
Its connexion with Themistocles, as his place of residence during his 
exile (Thuc. i. 138; Diod. Sic. xi. 57 ; Strabo xiv. i, p. 647 ; Athen. i. p. 
29 ; Plut. Vit. Them. 30, 31, 32 ; see Grote's History of Greece v. p. 385 
sq), has given it a special renown. His descendants, one of whom bore 
his own name, enjoyed exceptional honours there even as late as the 
age of Ignatius (Plut. Vit. Them. 32). A more speaking testimony to 
its importance is the fact that the Persian satraps appear at one time 
to have chosen it as their place of abode (Herod, iii. 122, Diod. Sic. 
xiv. 36). Indeed, considering the advantages of its situation and the 
fertility of the country, the surprise is not that it was a considerable city 
but that it did not attain to even greater distinction. During the 
Roman period it appears to have declined somewhat in importance 
(Tac. Ann. iv. 55) ; but it continued to strike coins as late as the reign of 
Gallienus A.D. 260 268 (Mionnet Supplement VH. p. 256). Among the 
famous men, who were natives of Magnesia, Strabo especially mentions 
the orator Hegesias the founder of the florid Asiatic style of eloquence, 
and Simus the inventor of a licentious form of lyric poetry called 
Simodia after him, each in a different way the corruptor of his respective 
art (I.e. p. 648). Altogether its literary reputation did not redound 
much to its credit. 

Themistocles is said to have erected at Magnesia a temple to the 
Mother of the Gods under the name Dindymene (of which his 
daughter or his wife became priestess), in consequence of an epiphany 
of this goddess which saved his life (Plut. Vit. Them. 30; Strabo 
xiv. i, p. 647) ; but this temple no longer existed when Strabo wrote. 
The patron goddess of the city was Artemis Leucophrys or Leuco- 
phryne or Leucophryene, for the epithet is written in all these ways. 

yet been merged in the name of Mag- or AcvKo<f>piji>r), but sometimes 

nesia. (Nicander in Athen. xv. p. 683, and fre- 

The name AetKo<f>pvs, I cannot doubt, quently on coins, Mionnet III. p. 147 sq, 

refers primarily to the natural features of Supplement VI. p. 236 sq). From being 

the ground (see Texier L'Univers p. 350), the name of the place it was transferred 

just as Tenedos was called Xetf*o0/>uj to the goddess, as we say S. Christopher- 

(Strabo xiii. i, p. 604; Diod. Sic. v. le-Stocks, S. Peter-le-Cheap, S. John 

83; Plin. N.H. v. 39 (31); Pausan. x. Lateran, etc. The story of the nymph 

14. 3; Hegesianax in Athen. ix. p. 393). Leucophryne who was buried at Mag- 

This account of the name seems far nesia (Zeno Myndius in Clem. Alex. 

more probable than Boeckh's hypothesis Protr. 3, p. 39; comp. Arnob. vi. 6) is 

(n. p. 582) that the worship of Artemis of course a legend founded on the name 

was imported hirher from Tenedos. The of the place. 
goddess was properly called 


Her name and effigy occur constantly on the coins (Mionnet in. p. 
147 sq, Supplement vi. p. 236 sq) ; and her priestesses are mentioned 
in extant inscriptions (Boeckh C. I. G. 2914). She is commemorated 
also in Anacreon Fragm. i (Bergk) SeWoiv' "Apre/u %>wv 17 KOV vvv 
r! A.rj6aLov 80/770-1 OpatrvKap^Lwv dvSpiov eo-Karopas TTO\.LV \aipov<r K.r.A. 
The Ionic temple dedicated to her was one of the most famous in 
Asiatic Greece (Strabo xiv. i, p. 647; Pausan. i. 26. 4; Tac. Ann. 
iii. 62; C. I. G. 3137. ii. 84, n. p. 697; Vitruv. Archit. iii. i, vii. 
prsef.). Strabo (1. c.) commends it as exceeding in size all the 
temples in Asia but two, those of Ephesus and Didymi (Branchidae); 
and, though inferior to the former in magnitude and in the costli- 
ness of its offerings, yet superior in the proportions and design of 
its cell. Very considerable ruins of this edifice still remain, which will 
be found described in Leake's Asia Minor p. 245, p. 349 sq, Texier 
Asie Mineure in. p. 40, p. 91 sq, UUnivers p. 350 sq. The site was 
excavated under the direction of Texier in 1836, when the sculptures 
of the friezes were removed to the Louvre ! . 

In the Epistles of S. Ignatius the Ephesians and Magnesians appear 
in close connexion (Magn. 15). This is accounted for by their near 
neighbourhood. The distance between Ephesus and Magnesia is 
given by Artemidorus (Strabo xiv. 2, p. 663) as 120 stadia (so too 
Diod. Sic. xiv. 36), by Pliny (N. H. v. 31) as 15 Roman miles. The 
distance between the modern railway stations of Ayasoulouk and 
Balachik, which are near to the sites of Ephesus and Magnesia respec- 
tively, is stated to be somewhat under 14 English miles. Owing to this 
proximity, the southern gate of Ephesus bore the name of the Magnesian 
Gate (Mayv?friSs TruAai, Pausan. vii. 2. 9; Mayv^ri/o) TrvXry, Wood's 
Discoveries at Ephesus Inscr. vi. i, pp. 32, 42). As an illustration of 
the saying ovSei/ yctrovtas ^aXeTrwTepov (Arist. Rhet. ii. 21), we find 
the Ephesians and Magnesians at war in early ages (Strabo xiv. i, 
p. 648; Hermippus in Diog. Laert. i. 117 ; ^Elian V. H. xiv. 46, N. H. 
xi. 27 ; comp. Arist. Pol. ii. 3, p. 1289); and this state of things ended 
for the time in the Ephesians taking possession of the Magnesian 
territory (Strabo 1. c., Athen. xii. p. 525). At a later date, under the 
Romans, we find the two cities making up their differences and striking 
coins to commemorate their friendly relations, with the legend 
MAfNHTCON KAi ec^eciooN OMONOIA (Mionnet Supplement vi. p. 242). 
Among the not very numerous inscriptions recently discovered in the 

1 While the sheets for this second edi- Revue Archeologique Dec. 1887, giving an 
tion were passing through the press, a account of further very recent discoveries 
paper by De Villefosse appeared in the on the site of this temple. 


temple of Artemis at Ephesus, at least two record services rendered 
to the Ephesians by individual citizens of Magnesia (Wood's Dis- 
coveries etc. Inscr. ii. 3 'ATroAAuwos KoVcovos Mayi/r/s, ib. 12 pacrv/xa^os 
n<xreiSa>j/tou Mayv^s). 

This proximity of the two cities also answers another question. 
How and when was the Gospel first preached in Magnesia? When 
we read that during S. Paul's three years' residence in Ephesus (A. D. 
54 57), 'all those who dwelt in Asia (the proconsular province) heard 
the word of God' (Acts xix. 10, comp. ver. 26), when we find the 
Apostle towards the close of his sojourn sending salutations to distant 
correspondents from 'the Churches of Asia' (i Cor. xvi. 19), when we 
learn that within two or three years of this date there were Christian 
congregations even in the comparatively distant towns of Hierapolis and 
Laodicea and Colossae, we can hardly doubt that Magnesia, the nearest 
city of any importance, lying within four hours' walk of Ephesus, 
must have been among the earliest of these recipients of Christianity. 
If we were to hazard a conjecture regarding the agent in its conver- 
sion, we might mention Tychicus. The name Tychicus seems to have 
been especially common at Magnesia; see Boeckh C. 7. G. 2918, 
Mionnet HI. pp. 153, 154, 155, 157, Supplemental, pp. 236, 245, 250, 
255. The Apostle's companion bearing this name was a native of 
proconsular Asia (Acts xx. 2), and apparently of some place not far from 
Ephesus, if not of Ephesus itself (2 Tim. iv. 12). But, though less 
common than some of the New Testament names, it is not so rare 
that any great stress can be laid on the coincidence. The omission 
of any mention of Magnesia in the Apocalypse presents no difficulty 
on the supposition that this church had been founded during S. Paul's 
residence at Ephesus. The seven letters are addressed only to the prin- 
cipal churches in the respective districts. Ephesus was the centre of one 
district comprising Magnesia and Tralles and Miletus, just as Laodicea 
was the centre of another comprising Hierapolis and Colossae ; and ol 
the subordinate churches no mention is made in either case. Another 
link of connexion with S. Paul was the fact that thePisidian Antioch, where 
he preached, was a colony of this Magnesia (Strabo xii. 8, p. 577). 

At all events the Church of Magnesia seems to have been a 
flourishing community in the early years of the second century when 
Ignatius wrote. The Magnesians, like the Ephesians, had heard of 
his projected visit to Smyrna ; and, like their neighbours, they had sent 
delegates to meet him there ( i, 2, 6, 15). The Magnesian delegacy 
was an adequate representation of the Church. It comprised all 
orders of the ministry the bishop Damas, the presbyters Bassus and 
Apollonius, the deacon Zotion ( 2). It was in acknowledgement of the 


attention which the Magnesians had thus shown to him that he wrote 
this letter. 

The main theme of the epistle is the exhortation to unity ( i, 
2 4, 6, 7, 13). The bond of unity is obedience to the bishop and to 
the other officers of the ministry. A warning is the more needed in 
their case, because some might be tempted to presume upon the youth 
of the bishop ( 3). 

The object of this exhortation appears in another part of the letter. 
Unity is the best safeguard against the intrusion of heresy ( 8 n). 
The heresy in question is described as a return to the old and un- 
profitable fables, the stale and sour leaven, of Judaism ( 8, 10). He 
expresses the substance of his warning to his correspondents in the 
exhortation not to ' sabbatize,' but to ' live after the Lord's day ' ( 6>). 
It appears however from incidental expressions, that he is not con- 
templating Judaism of a pure Pharisaic type, for he affirms with em- 
phasis the reality of Christ's birth, passion, and resurrection ( 9, n), 
obviously having these same teachers in view. The heresy therefore is a 
Docetic Judaism. He acquits the Magnesians of any complicity therein 
as yet; but, while this false doctrine is abroad, he feels that the warning 
is not superfluous, and he counts on their obedience ( u, 12, 14). 

The Church of the Magnesians was not famous in later ecclesiastical 
history. The martyrdom of a certain Quadratus is said to have occurred 
at Magnesia, presumably the city on the Maeander ; and one form of the 
legend identifies him with the celebrated Apologist bearing this name, 
who presented his defence of Christianity to the emperor Hadrian. But 
it seems more probable that the martyr in question suffered during the 
persecution of Decius, if indeed the story of the martyrdom is not 
altogether a fiction (see Act. SS. Boll. 26 Maii, and comp. Tillemont 
Memoires n. p. 236 sq, 589 sq). In the succeeding centuries we 
hear of the Magnesian Church from time to time, as represented by her 
bishops at the great Councils of the Church (see below p. 105), though 
they do not occupy any very distinguished position on these occasions. 
But, if we might assume that the Macarius, whose work has been 
recently recovered and published 1 , owed his surname to this city, the 
Church of Magnesia is not left without a representative in the field of 
theological literature. 

The following is an analysis of the epistle. 

abundant greeting in the Father and in Jesus Christ.' 

Ma-yi'TjTos, 'AiroKpiriKos 17 Movo^evTjs, ex inedito codice ed. C. Blondel, 
Paris 1876. 


1 Knowing your harmony and love I was glad to hold converse with 
you. I glorify all those churches which preserve unity. Abiding in 
love, you will resist the assaults of the Evil One ( i). I rejoiced 
therefore to see you in the person of your bishop Damas, of your 
presbyters Bassus and Apollonius, of your deacon Zotion ( 2). Let 
no man presume on the youth of your bishop. The presbyters recog- 
nise his wisdom and obey him. He who deceives his bishop plays 
false with God ( 3). You must be Christians in reality and not in 
name only. It is not honest to be always talking of the bishop and 
yet always acting without him ( 4). All things come to an end. The 
choice is between death and life. There are two coinages the stamp 
of the world and the stamp of God. We must die into Christ's passion, 
if we would live in His life ( 5). Having met you through your 
representatives, I intreat you to act in concert with the bishop, the 
priests, and the deacons. Allow nothing to make divisions among you 
( 6). As Christ did nothing without the Father, so do ye nothing 
without your bishop and presbyters. Let there be one prayer, one 
mind, one hope. You have one temple even God, and one altar even 
Christ ( 7). Go not astray after the antiquated tales of Judaism. 
The prophets themselves bore witness to Christ. They were inspired 
so as to convince the unbelievers that there is one God who manifested 
Himself through His incarnate Word ( 8). If those who were brought 
up in the old ordinances forsook them for Christ, how can we live apart 
from Him, of whom the prophets themselves were disciples ( 9) ? Let 
us not despise His goodness, nor forsake our Christianity. Put ye 
away the sour leaven, and be ye salted in Him. Jesus Christ and 
Judaism cannot exist side by side ( 10). I say this to warn you against 
the snares of false doctrine. Be ye fully convinced that Christ was born 
and died and rose again in reality; for this is your only hope ( u).' 

r' I am not worthy to be compared to you. I say this, knowing that 
my praise will not puff you up, but rather put you to shame ( 12). 
Stand steadfast, one and all, in the teaching of the Lord and His 
Apostles. Be obedient to your bishop and to one another ( 13). A 
brief exhortation will suffice.' 

' Pray for me and for the Syrian Church. We need your united 
prayer ( 14). The Ephesians send greeting from Smyrna whence I 
write. So does Polycarp. The other Churches salute you. Farewell, 
and be united in Christ ( 15).' 


'IFNATIOC, 6 Kai 6eo^>0|009, rjj ev\oyrjiuLei/rj ev 
X<*p iri - Qeov TraTjOos iv Xpia-Tto 'lrj(rov TW 

npoc TOyc GN MAfNHClAl] ad illos qui in magnesia Sev-Syr 2, 7; rov 
avrov irpbs fAayvrjo-lovs (being numbered 7) g* ; fj.a,yvr]<Ti.ev<nv iyvdrios G ; Ignatius 
magnesiis L* ; ad magnesias A. See the lower note for other authorities. 

i XptoTy 'Irjo-ov] Lg ; IT]<TOV xP iffT V G ; def. A. ij^wv] GL ; om. g ; 

def. A. 

Discoveries at Ephesus Inscr. ii. 3, 
12). It alone is found in classical 
writers of all ages (e.g. Herod, iii. 90, 
Arist. Pol. iv. 3, Strabo xii. 8, p. 577, 
xiv. i, p. 647 sq, Plut. Vit. Themist. 
32, Appian. Mithr. 21, Paus. i. 20. 5, 
i. 26. 4, Julian Oral. vii. p. 210). 
Even in ecclesiastical writings down 
to a very late date I have not met 
with any other form : see e.g. Labb. 
Cone. in. p. 85 (ed. Colet.) rc5i/ Mayi/TJ- 
T<av TToXews fjricrKonot r\v di/o/wm Ma<a- 
pios (at the Oak Synod A.D. 403; a 
document in Photius BibL 59); ib. VII. 
p. 1072 TlarpiKios eXe'o) Qcov 
rrjs MayvqTvv Trepl Maiai/Spoi> 
TTJS 'Ao-mi/cov eirap\las (comp. id. p. 
noo; at the third Council of Con- 
stantinople, A.D. 680). In the Parall. 
Rupef. pp. 779, 785 (ed. Lequien), a- 
scribed to John of Damascus, npos 
MayvTj<riovs occurs, but the present 
text of this collection of extracts else- 
where has also the impossible form 
irpbs &i\adc\(piovs. The form May- 
vrjo-iovs also appears to underlie the 
Syriac translation of Timoth. Alex. 

npoc royc eN MAfNHcf^] The 
proper Greek adjective correspond- 
ing to Mayvrja-ia is neither Mayvrj- 
o-ievs (the form in the MS of the gen- 
uine epistles) nor Mayvrja-tos (the 
form in the MSS of the interpo- 
lated epistles), but Mayi/^s, the femi- 
nine being sometimes Mayans (e.g. 
C. /. G. 3381), sometimes Mayi^o-o-a 
(e.g. Theocr. xxii. 79), sometimes May- 
vrjo-is (Parthenius in Steph. Byz.). 
This is equally the case whether the 
Magnesia intended be the town on 
the Maeander or its namesake under 
Sipylus. Steph. Byz. s. v. Mayi^o-ta 
says explicitly, o noXirrjs Mdyvrjs O/AO>- 
vvntos rw oiKHTTf). This statement is 
confirmed by all ancient remains. 
The legend of the coins is universally 
M(\fNHT6c or MAfNHJcoN : see Mion- 
net III. p. 142 sq, Suppl. VI. p. 231 sq, 
for the city on the Maeander, and 
Mionnet IV. p. 68 sq, Suppl. vil. p. 
371 sq, for the city under Sipylus. 
The same is also the form which 
occurs in the inscriptions (C. /. G. 
2913, 2919 b Appx., 2933; Wood's 



ev W <z<nrab/jtaf TY\V KK\t](Tiav Trjv ovcrav ev 

MaidvSpco, Kal eu^ojULai ev Qeu> TraTpi Kai ev 

i irpbs Mcudyfyy] irpoa-fj.edvdpu (sic) G. 
v. 1.) ; xP iffT V fyffov (om. iv) [g] ; al. A. 

(Cureton C. 7. p. 211). Nothing can 
be inferred from Magnisoye in a 
quotation from the Syriac Version 
(Cureton C. 1. p. 197 ; comp. p. 200), 
or from Magnisiatzis in the head- 
ing of the epistle in the Armenian 
Version, as these forms follow the 
analogy of the respective languages. 
The Greek translator of Jerome Vir. 
III. 1 6 has Mayvrjo-iavovs, but this 
simply is a transliteration of Je- 
rome's Latin. The proper form in 
Latin is Magnes, following the Greek 
(e.g. Cic. Brut. 91, Tac. Ann. ii. 
47), but Jerome writes ad Magne- 
sianos. In an ancient inscription 
(Boeckh C. I. G. 3137), about B.C.. 
244, recording a treaty between the 
Smyrnasans and Magnesians (pro- 
bably of the city ad Sipylumj see 
Boeckh p. 698), while the former are 
always S/uvpralot, the latter are ol ev 
(written e'/i) Mayvrjcria or 01 e< (written 
also ey or eVy) Mayvrjaias or 01 OTTO 
Mayvrjo-ias. Similarly in two different 
passages of Severus of Antioch pre- 
served in Syriac versions (Cureton 
C. /. p. 213, Land Anecd. Syr. i. p. 
32) this epistle is entitled 'to those 
who (are) in Magnesia.' The fact is the 
more remarkable, because in quoting 
the other epistles he writes 'to the 
Ephesians,' 'to the Trallians/ etc. 
If therefore Ignatius or any early 
transcriber had prefixed a title to this 
epistle, he would probably have 
written either npoc royc GN M&rNH- 
CI<M or npoc royc M&rNHT<\c. At 
all events the facts alleged seem to 
show that the extant title /Mtryi^o-i- 
cvcriv iyvaTios must date long after 

ev 'Ii)<rov 

GL* (with a 

the time when the epistle (on any 
showing) was written. 

'IGNATIUS, called also Theopho- 
ON THE MEANDER, blessed through 
the grace of God in Christ, hearty 
greeting in Christ.' 

rfi v\oy}][j,VTj] sc. eKK\r)(riq, but the 
form of the sentence is changed as 
it proceeds, and the missing sub- 
stantive becomes the accusative to 

2. Ty npbs Mai&vdpw] This city 
was called frequently eVt [rco] Maidv- 
dpa>, Arist. Pol. iv. 3, Strabo xiv. i 
(p. 647), Diod. Sic. x. 57, Athen. iv. 
p. 173' O1 6>7r ' ro ^ Maiai/Spou, Athen. 
#., but more commonly, as here, 
TTpos [TO>] Maioi'Spa), C. /. G. 2910, 
3137, Strabo xii. 8 (p. 577), Athen. 
xii. p. 525, Labb. Cone. VI I. p. 
i ico, Ptol. v. 2. Sometimes it is 
simply Mcuapdpov, Labb. Cone. ill. 
p. 1088, IV. p. 506, 858, 894, vni. p. 
687 ; and occasionally nrept Maiavdpov, 
ib. vil. p. 1072, comp. [yEschines] 
Epist. x. 8. Herodotus describes it 
(iii. 122) as 77 vTTfp McuavSpov 7rorap,oi5 
olnipevr). These designations were 
adopted to distinguish it from Mag- 
nesia in Thessaly, of which it was 
reported to be a colony, but more 
especially from its near neighbour un- 
der mount Sipylus, which was called 
M.ayvr)(ria Trpos StTruAw or viro SiTrvAco 
or VTTO StTrvXov, and its inhabitants 
MdyvrjTes OTTO SiTruXov (see C. I. G. 
2933, 33^1) Mionnet iv. p. 68 sq, 
Suppl. VII. p. 37 1 sq). The two places 
are mentioned in the same context, 
Liv. xxxvii. 44, 45, Ptol. v. 2. Wes- 


I. ri/oi)s VJULCOV TO TToXvevTctKTOv Trjs KCLTO. Qeov 

5 dya.7rr}s, dyaXXittifjievos TrpoeiXa/uLriv iv TricrreL 'Irjcrou 

XpKTTOv 7rpo(r\a\rj(rai v/uui/. KaTa^icoOeis yap OVOJJLCLTOS 

5 irpoei\dfj,r]i>] g; Trpoei\6/J.i>)v G. 

seling I tin. p. 658 states that it is 
called 77 Hpa>TOfjiaiav8pov7ro\if ; and 
the writer in Smith's Diet, of Geogr. 
s. v. says 'Later documents seem to 
imply that at one time it bore the 
name Maeandropolis.' Both quote 
as their authority 'Concil. Constan- 
tin. iii. p. 666.' This however is 
merely a corrupt text, 7rpa>To/jiaiav- 
8pov7r6\fa>s for Trpos TO) Maiai/Spw 
TroXfeos: see Labb. Cone. vn. p. iioo. 
The Masandropolis mentioned by 
Pliny N. H. v. 29 is a different place, 
though identified with Magnesia by 
Spanheim de Usu et Praest. Numm. 
ix. p. 889. When Phlegon, as quoted 
by Steph. Byz. s. v., says Maiavdpov- 
TroXir, Mayvrjo-ias TroXty, he means that 
it belonged to the territory of Mag- 
nesia. Our Magnesia is also desig- 
nated r) 'Aa-iavij (Thuc. i. 1 38), and its 
inhabitants are Mayi/jjres oi eV TTJ 'Ao-iy 
(Herod, iii. 90), to distinguish them 
from their Thessalian namesakes. 
It is placed in Caria, Diosc. Mat. 
Med. v. 130 (131). 

I. 'Knowing your orderly de- 
meanour and godly love, I am de- 
sirous of conversing with you by 
letter. For decked out in these 
honorable chains, I sing the praises 
of the churches, and pray for their 
unity in the spirit and in the flesh, 
a unity consisting of faith and love, 
and centering in Jesus and in the 
Father. If we abide in Christ, we 
shall escape all the assaults of the 
Evil One and shall find God.' 

4. Tvovs] ''Having learnt] i. e. 
probably from the reports of Damas 
their bishop and the other Magnesian 
delegates mentioned in 2. 

6 Karatu0eis] G; dia>0eis [g]. 

ro TToXvcvraicrov] ' the abundant 
good order' ; comp. Ephes. 6 vncpf- 
Traivel vpaiv T^V eV 0e<u evra/ai>. I 
have not found an example of this 
word elsewhere ; but comp. TroXueu- 
<nr\ayxvos Clem. Alex. Quis div. salv. 
39 (p. 957). The Lexicons also give 
7roXvet>o>uz, TroXvfVTTpfTTijs, as late 
words. Here, as in other churches, 
it is the harmony and submission to 
authority in the Magnesians which 
secures the admiration of Ignatius : 
comp. Ephes. 6, 20, Trail, i, 2, Polyc. 

6, etc. 

Kara Qeov] ' in the way of God\ 
a somewhat favourite Ignatian ex- 
pression : comp. 13, Trail, i, Philad. 
4, Polyc. 5. So too Kara 'irjo-ovv 
Xpio-rdi/, 8 below, Philad. 3. This is 
a favourite preposition with Ignatius 
in various connexions, e.g. in this 
epistle, 3 Kara fjujdefiiav vTTOKpicrii/, 
4 Kar* cvTO\qv t 6 Kara <rapKa, 8 
Kara lovda'io~fj.6v, 9 KCITO KuptaK^i/, 
IO Kara xPrrt<mo>toi/, 8, 15, Kara 

5. 7rpoetXa/x;i/] 1 1 determined*, as e.g. 
Prov. xxi. 25 (LXX) ov yap irpoaipovv- 
rai at x *P ey at^ou rroteTj/ rt, 2 Cor. ix. 

7. The ordinary sense of the sub- 
stantive Trpoaipfo-is, 'choice, purpose,' 
points to the meaning of the verb. 
The word does not imply any prefer- 
ence of the Magnesians over others, 
as some commentators explain it. 

v TrtVrei K.r.X.] i.e. 'as a Chris- 
tian speaking to Christians, to con- 
verse with you (by letter).' For 
TTpoo-XaXeti/ of 'addressing' by letter 
comp. Ephes. 3. 

6. ovo/iaros] What is this name? 
Is it, as some say, the name of Christ 



ev ots TrepKpepco Secr/mols aSco ras 
KK\rj(rias 9 eV ais 6V(t)criv eu^ojULat crapKOS KCLI TrvevfJiaTOs 

' XpKTTOV TOV SlO, 7TCLVTOS YlfJiltiV ^Jl/, 7T/(TTeft)9 T6 

offtv G. 3 r)/m,uv] GA ; i7/ias (?) L* ; al. g. r^] 

GL*; om. A [Antioch i]; al. g. 4 775] GLA; al. g; els [Antioch] 

(but this must be a misprint or misreading). 7 Tev6/j.e0a] G (certainly) ; 

(see the note on Ephes. i)? The 
epithet 0eo7rpe7reorarov would be 
hardly adequate here for this name 
of names, though in another con- 
nexion it is used of Christ Himself, 
Orig. c. Cels. iii. 14. Or is it the 
designation of 6eo(p6pos, as Pearson 
( V. L p. 523) and others after him (e.g. 
Hilgenfeld A. V. p. 193) maintain? 
This designation however seems to 
have been self-assumed, and not con- 
ferred upon him by others as a title 
of honour, as Pearson supposes. Or 
again is it the appellation of 'mar- 
tyr', as Lipsius (Aecht. p. 90) and 
others believe? But elsewhere Ig- 
natius shrinks from any such boast- 
ful title (see the note on Trail. 4). 
I think that the reference here is 
best supplied by the words which 
follow, ev ois TrepKpe'pco deafMols. Ig- 
natius rejoices, as S. Paul had re- 
joiced before him, that he is Sco-pios 
XpurroC (Ephes. iii. i, iv. I, Philem. 
i, 9). This is his proudest distinc- 

I. tifonpeTrco-TaTov] The word 
occurs again, Smyrn. inscr., n, 12, 
Polyc. 7. It is found as early as 
Diodorus (xi. 89, xvii. 75) and ap- 
pears in Philo (Vit. Mays. ii. 3, p. 
137). Compare the similar Ignatian 
words, ^eoSpo/zoy, flfofj-aKapiorTos, 6fo- 

cv ols K.r.X.] i.e. ev rols 
7repi<pe'pa>. He compares himself to 
some gay reveller; his fetters are 
his holiday decoration ; the burden 
of his song is the praise of the 
churches. For this conception of 

his bonds see Ephes. II ra Seo>ia 
TTfpKpe'po), TOVS TTvevpaTiKovs /napyapi'ras 
(with the note). See also the notes 
on Philem. 9, 13, for the correspond- 
ing idea in S. Paul. For the meta- 
phor in adciv see Ephes. 4, Rom. 2, 
with the notes on both places. The 
words eV ols K.r.X. are best taken with 
the following clause. Zalm has not 
improved the passage by his reading. 
In his earlier work (/. v. A. p. 569) 
he boldly alters the words thus, <ara- 
ia>6els yap 8C ovoftaroav $eo7rpe7reora- 
TQ)v, ev ols TTfptcpepa) deo-pols, ISclv ray 
eKKXrja-ias K.r.X. ; but in his subse- 
quent text he contents himself with 
substituting Idwv for a'da>, retaining 
the other words and explaining wo/za 
0f07rpe7reWaroi> to refer to Damas 
the bishop. The lively and charac- 
teristic image of Ignatius is thus 

2. fvvo-iv K.r.X.] */ pray that 
there may be iinity in their flesh and 
in their spirit^ which are Jesus 
Chrises? It seems best so to explain 
the words, rather than Bunion with 
the flesh and spirit of Jesus Christ] 
or ' union in flesh and spirit with 
Jesus Christ'', because (among other 
reasons) we thus avoid an unmean- 
ing and awkward repetition which 
otherwise arises out of the subse- 
quent words, TO df KvpuoTepov, *Ir)(rov 
/c.r.X. For evd)o~iv crapKos Kal nvevfjia- 
TOS comp. Rom. inscr. /caret o-apxa KOI 
irvvp.a j^co/ne'i/oiy, and below 13 Iva 
ev<i}o~is y (ra.pKiK.ri re KOI TrvcvpaTiKij. 
These passages seem to show that 
aapKos <al nvevparo? must refer to the 




, fa ovdev TrpOKeKpiTai, TO Se 
5 'Irjcrov Kai Trarpos* ev a) UTro/xei/oi/res Tr\v Tracrav e 


TOV alajvos TOVTOV Kai 


potimur L ; refugimus ad (confidimus in) A (the word does not imply a different 
reading 0euo/ie0a) ; al. g. The earlier edd. after Voss print <j>ev6fj.e6a. Voss 
gave </>eu6/>te0a as the reading of the MS, and offered Tev6/j.e0a as a conjecture. 

churches and not to Christ. The 
flesh and the spirit denote the secular 
and the spiritual sides of life respec- 

On the frequency of these words 
fvovo-6ai, etc. in Ignatius see the note 
on Ephes. 4. The difference between 
two-is and fvorrjs is the difference 
between 'union' and 'unity', between 
the process and the result. For the 
genitive 'lyo-ov Xpio-roC, as I have 
taken it, comp. Polyc. 5 els Tifj-f/v rrjs 
vapKos TOV Kvpiov (the correct read- 
ing), and see I Cor. vi. 20 (as read in 
the received text) 6\>ao-are &) TOV 
Qeov fv TO> (Tto/iari vp.a)v Kai cv ra> 

7TVVp.aTl VfJL&V, OTtvd (0~TIV TOV 

Qcav. According to this construc- 
tion evuxTis here takes three sets of 
genitives; (i) Of the subject, which 
possesses the unity, o-apnos KCU irvfv- 
fiaros: (2) Of the matter in which 
the unity shows itself, irlcrrevs re Kai 
ayairrjs '. (3) Of the personal centre 
in which the unity resides, 'irja-ov 
KOI iraTpds. For this threefold refer- 
ence comp. 13 KaTevo8a>0f)Te (rapid 
Kai 7rvfvp.aTij TTtorei Kai dydnrj, ev vi&> 
Kai Trarpi K.T.\. 

3. TOV dia iravros K.r.X.] ' our 
never-failing life' ; comp. Ephes. 3 
'irjarovs Xpiaro's 1 , TO ddiaKpiTOV rjp,a>v (f)v t 
Smyrn. 4 'Iijo~ovs Xpioroj, TO dXrjdivov 
ripuv fjv. For this substantival use of 
$ see the note on Ephes. 1 1. There 
is no sufficient reason for adopting 
the ill-supported reading rj^as here 
with Zahn (see /. ?/. A. p. 570), who 

compares Ephes. 20. The sense is 
rather injured than improved by the 
change, which introduces an irrele- 
vant clause. 

4. ys ovdcv K.T.X.] ''than which 
(i.e. love) nothing is preferable" 1 : 
comp. Smyrn. 6 nio-Tis KOI dydnr), <av 
ovdev 7rpoKKpiTai. For 7rpOKe*pirai, 
comp. Xen. Cyr. ii. 3. 8, Mem. iii. 5. 19. 

TO 8e KvpivTcpov K.r.X.] ' and what 
is more important than all, a union 
in Jesus and the Father in Jesus, 
/;/ whom if we endure etc.' ; where 
fv w must be connected with 'I 
as the sense requires. For 
'lr)<rov Kai naTpos comp. John xvii. 21. 

5. TTJV rracrav cTTijpeiav] ' all out- 
rage? For the emphatic position of 
the article preceding Tray, and thus 
denoting the whole range of possi- 
bility, comp. I Tim. i. 16 TTJV anao-av 

, Hermas Mand. v. i TTJV 
, and see the note on 
Gal. v. 14. For fm^peiav comp. 
Apost. Const, viii. 8 TJ^ Trayifios TOV 
Sia/3oXov Kai TTJS einjpeias TU>V dai/jLova>v 
(comp. ib. n), Lucian Pro Laps, 
int. Salut. I ^uXeTrov, av6pa>irov 
OVTO, 8aipov6s TIVOS e-mjpeiav diatyvyflv, 
Philostr. Epist. 18 (p. 349) dvoia 
fj.d\\ov T) cnrjpeiq dai/JLovav ycvofAfva; 
and so it is used elsewhere of the 
wanton injury inflicted by super- 
human agencies. 

6. TOV apXOVTOS K.T.X.] See the 

note on Ephes. 17. 

Qfov Tev6fj,(da] The phrase ruy^a- 
vfiv Qfov occurs again Ephes. 10, 


II. *(E,7rei ovv r}^io)6rjv ioelv v^as cia Aa/uia TOV 
vjutov eTTia-KOTTOV Kat 7rpeor/3vT6p(*)v d^icov Baor- 

8a/i G. 

Smyrn. 9. More common still is 
7riTvyxdviv 06oO, below 14, Ephes. 
12, Trail. 12, 13, Rom. i, 2, 4, 9, 
Smyrn. 11, /Wyr. 2, 7; and so also 
'Ljo-oO Xptarov fTrirvyxdveiv, Rom. 5. 

II. 'I have seen you in the per- 
son of your bishop Damas, of your 
presbyters Bassus and Apollonius, 
and of your deacon Zotion, whose 
submission to the bishop and the 
presbyters is a great joy to me.' 

I. 'ETrei ovv i}ia>dr)v K.r.X.] The 
sentence, thus commenced, is never 
completed. The protasis is length- 
ened out in recording the obedi- 
ence of the deacon Zotion (ov f'yco 
...'Irjo-ov Xpiorov), and this record 
suggests a general injunction to the 
Magnesian Church at large (jcal 
be TrpeTretK.r.A.), which again branches 
off into subsidiary topics occupying 
three chapters ( 3, 4, 5), the apo- 
dosis being meanwhile forgotten. At 
the beginning of the 6th chapter the 
original protasis is again resumed, 
tirei ovv v rols Trpoyeypa/z/zeVois 7rpo<ra>- 
TTOIS K.r.A., and the long-suspended 
apodosis follows, napaivw fv opovoia 
Qeov K.T.A., doubtless modified in 
form and substance by the ideas 
which have intervened. For a simi- 
lar sentence similarly broken see 
Ephes. I eVei ovv TTJV 7ro\v7T\r/6fiav 


ji<o6riv] A favourite word of Ig- 
natius when speaking of himself; 
Ephes. 9, 21, Rom. i. The com- 
pound KaTdgiovo-dai also occurs 
several times in this connexion ; see 
i above, Trail. 12, Smyrn. n, 
Polyc. i (comp. Ephes. 20, Rom. 2). 
See also the note on Ephes. 2 ed 

GLA; 0eov 

Sia] l in the person of. 1 For 8ia comp. 
Ephes. 2 8t* tov Travras$ov ) 
Mart. Ign. Ant. 3, 4 ; and for the idea 
see the note on Ephes. i dnftXrjfa. 

Aa/za] This name occurs several 
times in the inscriptions, e.g. Boeckh 
C.I.G. 2880 MdpKov Ov\7riov [<Aa]/3ia- 
vov Aa/ia at Didymi ; 2869 npocp^TTjs 
KAavStos Aa/ia? also at Didymi; 3507 
MapKov OvXniov Aajua 7rapa86ov /cat 
Kaiufii'as Bdo-(rr)s Qvyarepa at Thyatira; 
3902 1 r<S dvdpl Aajua at Eumenia; 
3983 Ovdvaos Aa/za? reKi/a> ao)[pa)J 
Aa/ia[5]i at Philomelium. See also 
nos. 284, 2562, 3860 and Wood's 
Ephesus iv. 3 (p. 6), Bull, de Corr. 
Hell. vii. p. 31 1. So too on Milesian 
coins in the time of Nero, eni . TI . 
AAM<\, Mionnet in. p. \(&,Suppl. vi. 
p. 272. In the inscriptions the name 
is commonly declined Act/nay Aa/i5. 
[In one instance however (no. 3983, 
already given) it is declined Aa/zay 
Aajia&os, if Keil and Franz are right 
(see Boeckh Vol. ill. p. 1 107) ; and in 
Latin inscriptions (C.I.L.V. 1636, XIV. 
1349) we have a dative DAMATI.] 
On the other hand we find Aa/zas 
Adpavros (like Qavpas Qavfjiavros) in 
Suidas s.v. 'AXicfj-dv. The two forms 
however seem to represent different 
names, as Zahn rightly supposes. 
Aa/z5y (gen. Aa/za) is probably a con- 
tracted name, like 'Erra^pds, Zrjvas, 
etc. For these contracted names 
in as see the note on Col. iv. 15. 
Assuming this to be the account of 
the word, I have accentuated it 
Aa/zS, as it appears in the editions of 
interpolated epistles, rather than 
Aa/za, as it is written frequently, 
even by the same editors (e. g. Cure- 
ton, Dressel), in the genuine Ignatius. 




(TOV Kctl ' A7ro\\o)viov Kal TOV <rvv$ov\ov /ULOV 

OTL VTroTacrcreTai TCO ei- 

3 ' ATToXX&viov] airo\<i)i>iov G (not airoKovtov, as given in Dressel). 
4 Zwn'wvos] Gg; sotionem A; zononem L* (an obvious mis writing for zotionem}. 

On this hypothesis, it is worth men- 
tioning that among the names occur- 
ring on coins, inscriptions, etc., rela- 
ting to Magnesia are A^rptoy (M ion- 
net ill. p. 143), ArjfjiovfiKos (id. in. p. 
156, Suppl. VI. p. 252), A?7/iocrrparo 

(ib. in. p. 157; comp. p. 148), and 
Ajj/zoxapt? (Boeckh C. I. G. 2911, of 
the date A. u. C. 850) ; that the name 
of the same person is written AA- 
/v\eoy and AHMGOY on different coins 
of Magnesia (Mionnet Suppl. VI. p. 
252) ; and that our Damas is called 
Ar)p,as in the spurious epistle Antioch. 
13. The name Damas occurs also in 
Latin inscriptions; e.g. C. I. L. vi. 
14991, 16722, x. 2263, 6164, xiv. 
2061. It is probably therefore the 
same with the common slave-name 
Dama (Hor. Sat. i. 6. 38, ii. 5. 18, 101, 
ii. 7. 54, Pers. Sat. v. 76, 79, C. /. Z. 
ii. 5042, v. 4087, etc), just as we 
have in Latin the forms Apella, Her- 
ma, Heracla, etc. Basil Epist. 252 
(in. p. 388) mentions one Aa/zas 
(Aa/zas- ?) as a famous martyr of a 
later date. Euseb. H. E. iii. 36, 
speaking of the Epistle to the Mag- 
nesians, refers to this passage, eVi- 
(TKOTTOV ActjLia fjLvr^fjLijv TTfTrot^rai. Da- 
mas is mentioned twice in the 
spurious epistles, Antioch. 15, Hero 

2. a^io&W] Applied again to a 
bishop in Smyrn. 12. On the word 
generally see the note on Trail, inscr. 

duoi/] Comp. Ephcs. 4 Trpetr/Sure- 
piov TOU Qeov aiov. 

Boo-trou K.r.X.J Apparently not an 
uncommon name in these parts of 
Asia Minor; see e.g. Boeckh C.I. G. 
3112, 3148, 3151, 3493, Wood's Dis- 

coveries at Efikesus Inscr. vi. i, 17 
(pp. 34, 66). At least two Smyr- 
nasans bearing the name appear in 
history; see Pape-Benseler WorUrb. 
d. Griech. Eigennamen s. v. At Mag- 
nesia itself this name appears on the 
coins as borne by two persons at 
different epochs, each at the time 
recorder (ypa/i/un-cifc ), i. e. chief ma- 
gistrate of the city (comp. Acts xix. 
35 for the parallel case of Ephesus) ; 

6TTI . fp 4>A . BACCOy . MAfNHTCON 

under Caracalla (Mionnet in. p. 151), 
em . rp BACCOY MAfNHTCoN under 
Maximinus (ib. Suppl. VI. p. 248). 
In a Samian inscription, C. I. G. 
2248, the names Bassus and Apol- 
lonius occur together, as here. The 
latter is a frequent name in most 
places. One Apollonius a Magnesian 
appears in an Ephesian inscription, 
Wood's Discoveries Inscr. ii. 3 (p. 6) 
CTTctdr) 'ATroXAomoy Koi'toi'oy Mayvrjs 
K.r.X. ; and two others, also Magne- 
sians, are named in a Trallian in- 
scription, Boeckh C. L G. 2919 b 
(p. 1 1 23) 'ATroAXomos ' 

3. <rw8ov\ov'] Applied by Igna- 
tius solely to deacons ; see the note 
on Ephes. 2. 

4. ZomWos] The name is not 
uncommon in inscriptions, where it 
is most frequently written SomW, as 
in one authority here. In the same 
way in the inscriptions the same 
person is called Sambos and Zcort^oy, 
Boeckh C. I. G. 202, 205. There is 
some reason also for thinking that 
the Scoras of Euseb. H. E. v. 19 is 
the same with the 2con/eos of the pre- 
ceding chapter. On the confusion 




'Irjo-ov Xpiarov. 


T( *> 


JJLYI <rvyxpaar6ai Trj y\iKia 

i X/MOTOV] For the addition in L see Appx. 

of 2 and Z see the note on Polyc. 

ovaifjujv] i. e. ' enjoy his com- 
pany ' ; see the note on Ephes. 2. 

I. xaptrt Qeov *.r.X.] The bishop 
is here regarded as the dispenser of 
blessings ; the presbyters as the 
representatives and guardians of 
order. For i/o/iw comp. Trail. 13 VTTO- 
Tacr<ro/iei>oi ro> eVtOTcoTTft) <os rrj fvroXfj 
(with the note). The expression here 
does not mean that the presbyterate 
is itself an ordinance, an institution, 
of Christ, but that the presbyters 
order with the authority of Christ. 
For i/6/iw XpioroC see the note on 
Rom. inscr. xptcrroj/o/zos- ; for 7rpeo-/3u- 
repi'o), the note on Ephes. 2. 

III. 'I exhort you all in like 
manner to respect the youth of your 
bishop. Follow the example of your 
presbyters, who regard not his age 
but his wisdom. Your duty towards 
God, the universal Bishop, requires 
you so to act. Whosoever fails in 
his obedience, deceives not the 
visible overseer, but the Invisible. 
His all-seeing eye nothing escapes.' 

3. <al vfiiv Se] 'you the laity of 
the Church, not less than the 

o-vyxpdo-6ai] ' to presume upon] 
literally ''to treat familiarly? The 
word occurs in the N. T. once only, 
Joh. iv. 9 ov yap o-vyxp&VTat 'lovdaioi 
2a/j,apei'raty. The word signifies either 
(i) 'to use together with another,' 
as perhaps in Polyb. vi. 3. 10 o-v/x- 
^evdovrat teal avyxptovTai jrdvrfs ol 
p.6vapxoi rep rrjs /3a(riAet'a? ovo^ari ; 
or (2) ' to use constantly or fully or 
familiarly,' e.g. Epict. i. 2. 7 rms TMV 

(KTos diais <rvyxpo>fie0a, Orig. Ep. ad 
Afric. 15 (i. p. 28) orryxp<o/z/ov Trpo- 
(pijras 7rpo<pr)Ta>v \6yois (r^eSoi/ avrals 
Xe'e<n. In this latter signification 
it has a tendency to a bad sense, 
like KaTaxpfjo-dai, though not to the 
same extent. For the form -xpacrdai, 
instead of -xprjo-tiat, see the notes on 
[Clem. Rom.] ii. 6 (pp. 195, 452), 
and comp. Herm. Sim. i. xpao-cu, 
though xprfa-rj occurs in the context. 
For the sense see i Tim. iv. 12 /xr/Se/y 
<rov TTJS vforrjTos Kara<ppoi>ei'ra>. 

4. Kara 8vvap.iv K.r.X.] i. e. ' having 
regard to the power conferred upon 
him by God the Father.' 

5. dnovfiJieiv] '/0 pay\ as his due ; 
for this is the force of the preposi- 
tion. So aTTOvepfiv rip.rjV, I Pet. Hi. 
7, Clem. Rom. i, Mart. Polyc. 10. 

6. ov 7rpo(TfiX77<poray] * not taking ad- 
vantage of ; comp. Demosth. Olynth. 
ii. p. 2O B TTJV Ka<TTa)V avoiav aet r5j/ 
dyvoovvTQtv avrbv e^aTrarcDi/ <al npoar- 
\ap.j3dvo>v ovro)s yvt-Tidr), Dion. Cass. 
Ix. 2 Kal avrov Kal rovro 7rpoo-Xajz/3a- 
vovTes (i.e. 'availing themselves of 
this weak point in his character') 
OVK eXa^tora Kareipyd^ovTO (passages 
quoted in Steph. Thes. s. v., ed. 
Hase and Dindorf). The expres- 
sion ov TrpoaeihrjfpoTas has been com- 
monly explained l not regarding,' i.e. 
' overlooking 1 ; but the parallels quo- 
ted suggest the correct interpreta- 
tion, as Uhlhorn (p. 329) and Zahn 
(7. v. A. p. 303) have pointed out. 
For other untenable explanations of 
ov Trpoo-eiXrjfpoTas see the next note. 

ve<i)TpiKr)v rdgiv] ' his youthful sta- 
tus or condition] a slightly awkward 
but intelligible expression. The uses 




TOV eTrta-KOTTOV, d\\a 
5 evTpO7rr]v avTw aTrovejjieiv, 

Oeov TrctTpos Tracrav 

eyvwv Ka TOI/S yiovs 

ov TrpocreiXrjipdTas Trjv 


4 Stivafjuv] GLA ; yvupyv g. 

GLg; om. [A]. 

of rdgis elsewhere quite justify this 
interpretation ; see esp. Aristot. Magn. 

Mor. i. 34 (p. 1194) orav 77877 \d(3r) TTJV 
TOV dvdpos ra^iv, 'when he has now 
arrived at man's estate] which is an 
exact parallel: comp. also H.A. ix. 
7 (p. 612) 777 Trepi TOV TTT/XOI/ dxvpuo-fi 
TTJV avrr/v e^et Tatv i is of the same 
nature as,' An. Gen. iii. n (p. 761) 
fiovXerai Kara rrjv TOV Trvpop fivai 
ra^iv, Magn. Mor. i. 2 (p. 1183) o<ra 
fls ftvvdp.6(os Taiv ' pertain to 
the category of power,' Plato Phileb. 
49 C TTJV Ttov yf\oi(ov ft\r))(f TCI^LV re 
KOL tfrvo-iv, Dion. Hal. de Adm. Vi 
Dem. 40 dfo-pov fte TLVOS r) KO\\T]S 
Tdiv. . .Trapfop.evas ( to take the place 
of/ 'to serve the purpose of,' Diod. 
Sic. i. 25 et'y T^V TrpoiJTrdpt-ao-av Ka6i- 
(TTao-Bat ra^iv, 'restored to their 
former condition (of health and 
soundness of limb).' Ignatius there- 
fore says that, though apparently 
from his years Damas belongs to 
the category of youth, yet his godly 
wisdom takes him out of this cate- 
gory. This is substantially the in- 
terpretation adopted by the Igna- 
tian interpolator, who paraphrases 
the words ov Trpos TT/V (paivo/j.fvrjv 
dfpopatvTas veor^ra, and of the Arme- 
nian translator, who renders them 
'non spectant ad apparentem aetatem 
pueritiaeejus'; and it alone harmon- 
izes with the preceding context, ^ 
{rvyxpdo~6ai TTJ 77X1x10 TOV CTTIO-KOTTOV. 
It must be noticed however that 
Ignatius says, not rr)v (paivoufvr/v 
veoTrjTa, for his veoTrjs was a fact, but 
TTJV (paLvonevr/v vctoTeptKr/v Taiv, for he 
was young without being youthful, 


and the i/ecorfptKr) ro^tff was therefore 
only a semblance. On the other 
hand Saumaise (Appar. ad Libr. de 
Prim. Pap. p. 57 sq, Lugd. Bat. 1645) 
gave a wholly different turn to the 
passage. He supposed that i/fwreptKr; 
rai? meant 'the newly created order 
or institution of the episcopate,' and 
he rendered the sentence ' sicut cog- 
novi presbyteros, non ut accipientes 
earn, quae nova videtur, institutionem, 
sed tanquam prudentes in Deo, ce- 
dentes ipsi.' In reply to Saumaise, 
Petau (Theol. Dogm. v. 8. 5, IV. p. 
162, ed. Antv. 1700), while main- 
taining the antiquity of the episco- 
pate against him, was nevertheless 
led astray by his misinterpretation 
ofoi) Trpoa-eiXjy^oray, l not recognising"* 
and so ' repudiating] and himself 
explained vewTeptKr} rai? ' novitia et 
recens ordinatio et institution He 
supposed that this new order of 
things which the presbyters repu- 
diated was the substitution of ap- 
pointment by superior standing for 
free election, or in other words, of 
seniority for merit. This however 
is a pure hypothesis, not resting on 
any historical basis. Both these 
interpretations of the sentence are 
refuted by Pearson (V. I. p. 5 sq), 
and have not been reproduced lat- 
terly. But, while rejecting the general 
interpretation of the passage as given 
by Saumaise, several recent writers 
have adopted his rendering of i/etore- 
piKr/ rair, 'the newly-created office or 
order' ; e.g. RoiheAnfdnge, p. 436 sq, 
Uhlhorn p. 329 sq, Lipsius Clem. 
Rom. p. 27. Yet it is open to the most 




a^iv, d\\' MS (fipovi/uLw ev Qew 
OVK avrw e, d\\a TW Trarpi ' Irjorov XpHTTOv 
TTCLVTWV eTrKTKOTra). ek Ti/mriv ovv eKeivov 


i (ppovlfj<(jj] sicut sapienti viro (om. v Oe$) A; and so the paraphrase of g oti irpbs 
TVJV (fjaivop-ev^v d0o/3<Si'Tas vebrf\ro. dXXa ?rpos TTJV ev det^ <j>pbvr)<nv, (f)povl^ov^ GL. 
3 eKeivov] GLA (which seems to have read TL^V odv tKelvov [avrov] 6e\r)(ravTos); Oeov 
[Dam-Rup 5]; al. g. 4 u/ias] A, and so [g] irptirov ofiv eariv Koi i)/uas inraKotieiv 

T<$ eTTHTKbTry vfjt,uv K.T.\. ; 7//xas GL Dam-Rup. viraKoijeiv] Dam-Rup [g]; 

obedire L; audire A; eiraKotieiv G: comp. Ephes. 2, where G reads eiriTa<T(r6(j,evoi 
for viroTa<r<r6fji.evoi. 5 ovx Srt] G; non quod A (less literally translated 

serious objections, (i) It dislocates 
the connexion of thought. Obviously 
the words Ka6o)s...Kcu rovs ayiovs irpecr- 
(BvTepovs K.r.X. imply that the example 
of the presbyters corresponds to the 
previous injunction, whereas this in- 
terpretation makes it refer to some- 
thing quite different. (2) The words 
will not bear the meaning thus put 
upon them. Even though ragis 
might stand for the 'institution' or 
' order ' of the episcopate, the epithet 
venrcpiKT] cannot have the sense as- 
signed to it. It denotes either 
'juvenile' or 'revolutionary,' but 
never, so far as I am aware, 'recent'; 
nor indeed does the form -IKOS admit 
this meaning ; see Pearson V. /. p. 
7 sq, Zahn 7. v. A. p. 304. (3) It 
leaves ^aivo^iv^v unexplained, for 
there could be no question of appear- 
ances here, seeing that the age of 
the episcopal office must have been 
a matter of fact. Zahn (p. 304 sq) 
gives an explanation of pecorepiKj) 
ra^is, which stands midway between 
that which I have adopted and that 
which Saumaise proposed, and in- 
terprets it 'the ordination of a young 
man.' He thus brings the expression 
into a nearer connexion with the 
preceding injunction, and gives a 
possible interpretation to 

But his rendering strains the sense of 
both i/ea>rfpiKi) and rdgis ; and the 
combined result is an awkwardness 
of expression far greater than in the 
traditional interpretation which I 
have adopted. Zahn was anticipated 
in his explanation by Bingham Ant. 
ii. 10. i, ' He calls his ordination 
vccoTfpiKrjv rdiv, a yoitthful ordina- 
tion? An alternative rendering sug- 
gested by Cotelier ' recentem illius 
ordinationem^ is open to still greater 
objections. This account would not 
be complete without a reference to 
the interpretation by Bos Exerc. 
Phil, in 2 Tim. ii. 22 (p. 45), l nonad- 
sumentes ea quae manifesto juvenis 
(episcopi) sunt munia? 

1. (ppovifjLto] I Cor. iv. IO (ppovi- 
fj.oi cv Xpiaroj. The reading which 
I have adopted from the Armenian 
Version and which is supported by 
the interpolator's paraphrase seems 
to be required by the context. A 
reference is wanted to the prudence, 
not of the presbyters, but of Damas ; 
comp. Socr. H. E ii. 6 ai/Spa veov 
p.ev rf) rj\iKia TTpo fie fir) KOTO, de rals <ppf- 
<riv, speaking of Paulus when appoint- 
ed bishop of Constantinople. 

2. r<u TrdvTcov eVio-KOTro)] See the 
note on Rom. 9. Somewhat similar- 
ly Polycarp Phil. 5 8idKovoi...7ropfv6- 




TrXava TIS, d\\d TOV dopaTOv TrapaXoyi^eTar TO Se 
TOiovTOVy ov 7T|OO9 (rapKa 6 Ao^os d\\d TTjOOS Oeov TOV 
TO, Kpv(f)ia elSoTa. 

IV. HpeTTOv ovv ecrTLv jULri fJiovov Ka\la'6ai XpicrTia- 

nequaquam by Petermann); nequaquam L (this probably does not represent any 
other Greek than oi>x 6'ri); ovxl Dam-Rup; ov yap [g]. 6 TOV adparov 

TrapaXoyifeTai] txt GL; add. deov [Dam-Rup]; add. TOV /AT] dwdpevov K.T.\. g. A 
has simply invisibilem (omitting TrapaXoytgeTai). TO 5 Totovrov] GLg (which 

however has the form roioOro); T rotoi/ry Dam-Rup; al. A. g /cct- 

Gg Dam-Rup 5; vocari LA; aKoveiv Dam-Rup 10. 

KdTa TTJV d\r]dciav TOV Kupiov, oj 
ftiaitovos iravTUv. There is 
a reference here to the primary idea 
in enia-Konos 'to Him who overseeth 
all,' thus preparing the way for the 
closing words TOV TO. Kpvfyia eiSora. 

3. els Tip.r}v] See the note on 
Ephes. 21. 

QeXijcravTos U/LIO?] ' who desired you ' : 
comp. Rom. 6 cKclvov 0e'Aa>, whereas 
here the object is a person. For this 
sense of 6e\eiv see ib. 8 6c\ijo-aTe tva 
mlvfuls dfXrjdiJTf, with the note. 

4. Kara /ijySe/xiav K.r.A.] The thought 
is the same as in Ephes. vi. 6, Col. 
iii. 22. 

5. ovx on] * / will not say ' ; an 
ellipsis for ov Ae'yo> oYi : see Kiihner 
525 (n. p. 800 sq), Winer Ixiv. p. 
746. It is difficult to see why Zahn 
(/. v. A. 429 and adloc^) should prefer 
ov%t which is much less expressive. 
He speaks of r ou*x or* as not 
Greek ; but the presence of eVei can- 
not in any way affect the correctness 
of the phrase ovx OTt - 

6. rrapaXoyi'ffrat] ' attempts to 
cheat] literally 'imposes upon with 
false reasoning'; see the note on Col. 
ii. 4. So [Clem. Rom.] ii. 17 TrapaXo- 
yi(rafjifvovs TOS CVTO\CIS 'l^trov Xprro{). 
In Apost. Const, viii. 1 1 God is in- 
voked as dT 

TO Se TOIOVTOV K.T.X.] * but in such a 
case he will have to reckon not with 
flesh but with God' For TO TOIOVTOV 
see the note on Ephes. 1 1 ev TV 8vo. 
For the sense of 6 Xoyos and for the 
general tenour of the passage, see 
Heb. iv. 13 TroVra de yv/Jiva ... TOIS 
o(f)Sa\fj.ols avTov Trpbs ov T^JLLV 6 Xoyoy ; 
comp. Liban. Op. I. p. 201 (ed. Morel.) 
Toiff $ adiKas dn(K.TOv6o~i, KOI Trpos 
Qfovs KOI Trpoy dvOpwTTOvs yivfTai 6 
Xoyoy, and see Wetstein and Bleek 
on Heb. /. c. Similar is the expres- 
sion eorai avTai Trpos TOV Ocov, ' he will 
have to reckon with the god,' C. I. G. 
3890, 3902 f, 3902 n, 3902 o, 3962 b, 
3980 ; comp. 3902 a, 3963. 

7. TOV TO. Kpv(f>ia K.T.X.] Probably 
suggested by Ps. xliii (xliv). 22 avToy 
yap yivaxTKd TO. Kpv(pia TTJS Kapdias : 
comp. Ephes. 15, Philad. 7. The 
exact form Kpvcptos does not occur 
elsewhere in Ignatius, or in the N. T. 

IV. ' It is not sufficient to bear 
the name of Christians without the 
reality ; as some men profess respect 
for their bishop but act without re- 
gard to him. The consciences of 
such men are not upright ; for they 
absent themselves from the public 
assemblies of the Church and thus 
disobey the commandment.' 

9. pf) povov KaXfla-dai K.T.X.] 



1/01)9 d\\d Kai eivai' wcrTrep Kai Tives 67ricrKO7rov JULCV 
Ka\ov(riv, X^P^ ^ avTOV TravTa Trpdcrcrovcriv. ol TOL- 
OVTOI TSe] OVK evcruveiSrjToi JULOI eivai (paivovrai Sid TO 

Kai trpOKei- 5 


ri /3e/3aia)s K.CLT evro\rjv 

V. 'G-Tre* ovv TeAo? TO. Trpcvy/uLaTa 

TCtl TO, 

O T 

2 KaXovfftv] G Dam-Rup 5 ; vacant L ; \tyovo-tv [g] ; al. A. ol 

] GL* (L 2 , but om. 5 Lj) ; et qui sic cogitant A ; ol yap rotourot [g] ; 
ot TOIOVTOL Dam-Rup. 3 elvai] GL[g]; om. Dam-Rup; dub. A. 5 Kai] 

GLg; dub. A. Many editors omit it without authority for the sake of the 
grammar. Trpo/ceircu] g (but 1 has adjacet)', proponuntur L; posita sunt A; 

eTri'/cetrcu G: see the lower note. 8 6 fj.h...o de] L; 6 ^v...b 5k G; dub. 

A; al. g. 9 rov KOCT/XOU TOUTOI;] GL; principis mundi hujus SjA; TOV 

&PXOVTOS TTJS irovripla.* [g]. 10 x a P aKT ^P a ] GL; so also g, which sub- 

Comp. Rom. 8 iva /MJ) povov Xeyw/xai 
Xptcrrtai/os 1 , aXXa /cat evpedoi. 

I. eV/a-KOTroi/ /AC v K.r.X.] ' have the 
name of bishop always on their lips? 
But KoXovo-tv is an awkward expres- 
sion, and we ought perhaps to adopt 
Zahn's conjecture \a\ovo-iv (/. v. A. 
p. 302). Scribes would be tempted 
thoughtlessly to assimilate it to the 
preceding KaXflcrdai, though a false 
connexion is suggested thereby. For 
this use of XaXtu/ in Ignatius, see the 
note on Ephes. 6. Comp. Bishop of 
London's Charge 1866 (p. 12) 'Is it 
too much to hope that some at least 
of those, who. ..profess an almost in- 
ordinate respect for the Bishop's 
office in the abstract, will listen to 
that practical exercise of its func- 
tions which warns them of the dan- 
ger of the course on which they have 
entered ? ' 

3. evavveidrjTOi] The adjective 
occurs again Philad. 6 ; comp. Ep. 
Vienn. et Lugd. in Euseb. H. E. v. i, 
Apost. Const, ii. 17, 49, Clem. Al. 
Strom, vii. 7, 12, 13 (pp. 858, 879, 882), 
M. Antonin. vi. 30. So cvo-weidiJTcos, 
Isidor. in Clem. Al. Strom, iii. i (p. 

510), Clem. Horn. ii. 36, Clem. Al. 

Strom, vii. 13 (p. 882); cvo-vveicirja-ia, 
Clem. Horn. xvii. ii. So the oppo- 
site Sixro-uz/eiS^ra)?, Clem. Horn. i. 5, 
ii. 38 ; dvo-o-vvcifycria, Clem. Horn. iii. 

4. e/3cuW] ' strictly, validly? It 
is explained by Smyrn. 8 cWpi? /3e/3a/a 
eu^aptoria Tjyeur&o, T; viro TOV eViWo- 
TTOV ovcra K.r.X. The presence or the 
approval of the bishop was necessary 
for the validity of these gatherings. 
The persons here denounced held 
unauthorised meetings for sectarian 

<T\)va.6poi(r6ai\ Great importance 
is attached in these epistles to fre- 
quent meeting together; comp. 7 
below, Ephes. 13, 20, Polyc. 4, and 
see the note on Ephes. 13. Such 
meetings were a symbol and a guar- 
antee of harmony. The ev^apiorm 
was the special bond of unity in these 
gatherings : see Ephes. 5, 20, Philad. 
4, Smyrn. 6, 8. 

V. 'All things come to an end. 
The great alternative of life and 
death awaits every man at last ; and 
each goes to his own place. There 




TOTTOV (JL\\i ^wpeiv 9 wcnrep yap 
Svo, o yuei/ Oeou o Se /co'cr^of, Kal 'e 
avrcov I^LOV %apaKTfjpa emKeifjievov e^et, ol ckrurroi TOV 
10 KOCT/ULOV TOVTOV, ol $6 7TL(TTol ei/ dydiTfj xapaKTrjpa Oeov 
did 'Irjcrov XpicrTOv, Si ov edv JJLYI av6cup6Tcos 

stitutes ciKova fyovo-i, must have had the accusative. On the other hand S X A 
translate imago sunt del patris, as if they had read x a -P aKT 'nP' II ^1 

GLSjA; Kal g. 5t' ou] GLg (MSS, but 1 propter quod=oC o); cV dv Sj (et 

si nolumus mori propter eum in passione eius} A (et si nolumus pati et mori prop- 
ter nomen eius). Perhaps 8C ov is the right reading. Even g introduces a 
reference to martyrdom by inserting words in the latter part of the sentence, rb 
inrep d\T)9eias ira.Qdv. In Philad. 7 there is a similar v. 1. 5t' ov (for kv y), where 
however it can hardly be correct. 

are, as it were, two coinages of man- 
kind ; the unbelievers who have 
issued from the mint of this world, 
and the believers who are stamped 
with the image of God in Christ. 
We must first die to Christ's death, 
if we would rise with His life.' 

5. 'ETrei ovv\ The apodosis to 
this protasis is lost in the subordinate 
explanatory sentence, too-Trep yap 
rra K.r.X. This explanatory sen- 
tence again is a protasis without an 
apodosis. On these anacolutha in 
the letters of Ignatius, see the note 
on Ephes. I. 

ra TTpay/tara] ' the business of life? 

TrpoKetrcu] The common reading 
ciriKcirai would mean ' are at hand] 
' are at the door^. comp. Rom. 6 6 
TOKfTos fj.01 eViKeiTai. This reading 
however, as Zahn has seen, is the 
mechanical substitution of a scribe 
from below, where the word is used 
in a different sense. The life and 
death here mentioned are the spiri- 
tual, the eternal, life and death. 

7. TOV 'idlOV TOTTOV] So ActS 1. 25, 

Hermas Sim. ix. 4, 5, 12, and simi- 
larly TOV 0<petXo/Lt6J/OI' TOTTOV, ddTl. 

Rom. 5, Polyc. Phil. 9 : see also the 
note on Clem. Rom. 1. c. 

8. j/o/uVftara] ' coinages? The 
image was perhaps suggested by our 
Lord's words in Matt. xxii. 19 cTrtfct- 
are' /xoi TO TOV KT]VO~OV K.r.A. 

A similar contrast between the good 
coinage (op0o>y KOTrelcrt at KeKto 
fjievoLs) and the bad (x&'s re Kal 
K07T6to-t rep KOKIO-TW Ko^aTi) appears 
in a noble passage in Aristophanes, 
Ran. 717 sq: comp. Acharn. 517. 
See also Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 4 (p. 
436) TO re Trapaxe^apayfieVoz/ KCU ro 
doKtfJiov xwpi^eiv Kal Sta/cptfeiv, Phllo 
de Execr. 6 (II. p. 433) irapaKo^as TO 
vofjito-p-a TTJS cvyevfias, Euseb. Z-. C. 
Prol. 5. See also Jer. vi. 30 apyu'- 
piov a7rodfdoKip,acrfievov KaXeVare CIVTOVS 

o fjLv...o 8e] For ro fiei/ Se : 
see Winer xviii. p. 130. 

9. ro> Koa-fj-ov rovrou] SC. x a P aK ~ 
Tfjpa f\ovo-w. The reading of the 
Syriac, roi) apxovros TOV KOO-/J.OV TOVTOV, 
deserves consideration. 

10. v ay any] i.e. ' the faithful 
whose faith manifests itself in love ' ; 
comp. Gal. v. 6 TTIO-TIS di dyaTrrjs 

II. dia y lr)o-ov Xpto-roO] Christ is 
Himself the x a P aKT1 lP (Heb. i. 3) of 
God, and this image is stamped upon 


e^MfJiev TO aTTodavelv eis TO CIVTOV TrdBos, TO 
OVK ea-Tiv ev Y\IUV. 

VI. ',7rei ovv ev rols 'Trpoyeypajuiiuievois 
TO TTCLV 7T\rjdos e6ecop^(ra ev 7ri(TTei Kal 


(not e-xwpev, as stated by Dressel). 
GLg ; add. episcoporum scilicet et presbyterorum et diaconortim S r Similarly A 
translates in eo quod antea scripsi de episcopo et presbyteris et diaconis. 
4 TO TTOLV 7r\??0os] GLg; add. vestrum SjA. rjydTrijffa] Gg* (but v.l. 

dydirr/); dilectione LSjA. If any alteration were made, dycnrr)(rei would be 
better than dydiry, but the versions are not of great weight in this case, where 
the alteration was obvious. 6 els TVTTOV] els rbirov GLg Sev-Syr 2 ; 

the Christian by union with the 
Father through Him ; comp. Clem. 
Alex. Exc. Theod. 86 (p. 988) eVi TOV 
TrpoKO/jno'devros vofiicrp-aros 6 K.vpios 
ewrei/ ; eiiuov KOI T) emypcxpij ; 

OVTtoS KOI 6 TTKTTOS 1Tiypa(j)f)V pV e^6t 

6*101 XpioroO ro oi/Ofta TOV 0eou K.r.X. 
On the Alexandrian interpretation 
of eiKcov, as the Xdyoy, the 
TrapaSeiy/xa, in Gen. i. 27 /car' 
6foG, see the notes on Col. iii. 10. 

avdaiperas] 2 Mace. vi. 19 : so 
avdaiperot 2 Cor. viii. 3. 

I. els TO avrov Trades] Comp. Rom. 
6 a.Tro6avfiv els Xptcrrof 'irj&ovV) and see 
the note on Ephes. inscr. The lan- 
guage of Ignatius is moulded on that 
of S. Paul; comp. Rom. vi. 5, viii. 17, 
29, 2 Cor. iv. 10, Phil. iii. 10, 2 Tim. 
ii. II. 

VI. ' Well then, since I have been 
permitted to see you all through your 
representatives, I exhort you to act 
together in harmony with the bishop, 
the presbyters, and the deacons who 
are entrusted with the ministry of 
Christ the eternal Son of God incar- 
nate. Conform yourselves to God, 
and love one another. Let no divi- 
sions arise among you.' 

3. 'ETret ovv K.r.X.] The protasis 
which commenced with the beginning 
of 2 'En-el ovv TJi<a6r)v K.r.A. is here 

resumed, and at length matched with 
its long suspended apodosis, 7rapmi/co 
fv o/ioi/oia 0eoG K.r.A. 

ev rols Trpoyeypa^fjievois K.T.A.] ' in 
the persons (or rather representatives) 
already mentioned' 1 in 2 : see the 
note on Ephes. I 'ETT* t ovv ryv TTO\V- 

The word 7rpoo-o>7roi> here signifies 
more than a 'person'; it is a ' per- 
sonage] ' representative ' ; comp. e. g. 
Polyb. V. 107. 3 efflrovv rjye^ova /cat 
Trpoo-atnov a>? caz/oi ovres ftorjOelv av- 
rois, xxvii. 6. 4 TrpoQepevoi TO TOV 
Pao-i\e<t>s Evpevovs Trpoo-tarrov (with 
other passages given in Schweighaeu- 
ser's Lexicon). So in Clem. Rom. i, 
47, it is applied to the ' ring-leaders ' 
(see the note on the former passage). 
Again it was used in law-courts of 
the 'parties' to a suit ; Lobeck Phryn. 
p. 380, and comp. Apost. Const, ii. 
47, 49, 51. In all these uses it re- 
tains something of its primary sense, 
and has not yet degenerated into 
the colourless meaning ' person.' See 
also Meyer on 2 Cor. i. n. 

4. yydirrjcra] ' welcomed, embraced? 
The word here refers to external 
tokens of affection, according to its 
original meaning ; see the note on 
Polyc. 2 TO. deo-fjui p.ov a riya.Trr]va.s. 
Though the versions favour the 




5 Trapaivw ev ofjiovoia Qeov anrovSd^eTe TrdvTa Trpdcrcreiv, 
TrpOKaBrj/uevov TOV ETTia-KOTrov ek TVTTOV Qeov Kai 
7rp(r/3vTp(ji)v ek TVTTOV (TvveSpiov TWV 

S (where the word thus transliterated into Syriac would naturally 
stand for TUTTOS, not for TO'TTOS; see Payne Smith Thes. Syr. s. v.); tanquam A 
(thus taking the Syriac word to represent TUTTOS). The authorities are just the 
same, where the phrase recurs in the next line. See the lower note. 
7 ffvvedptov Tuv dTTooroXwz'] GLg Sev-Syr; angelorum consilii S x ; tanquam angeli 
regis A (an erroneous rendering of &O71D, which differently vocalized signifies rex 
or consiliuni). 

reading dyarrrj, no great stress can 
be laid on the fact, since there was 
every temptation to recur to the fre- 
quent Ignatian combination Trio-ret 

5. ev opovoia 6foO] l in godly 
concord'; comp. 15, Philad. inscr., 
where the same expression occurs. 
So too evoTrjs Qeov ; see the note on 
Philad. 8. 

6. 7rpoKa0r)iMVOv] So irpoKadeeo~6ai 
is used of the bishop, Clan. Horn. Ep. 
Clem. 12, 1 6, iii. 64, 66, 70, 72. Comp. 
Apost. Const, ii. 26 o yap enicrKonos 

ieoy cos 0eov at'a rert- 
a passage obviously mould- 
ed after Ignatius (see the following 
notes). The same word 7rpoKa%ze'- 
v<&v may well be understood with 
the following T&V Trpecr/Svrepcot/, as it 
is used of the presbyters just below ; 
but with TWV diaKovuv it is necessary 
to supply some other word, such as 
a-u/z7rap6i/ra)i/, according to the sense. 
The clause TreTricrrev/xeVcoi/ K.r.X. is 
added by way of explanation, 'see- 
ing that they have been entrusted 

els TVTTOV] So it seems best on the 
whole to read with Zahn (/. v. A. p. 
570 sq). See the parallel passage 
Trail. 3, where the right reading is 
Trarpos, TOVS 8e 7rpecr/3vrepoi)s coy o~vve- 
bpiov Qeov Kai coy avvdeo-p-ov aT 

Xcoi/ : comp. Apost. Const, ii. 26 17' Se 
diaKovos els TIITTOV dyiov TrvevpaTos 
TeTip.rj(r6a) ol 8e Trpecr/Surepot els 

TVTTOV TJfJiWV TO>V aTTOOToXcOV VeVO- re XnP aL Ka ^ opfpavol 
v/j,a>v els TVTTOV TOV 6vo~iao~Trjp{ov \e- 
\oyla6a>crav. As the whole context 
in the Constitutions abounds in re- 
miniscences of this passage of Ig- 
natius (see the notes on npoKaOrjuevov 
above, and on avev TOV irarpos K.r.X. 
7), it is another very strong con- 
firmation of the reading adopted 
(though the word TOTTOI/ also occurs 
in the context, 28, as quoted in the 
next note). Zahn quotes Barnab. 19 
vnoTay^a-rj Kvpiois coy TUTTCO Qeov. See 
also Clem. Horn. iii. 62, where the 
povapxla of the episcopate is re- 
presented as the counterpart to the 
povapxia of God, and the people are 
bidden to honour the bishop coy 
f iKova Qeov. In Apost. Const. 1. c. 
the bishop is called v/juuv eViyetoy 
6ebs /zera Qeov, with more to the same 
effect : comp. ib. ii. 30. He is the 
highest earthly representative of the 
spiritual power. 

7. o~vvedpiov rcoV aVocrroAcoi/] This 
comparison exactly corresponds with 
the parallel passage already quoted, 
Trail. 3, where the presbyters are 
compared to 'the council of God 
and company (see the note on arvv- 
de<rp.ov) of the Apostles.' Ignatius is 




T(jov efJLOL yvKVTctTwv, 7re7ri<rTevfjivu)v 
iaKOviav 'Irjo'ov XpiGTOu, 6s Trpo aiwvwv Trapd Trarpi r\v 
Kai ev Te\L e<pdvrj. TraVres ovv dfJioriGeiav Oeov \afiov- 
T69 evrpeTrea-Qe aAAfjXoi/s, Kai pri^eis Kara (rdpKa (3\e- 


y d\\' iv ' Irjorov Xpio-TcS a'AAtfXoi/s 5 

v] GLg; add. els TVTTOV T&V dTrocrro'Xwj/ (KnvKH NDS11D3) S x 
(which does not continue the quotation further); add. in formis apostolorum 
A (where again KDD1D is ta-ken as standing for TVTTOS). Sev-Syr omits the 
clause Kai T&V OLOLKOVMV T&V e/xoi yXvKvrdTUv. i irpo aldivw] G; ante 

saecula L; irpo atcDvos g (but attte saecula 1); perpetuus A. Sev-Syr has a plural, 
but it depends on ribui. irarpl] G; T$ irarpl g. 4 evrp^weade 

ptireffBe dXX^XoiS G; veneremini t adinviceni L*; dXX?JXous kvrpt- 
Dam-Rup 9; al. g: see the lower note. 5 TOV] g Dam-Rup; 

TU> G. 'Irjffov Xpi0r<] GS 4 [A] ; xP iffT V t'^^oD g ; XPKTT< Dam-Rup. 

did Trai/ros d7a7rare] GL Dam-Rup ; estate inter vos omni tempore S 4 ; 

picturing to himself the gathering of 
the church, where the bishop and 
presbyters are seated on a dais, the 
bishop occupying the throne in the 
centre, and the presbyters sitting 
round (as in the Basilican arrange- 
ment) so as to form a corona; comp. 
13 below dio7rXoKou Trvevp-ariKov 
(TTe(j)dvov TOV irpecrfivTeplov vp.a>v (with 
the note). See also the note on 
Philad. 8 o-vvedpiov TOV eVto-Korrov, 
where again the reference is doubt- 
less to the presbytery. Comp. Apost. 
Const, ii. 28 rots de 7rpeo-/3urepots... 
dnrXrj KOI avTols a(f)opieo~6<i) 77 p,olpa 
els XP IV r v T v Kvpi'ov dnocrToXcdv, 

toV KOI TOV T07TOV <})V\d<T(TOV(TlV. . .e'cTTl 

yap o-wfo'piov KOI fiovXr) TTJS KK\r]o-ias. 
The presbytery are again compared 
to the Apostles. Trail. 2, Smyrn. 8. 
The text of the Syriac (followed by 
the Armenian) seems to have been 
altered deliberately, in order to pro- 
duce what appeared to be a more 
suitable comparison. 

2. diaKoviav 'I. X.] i.e. l a service 
under Jesus Christ} as their Kvpios : 
comp. Trail. 2 TOVS diciKovovs OVTOS 
fj,v(TTr)pia>v 'l^croG Xptorou, Smyrn. io 

<os ICLKOVOVS [Xpiorou] 0foG, Polyc. 
Phil. 5 cos Qfov KCU Xpio-Tov 8iaKovoi; 
comp. 2 Cor. xi. 23, Col. i. 7, i Tim. 
iv. 6. This seems the most probable 
interpretation. Otherwise it might 
be explained 'a ministry in which 
Jesus Christ Himself served,' for He 
became didnovos iravTotv (Polyc. Phil. 
5) ; comp. Matt. xx. 28, Mark x. 45. 
For the comparison of the deacon to 
Jesus Christ, which is involved in 
this latter interpretation, see the note 
on Trail. 3. 

3. ei/ re'Xet] Heb. i. 2 eV e 
TWV TJ/xepeoi/ rovrttf, ix. 26 eVi 
Tmv aicoi/coi/ : comp. I Cor. x. 1 1 eiy 


See also Ephes. 1 1 eV^aroi /catpoi 
(with the note). Zahn quotes Iren. 
i. io. 3 eV itrxarttv rS>v K.aipwv ?) 
Trapovfria TOV vlov TOV 0eov, TOVTO~TIV 
fv TW TfXei eCpdvrj r) dp^. 

6/j.orjdftav 0fo{}] ' moral conformity 
with God' '; comp. Polyc. I Tols KCIT 
avdpa Kara opoijOeiav Qfov \d\ei (with 
the note). This parallel passage 
shows the meaning of the expression 
here. It is not 'godly conformity 
among yourselves,' as Zahn takes it, 




TravTOS dy aware. /uL^Sev ecrTco ev VJJLLV o 
/uLepicrai, d\\' evcoBrjre Tto ewicrKOTrco Kai TO!? wpo- 

ek rvwov Kai c^Sa^y d<p6ap(rias. 
VII. ''OJcrwep o\)v 6 Kvpios avev TOV waTpos ovdev 
10 ewoirjcrev [^i/w/xeVos wV], oi/Ve Si eavTOv ot/re Sia TWV 

om. g (here, but it is represented in the context). A abridges the whole sentence 
dXX' v...ayaTr3.T into sed amore iesu christi. 7 r$ eTrto-KOTry Kai rots 

irpoKaQ'rj/j.ti'Ois] GLS 1 Dam-Rup 6; T eVtcr/coTry ry TT/)O/C a.dt]^v^> A ; . r^p eTnaKoiry 
g (omitting /cal rots TT/HHC. and substituting UTroracrcrd/Aevot T^; tfey /c.r.X.). 
8 TWTTO^] G (but carelessly written) LSj ; TOTTOV Dam-Rup; al. g. The rendering 
of A conspectum bonurn arises from a misunderstanding of the Syriac K"Vn> 
which differently vocalized signifies exemplar and obtutus. 9 oiV] GL* 

(but om. L x ) g Dam-Rup; 5^ Sjj <?/ A. 6 Kipios] GLg; add. TJ/JLUV Dam- 

Rup [SJ [A]. 10 tiroirj<rev] GL[Sj] Dam-Rup ; fadebat A; irate? [g]. 

wV] GL; om. S X A [g] Dam-Rup. 

ye do nothing without your bishop 
and presbyters. Let no man study 
any private ends ; but let there be 
one common prayer, one common 
mind, one common hope. Jesus 
Christ is one; be ye therefore one. 
Gather yourselves together as to one 
Temple, even God ; as to one Altar, 
even Jesus Christ, who came forth 
from One and is in One, and re- 
turned to One, even the Father.' 

9. avfv TOV iraTpos K.r.X.] See 
John viii. 28 oV t/LiavroO Trotco ouSeV, 
aXXa Kada>s ei'ttei> /ze o TrarT/p, raOra 
XuXeS (see 8 Kara trafra fv^pecrTrjcrev 
which is a reminiscence of the con- 
text of this same passage) ; comp. x. 37 
ei ov Troteo ra epya TOV irctTpos fjt-ov K.r.X. 
See also Apost. Const, ii. 26 coy o 
Xpitrroy, Troiav d0' eavTov oy&eV, ra 
apeo-ra Trotei r< Trarpi rrai/rore, ii. 30 
(os yap Xpicrros civev TOV Trarpos 1 ou8ev 
Trotel, ovTQ)s ovde 6 diaKovos avfv TOV 
(Trio-KOTrov (passages referred to by 
Jacobson), where there is a remi- 
niscence at once of these passages 
in Ignatius and of the sayings in 
S. John's Gospel on which they are 

10. rjv(ap.^os eoV] ' being united with 

and as the preceding eV oyuovoia 0eo{) 
might suggest. See also pi^ral 
eeov, Ephes. i, 7>tf//. i. 

4. aXX^Xous-] The reading aXXrf- 
Xois must be wrong, as evrpfirecrdai 
takes a genitive or an accusative (in 
Ignatius only the latter), but never 
a dative. Though alax^vea-Oat some- 
times has a dative, it is with a differ- 
ent meaning, ' to be ashamed /,' or 
' on account of ; a sense which would 
be out of place here. There is a simi- 
lar error in the Greek MS, Trail. 7 
(f)v\dTTca-0( ovv rols TOIOTJTOIS. 

Kara o-apua] i.e. 'so as to love and 
hate his neighbour by turns, from 
merely human passion.' It is op- 
posed to Sta navros ayaTrare. 

8. tfc TVTTOV K.T.X.] i.e. 'both as 
an example and as a lesson of in- 
corruptibility.' In Rom. vi. 17 we 
have fls TVTTOV SiSa^^y. The idea of 
d<f)0apcria in Ignatius (Ephes. 17, 
Philad. 9; comp. Polyc. 2) is not 
merely immortality, but moral in- 
corruption as carrying with it im- 
mortal life ; see the note on Ephes. 


VII. 'As the Lord Jesus did 
nothing without the Father, so must 




, OUTCOS /uLrjSe v/uLels dvev TOV eTTKTKOTrov 
7rpecr/3vTep(x)v jmrjSev Trpdcra'eTe* jmrjSe 
evXoyov TL (paiveorOai ISia v/uuv a'AV eiri TO avTO JULIO. 
Trpocrev^riy JULIO. S&;<n$, eh vovs, /mia eXwis, ev dydTrr], ev 

TY\ X a P? T *7 dfJLtofJLtpy OS eCTTLV '/^(TOl/S XplCTTOS, OV CtfJieiVOV 5 

i Kal TUV irpfafivrepwv'} GLA; om. Dam-Rup [g] (but g continues 
Tepos, IJ.T] dukovos, /^ Xai'/cos). 2 7rpci<r<rere] 7rpd(T<rerat G. 3 <paivea6ai] tyaiveade 
G. V/MI>] txt GLA Dam-Rup (but the quotation ends here) ; add. seorsim ab 

episcopo Sj (an accidental repetition from the preceding sentence ?) ; al. g. 5 5s] 

quod (the antecedent being gaiidio] L; 3 Antioch i ; els G; al. Ag: see the lower 
note. &fj.ewov ovdtv e'ortj/] GLAg (but ovdfr for ov8tv)\ ovdfr dvfj.rjd- 

Him'; comp. Smyrn. 3 
jvafjievos TO) Trarpi, said of Christ. 

1. OVTtoS (JLTJ&e V/J-fls K.T.X.] ApOSt. 

Const, ii. 27 ot'Teos /cat vp-cls avev TOV 
emo-Konov prjdev Troielre. The pre- 
cept occurs again Trail. 2, 7, Philad. 
7, Smyrn. 8. 

2. p7e nfipao-ijTC K.r.X.] i. e. ' do 
not struggle to persuade yourselves 
that anything is right and proper 
which you do by and for yourselves.' 
For the word evXoyov itself, compare 
Smyrn. g ; and for the sense, Ephes. 
1 1 ^copis TOVTOV fMrjdev 

3. 7Tt TO aUTo] SC. 

yivea6a>. The sentence is studiously 
terse, the words being thrown down 
singly, and the reader left to supply 
the connecting links. Zahn (/. v. A. 
p. 345 sq, and ad loc.) would connect 
aXX' eVt TO ai;To with the preceding 
words ; but this does not appear to 
me so forcible. A similar alternative 
as to the connexion of eVt TO 

with the preceding or following words 
presents itself in Acts ii. 47, iii. i. 

5. TTJ x a P$ K.r.X.] See Ephes. 

os] I have ventured to substitute 
this reading, though there is no direct 
evidence in its favour, for two reasons. 
(i) It stands mid- way between the 

two extant readings, o and els, and 
explains both. For the confusion of 
o and os in the text of the Ignatian 
Epistles, see below 10, Trail. 8, ii. 
(2) This attraction accords with the 
idiom of these epistles elsewhere ; 
see below IO /zeTa/3a'Xeo-0e els veav 
{V/JLTJV, os eo-Tiv 'irjo-ovs Xpio-Tos (v. 1.), 
1 5 eppa>o"$e ev 6/zoi/oia Qeov KeKTrjue- 
VOL dftidicpiTov Trvevpa, os eo-Tiv 'irjo-ovs 
Xpto-Tos; comp. Troll. II TOV Qeov 
ev(oo~iv 7rayyf\\ofj,evov, os eo~Tiv O.VTOS 
(where however there is a various 
reading), Ephes. 9 dta TTJS fjLTj%avTJs... 
os earriv trTavpos (with the note). The 
passages, 15, Troll, n, seem to 
show that the relative refers not to 
rj; ^apa' TII a/^cop.6), but to the whole 
idea of the sentence, ' This perfect 
unity is Jesus Christ.' Compare the 
still stronger expression, Ephes. 14 
dpx*l PCV TTIO-TIS, re\os 8e dydirt]' TO. de 
dvo ev evoTT)Ti yevopeva Qeos eo~Tiv, 
The reading els is part of the confu- 
sion which extends over the following 
clauses in the existing Greek text. 

6. cos els eva K.T.X.] Looking at 
the authorities, there can be little 
doubt, I think, that the passage 
should be so read, (i) The word eva 
slipped out of the extant Greek text 
of the genuine Ignatius in the first 




oi)6ev ecrTiv. Travres 60s ets eva vaov crv VTpe^ere t@eot/t, 



d<p' eVos 

7rpoe\66vra K.OL els eva ovra 

tarepov [Antioch]. 6 ovdev] G (not ovdtv as in Dressel). irdvres] txt 

LAg ; add. ovv G [Antioch]. eis] GL A ; els els g. eW] LA ; TOV [g] ; 

om. G. ffwrptxere Qeov] GL; deov o-wrp^xere g. 0eou] GL[g]; om. 

A. 7 ^TrJ P] G (eirl, not en-ei as suggested in Dressel's note). eirl %va\ g* 

(but v. 1. ws eirl >a); in unum Lj (but L 2 #/ z' tinum}', ws e?ri ?j/a G; om. A. 

clause, owing to the combination of 
similar letters COCGICGNANAON, while 
the word els found its way by a 
reduplication (eiceic) into the text 
which the interpolator had before 
him. (2) The cos before eVi eva 'irjaovv 
Xpio-Tov must be rejected, as an ob- 
vious addition of the scribes in some 
copies both Greek and Latin, which 
the supposed parallelism of the clause 
would suggest, but which really de- 
stroys the meaning of the sentence. 
Jesus Christ Himself is compared to 
the one altar. I suspect however 
that a still further change ought 
to be made, and that 0eoi> should 
be read for Qeov 'as to one shrine, 
even to God? In this case the 
shrine (vaos) would be compared to 
God the Father, and the altar or 
court of the altar (OvaiavTrlpiov) to 
Jesus Christ. Thus the image gains 
in distinctness ; for the access to the 
former is by and through the latter. 
Comp. Clem. Rom. 41 ep-rrpoo-Qcv 
TOV vaov irpos TO Ovo-iao-Typtov, and see 
the note on Ephes. 5. For the 6v- 
ariao-Tripiov in connexion with Christ 
see Heb. xiii. 10, where perhaps it 
signifies more definitely the Cross ; 
and for the general complexion of 
the imagery Heb. ix. 6 sq. For the 
omission of ds before Qeov (if this 
reading be adopted) comp. Joseph. 
B. J. ii. 8. 5 Kadd-rrfp fls ayiov TL re'/xe- 
vos Trapayivovrai TO denrvrjTTJpiov, Clem. 

Hom. V. 21 <ao~7Tp 6V opydvwv TO>V 
eo/zaroji/ eiy ras rc3i> VOTJTOJV 
o-vvovo-ias, Athenag. Suppl. 31 
(os TTpos (TTa.6fj.rjv TOV Qeov <avovi^Tai, 
Orig. c. Cels. i. 55 (I. p. 370) raCra 
TrpoCprjTfveo-dai us nfpl cvos TOV o\ov 
AaoO, Macar. Magn. iii. 13 (p. 85) cos 
fls /AfyaXoTToXti/ KaTaK\ivas TTJV eprjfAOV : 
and, as regards classical writers, see 
Kiihner 451 (ll. p. 479). The 
omission would assist the corruption 
of Qfov into Qfov. 

8. TrpoeX^oi^ra] This refers not 
to the Divine generation of the Son, 
but to the mission on earth; for it 
corresponds to xeopTfo-ai/ra, as the 
setting out to the return; comp. 
John xiii. 3, xvi. 28 (quoted below), 
where c(\0clv answers to 
here. See also the note on 
in 8. 

els eva uvra~] For this preposition, 
as describing the absolute eternal 
union of the Son with the Father, 
comp. John i. 18 o cov els TOV KoXnov 
TOV Trarpos. See also John i. i u 
Aoyoy r\v irpbs TOV Qeov. 

XWprjcravTa] SC. els eva. As at the 
commencement of His earthly min- 
istry He came forth from One, as 
He is eternally with One, so also 
at the close of this earthly minis- 
try He returned to One. See es- 
pecially John xvi. 28 ff)\6ov e< TOV 
iraTpos Kal e\rj\v&a els TOV Koo-pov' 
7raA.ii/ a(pt77jiu TOV KOO~IAOV /cat iropevo- 




VIII. Mr] TrXavacrBe TOLLS 6Tpo$o^iais jULrjSe /uiv6ev- 
TO?S TraXaLois dvaxpeXecrLV OVCTLV* el yap pexpL vvv 
iovfiaio'iuLov a>/*6i/, 6/uLO\o<yoviuLev X a P LV 
(pevai. oi yap 6eLOTaTOi 7rpo(prJTai fcara 


ir\<rQi\ Tr\ava(rdai G. 3 tovSal'fffAov] judaismum L; VOJJ.QV 

'ifffj.oi' G; judaicam legem A; vo^ov lovdaiKOv [g]. 4 

GLA; if\aovv xP'O'roi' g Sev-Syr 2, 7. 5 

VTrve6fjt.i>oi G. 6 UTTO] G; (foro g. aurou] GL Sev-Syr 

pat Trpos TOV Trar/pa, comp. xiii. 3 
drro GeoO fr)\6ev KOI Trpcs TOV Qeov 
vrrdyei ', and for x M PW avTa alone, see 
John xiv. 12, 28, Tropevo/icti Trpos rov 
Trarepa, xvi. IO, 1 6, 17? vrraya) Trpos TOV 

VIII. 'Be not seduced by false 
doctrines and antiquated fables. If 
we still live after the manner of Juda- 
ism, we avow that we have not re- 
ceived grace. Yes, the holy prophets 
themselves lived a life after Christ. 
For this they were persecuted, being 
inspired by His grace, that so in the 
time to come unbelievers might be 
convinced that there is one God who 
manifested Himself through His Son 
Jesus Christ, His Word that issued 
forth from silence and did the will of 
the Father in all things.' 

i. pf] TrXamo-^e] See the note on 
Ephes. 1 6. 

rats eVepo8ous] So erepooeu/, 
Smyrn. 6. The words are at least as 
old as Plato (JTheaet. 190 E, 193 D), 
but do not occur in the LXX or N.T. 
These are perhaps the earliest ex- 
amples in Christian writings, though 
eVepoooy occurs in Philo de Sobr. 

13 (i. p. 403) and in Josephus B. J. 
ii. 8. 5. 

[jivdfvfjLao-iv K.r.A.] Comp. i Tim. 
IV. 7 ypaadeis p.vdovs irapatTov, Tit. I. 

14 M 7rpo0-e'xoi/T6s 'lovfiatKoTs pi/dots : 
and for dvo)(f)f\fo-iv see Tit. iii. 9 

de ^Tijo'eis Kal yevfaXoyias KOL 

epets KCU p.dxas VO/JUKCIS nt piiVrao-o, flo~\v 
yap at/co^eXfis KOI /zaraioi. These pa- 
rallels are important because they 
serve to indicate the type of heresy 
which Ignatius has in his mind. It 
belongs to the same category with the 
heresy of the Colossian Church (see 
Colossians p. 73 sq), of the Pastoral 
Epistles, of the Apocalypse, of the Ca- 
tholic Epistles, and of the Cerinthians. 
It is Judaism crossed with Gnosti- 
cism. The 'antiquated fables' are 
probably myths relating to cosmo- 
gony and angelology : see above, 
I. p. 360 sq, and Colossians pp. 89 
sq, 101 sq, 109 sq. This account 
of the heresy here contemplated, 
which is suggested by the parallels 
above quoted from S. Paul, is also 
demanded by the context of Igna- 
tius himself. He begins here with a 
warning against eVepoSouu, and he 
concludes with a similar warning 
against /cei/oSo|ia ( n). These two 
he connects closely together ( n 
TavTa Se...^eXa) vp,ds pr) e'/HTreo-elz/ els 
TO. dyKio~Tpa TTJS K.ei>odoias), so that he 
unquestionably has the same foe be- 
fore him from first to last. Yet in 
attacking this foe, he condemns two 
things: first ( 8 10), Judaizing 
practices, i.e. the doctrine of the per- 
manent obligation of the Mosaic 
ritual, more especially the observance 
of sabbaths ( 9) ; and secondly, 
Docetic views, which are directly met 





5 'Itfirouv effl&av. Sid TOVTO Kai e 

TOs [oi/TCH/] ets TO 7r\ripo(popr]6rji/ai TOI)S 
, ori els Geo's earTiv 6 (pavepcuoras eavrov Sid 
'Iqcrov Xpicrrov TOV vlov avrov, os iamv avTOv Aoyos 

2 ; om. Ag. 8 Xoyos] txt A Sev-Syr ; add. dittos ouV GL 

Tim-Syr 2 ; g paraphrases Xcryos ou faros dXX' oi5<rtc5?7s, ou yap ecrnv 

XaXtas evdpOpov <f)&vr)[ML dXX' evepyeias de'Crfs ovcria yevvrjrifi : see the lower 

in the words TrenXrjpofpoprjcrdf eV r?/ 
yevvrjo-ei KOI ra> 7ra#et K.r.X. ( 1 1 ), hav- 
ing been alluded to previously in 9 ov 
(i.e. rov avrov} rives dpvovvrai. 
The foe in question therefore was 
Doceto-judaism. For the Docetic 
element see above, i. p. 363 sq, and 
on Trail. 9. 

2. /Lte'xpi vvv] 'until now? i.e. 
when two or three generations have 
passed since the true doctrine of 
grace was revealed. 

3. Kara Iov8a'i(] There cannot 
be much doubt about the reading 
here. The superfluous v6p.ov in the 
extant Greek text of Ignatius is an 
obvious gloss; and the substitution 
of the 'Jewish law' in the Arme- 
nian Version and in the interpo- 
lator's text is a not less obvious 
paraphrase. Zahn however reads 
Kara vop.ov iov8a'icrp.ov <u/iei> and is 
disposed to take lovftaio-pov as a 
cognate accusative with (r/v a con- 
struction which Pearson (ad loc.} 
suggests only to reject. For tovSai- 
tr/iof, denoting conformity to the 
external rites of the Jews, see the 
notes on Gal. i. 13, ii. 14. 

opoXoyovpev K.r.X.] Ignatius doubt- 
less had in his mind Gal. v. 4 
yridrjre OTTO Xpto-roO, oirii/ey ev 
diKaioixrOc, rrjs ^aptroy e'^' 
(comp. ii. 21 OVK a#era> rrjv ^aptv roG 
GeoO). For X&PI-SI as the central point 
of the Gospel dispensation, see the 
note on Col. i. 6. 

4. Kara Xpt(rrov 'Ir)<rovv] i.e. 'in 

expectation of a coming deliverer 
and a redemption.' So also Philad. 
5 feat rovs 7rpo(j)TJTa.s 8e dyarrwficv ftia 
rb KOL avrovs fls TO fvayyeXiov Karrjy- 
avrbv fXni^fiv Kal avrbv 

(comp. ib. 9). See too below 
9 oi irpo<j)f)Tai p.adrjTcu ovrts K.T.\. 
For the expression Kara Xpivrbv 
'ITJCTOVV ijv comp. Philad. 3 (with the 
note) ; and for the preposition see 
the note on i above. 

5. fim roCro K.r.X.] The same 
idea which appears in Heb. xi. 16, 25, 
26, 35 (and throughout this chapter 
generally): see also Clem. Rom. 17 

alyctois Kai p,r)\a)Tais 7T6- 
Krjpv(T(rovTfs rrjv eXeuo-ii/ 
TOV Xpta-Tov. 

f8ia>x&rjo-av] Zahn quotes Iren. iv. 
33. 9 'similiter ut veteres prophetae 
sustinentes persecutionem etc/ a 
passage which closely resembles 

ffj.7rvf6p.evoi K.r.X.] Comp. I Pet. i. 
IO sq 7rpo<pr/rai ot ire pi TT/S els vfj,as 
%dpiTos TrpoCprjTfvaravres, fpavvcavrcs 
els riva fj Trolov Kdipbv fdijXov TO fv 
avTols TTVfiifJ.a Xpi(rrou...ov^ eau- 
Tots 8e dirjKovovv aura K.r.X., 
where there are several ideas in 
common with this passage of Igna- 
tius ; see the note on 9 Trapeoi/ tfyeipev 
/t.r.X. Comp. also Barnab. 5 ot rrpo- 
(p?)rai, OTT' avrov exovresTrjv X^P iV y 
fls avTov f7rpo(priTfVo~av. 

6. TOVS dneidovvTas] Not the con- 
temporaries of the prophets them- 
selves, but disbelievers in later ages, 




diro (riyrjs TrpoeXdcov, os Kara iravra euripe(rTii(rv 


i Kara iravra evypteTyo-ev] G; secundum omnia beneplacuit L; Travra /careva- 
pt<sT-r\Gev g (MSS); in omnibus placuit Tim- Syr Sev-Syr; in omnibus gratus 
fuit A. 

who could test the prophecy by the 
fulfilment and thus convince them- 
selves: see i Pet. 1. c. For TT\T}- 
pocpopeli/, 'to convince] see the note 
on Colossians iv. 1 2. 

8. \6yos OTTO o-iyfjs Trpoc\6a>v\ This 
reading has been altogether neglect- 
ed by editors (before Zahn), but de- 
serves to be preferred to the common 
text, \6yos aiStoy OVK diro o-tyfjs TrpoeX- 
0wv, for the following reasons. 

(i) It has higher authority than 
the other. It stands in the oldest 
extant form of the text, that of the 
Armenian Version, and in one of the 
earliest extant quotations, that of 
Severus (Cureton C. I. pp. 213, 245). 
Severus even comments on the ex- 
pression; 'This (statement) that He 
proceeded from silence means that 
He was ineffably begotten by the 
Father etc.' It is clear therefore 
that he had this reading before him, 
and it may be inferred from his 
silence that he was not acquainted 
with any other. This fact is the 
more important as Severus elsewhere 
(Rom. 6) mentions a various reading 
in Ignatius and compares the ages of 
different MSS. The paraphrase of 
the interpolator leaves some doubt 
about his reading: but inasmuch 
as there is nothing corresponding to 
aiSios, which he is hardly likely to 
have omitted, I suppose that in his 
text also ai'Sios OVK were wanting. He 
seems after his wont to have substi- 
tuted for the Ignatian language \6yos 
OTTO 0-1777 s TrpoeXdaiv, which savoured 
strongly of heresy, another expres- 
sion which squared with his ideas of 

(2) This reading is better adapt- 
ed to the context. It corresponds to 
the previous o (pavepvo-as cavrbv dia 
'Irjo-ov XpioTov, which it explains; 
and it aptly introduces the words 

Which follOW, Vr)pO~T7)(TV TO) 77 fJi- 

fyavri avrov. It is also more con- 
sistent in itself; for o-iyr) and \6yos 
are correlative terms, \6yos implying 
a previous <riyij : comp. Iren. ii. 12. 5 
'impossibile est Logo praesenteSigen 
esse,aut iterum Sige praesente Logon 
ostendi; haec enim consumtibilia sunt 
invicem etc.' 

(3) It accords entirely with the lan- 
guage of Ignatius elsewhere, where 
the period -before the Incarnation is 
described as God's silence; Ephes. 
19 pvo~TT)pta Kpavyijs O.TIVO. 

0eo Trpd\6r)' TTWS ovv 

(see the note there). There is the 
same contrast between the 'silence' 
and the 'manifestation' here. 

(4) The insertion of the words 
aidto? OVK, if spurious, is much more 
easily explained than their omission, 
if genuine. A transcriber would be 
sorely tempted to alter a text which 
lent itself so readily to Gnostic and 
other heresies. The forced interpreta- 
tion which Severus (as quoted above) 
is obliged to put on aVo o-iyfjs TrpoeXtfeoV 
shows how distasteful the expression 
would be to orthodox ears. The in- 
terpolation should, I think, be assign- 
ed to the fourth or fifth century. About 
the middle of the fourth century 
Marcellus propounded his doctrine, 
which was assailed by Eusebius as 
Sabellian. The attacks of Eusebius 
show that Marcellus expressed his 
views in language almost identical 




with this statement of Ignatius : see 
e. g. Eccl. TheoL ii. 9 (p. 114) a 8rj 
Map/teXXoy e'roX/ia V7rori'$ecr0ai, TraXat 
pev \eyuv clvai TOV Qeov KCII TWO. TJO-V- 
X >iav TO) 06(5 V7roypd(pa)v eavrw, 
KO.T avTov eKelvov TOV r<Si> ddeav aipe- 
cria>T(if>v dpxyyov (i.e. Simon Magus, 
as Pearson, V. /. p. 420, rightly sup- 
poses), os ra aOea SoypaTifav a7re(pai- 
VTO Xeya>r>, *Hz/ Qeos Kai viyr)' p. era 8e 
TTJV o~iyr/v KOI TTJV ycrvxiav 7rpoeX$eii> 
TOV \6yov TOV Qeov ev dpxf} TTJS KOO-- 
p.o7rouas 8pao~TiKrj evfpytia /t.r.X. It 
seems probable indeed from this and 
other coincidences (see Smyrn. 3), 
that Marcellus was acquainted with 
the Ignatian Epistles. See also on 
this procession of the Logos from 
Silence the passages quoted from 
Marcellus, c. Marcell. ii. 2 (pp. 36, 41), 
Eccl. TheoL i. 20 (p. 100), ii. 8 sq 
(p. 112 sq), ii. ii (p. 1 1 8), iii. 3 (pp. 
163, 1 66). This mode of expression 
would thus be discredited, and the 
text altered in consequence. A pa- 
rallel case is the insertion of dibios 
p.ev with dpxiepevs in Euseb. Quaest. 
ad Steph. Op. IV. p. 900 (comp. p. 
965) to save the orthodoxy of the 

This reading was advocated by me 
as early as 1868 in the Journal of 
Philology I. p. 51 sq, and again later 
in the Contemporary Review, Feb- 
ruary 1875, P- 357 s q- It was adopt- 
ed by Zahn in his edition (1876) 
quite independently, for he was un- 
aware of what I had written (see 
p. 201). In his previous work (7. v. 
A. p. 471 sq, 1873) he had tacitly 
acquiesced in the vulgar text. The 
wonder is that a reading of such im- 
portance should have been so gener- 
ally overlooked. 

But if this be the correct reading, 
what is meant by it? Does this 
'procession from silence' refer to the 
Divine generation of the Word or to 
the Incarnation ? Severus takes the 
former view (Cureton C. /. pp. 213, 

245). This sense would correspond 
to the use of similar expressions in 
various Gnostic systems, and it is 
recommended to a certain extent also 
by the parallels in Marcellus ; comp. 
also Tatian ad Graec. 5 oureo *ai 6 
\6yos TTpof\6a>v f< TTJS TOV Trarpos 
dvvdfjLfa)s. But nevertheless it does 
not suit the context, nor does it 
accord with the language of Igna- 
tius elsewhere. As Logos implies 
the manifestation of Deity whether 
in His words or in His works, so 
Sige is the negation of this (see Iren. 
ii. 12. 5 quoted above). Hence the 
expression 'proceeding from silence' 
might be used at any point where 
there is a sudden transition from 
non-manifestation to manifestation ; 
e.g. Wisd. xviii. 14, 15, jo-vxov yap 
(riyfjs TTfpiexovo'rjs ra 7reu>ra...6 TTO.VTO- 
8vvafj.6s o-ov Xo-yoy cm ovpav(nv...cis 
fjieaov TTJS 6\f0pias rj\a.TO yfjs, where 
the reference is to the destruction of 
the first-born in Egypt. To the In- 
carnation, as the chief manifestation 
of God through the Word, this lan- 
guage would be especially appli- 
cable ; comp. Rom. xvi. 25 ara 
dnoKaXv^iv /xvoTT/piou XP OVOIS atwiot? 
fro~tyrj fjievov, (pavepcodevTos Se vvv 
(with other passages quoted on 
Ephes. 19), and see also Clem. Alex. 
Cohort. I (p. 9) tva TTJS d\T)deias TO 
<pd>r, o Xoyo?, Tutv rrpo(pr]TiK.a>v alviy^d- 


evayyeXiov yevopevos. Since therefore 
the whole context here relates to the 
Incarnation and human life of Christ 
(6 (pai/epoxra? eavTov, ra) Tre/ni/'ai/rt 
O.VTOV), it is natural to refer OTTO 
o-iyrjs npo\6ti>v to the same. See also 
the parallel passage Ephes. 19 (al- 
ready quoted), which is strongly in 
favour of this interpretation; and 
comp. Rom. 8 'irja-ovs XPIO-TOS...TO d- 
^fcvo'es trro/^ia ei> a> o Trarqp eXakrja-fv 
dXrjOcas. So too 7rpoeX0ai/ has been 
used just before of the Incarnation, 
7. Ignatius however does not 




IX. Gl ovv ol ev TraXaiois TTpdy/uLaa'iv dvacrrpa- 

rj\6ov, jmrjKerL <ra/3/3 

i li>] G ; om. g* (the existing MSS). 

deny the pre-existence of the Word 
here, though he does not assert it. 
This was not the first time when 
the silence of God had been broken 
by the Word. Elsewhere this father 
asserts the eternity of the Son in the 
most explicit terms ; e. g. 6 above, 
Polyc. 3. 

evrjpeo-rrjcrcv K.r.X.] A reminiscence 
of John viii. 29. 

IX. ' If then those who had lived 
under the old covenant attained to 
a new and higher hope by abandon- 
ing the observance of sabbaths and 
by keeping the Lord's day the me- 
morial of Christ's resurrection, where- 
by we have found life through His 
death, which some deny but which to 
us is the ground of our faith and the 
strength of our endurance ; if, I say, 
this be so, how can we live without 
Him ? Nay, even the prophets were 
His disciples, for in the Spirit they 
looked forward to Him as their 
teacher; and therefore, when He 
came, He raised them from the dead.' 

I. ot ev TraXaiols K.T.A.] i. e. l those 
who were brought up in the practices 
of Judaism.' If the Jewish converts 
gave up the observance of sabbaths, 
a fortiori ought Gentile converts 
not to barter Christ for Judaic rites. 
Hilgenfeld (A. V. p. 232) refers these 
words to the post-Mosaic prophets ; 
but this, as Zahn truly says (/. v. A. 
P- 354)5 would be to outbid even the 
Pseudo-Barnabas, who with all his 
hostility to Judaism does not go 
nearly so far ( 15). Such a state- 
ment would have been quite untrue 
in itself, and altogether discordant 
with the teaching of these epistles 
elsewhere. Moreover it is inconsis- 
tent with the language of the con- 


irpdy/j.a.fft.v'] GLA; ypafjifj.a<nv g. 

text; for (i) prjiceri implies a conver- 
sion from the old to the new ; and 
(2) the correct reading is unquestion- 
ably Kara Kvpiaicrjv 'in the observance 
of the Lord's day/ which could not 
possibly have been predicted of the 
prophets. Hilgenfeld has taken the 
corrupt reading Kara KvpiaKr/v far/v. 

irpayiiaa-iv} See Orig. de Princ. iv. 
3 (l. p. 1 60) TravTtov TCJV 'louSaiKeoi/ 
Trpaypdrav ei> of? eVe/zz/uiro, referred 
to by Zahn. There is a slight tinge 
of depreciation in this word. It 
points to the vexatiousness of the 
ordinances of Judaism. The read- 
ing of the interpolator's text, ypa/i- 
/zao-ti/, is tempting: comp. Rom. vii. 
6 KaTr)pyy6r]p,V OTTO roS v6fj.ov...d)(rT 

8oV\VftV [facts] V KdlVOTTJTl TTVfV- 

P.O.TOS Koi ov TraXaiorrjTi. ypa/i/uaros, 
which passage may perhaps have 
suggested it. It must however be 
rejected for two distinct reasons : (i) 
The convergence of the best autho- 
rities is decidedly in favour of Trpdy- 
pao-iv : (2) The ypd/j.p,aTa in this case 
would naturally refer to the Old Tes- 
tament Scriptures, and TraAaid" must 
suggest the idea of ' antiquated? But 
this is not at all the language which 
meets us elsewhere in the Ignatian 
Epistles. The patriarchs and the 
lawgiver and the prophets are the 
forerunners of the Gospel ; there is 
an absolute identity of interests be- 
tween them and the Gospel (Philad. 
5, 9, Smyrn. 7 ; and see also the 
mention of the prophets in this con- 
text). Moreover the only direct quo- 
tations in these epistles are from the 
Old Testament (Prov. iii. 34 in Ephes. 
5; Prov. xviii. 17 in Magn. 12; Is. 
Iii. 5 in Trail. 8), and in two out of 
three passages they are introduced 


bi/T69 d\\a Kara 


ev r] KOL r\ 


3 KvpiaKty] dominicam L; dominicam diem sanctam et primam [A]; 
G; al. g. See the speculations of Ussher Works XII. p. 584. 

with the common form of authorita- 
tive citation, yeypanrai. The inter- 
change of ypdfUfjLa and Trpaypa with 
scribes and critics is frequent: e.g. 
Plato Soph. 262 D, Polyb. ix. 40. 3, 
xi. 6. 3, xv. 26. 4, Euseb. H. E. ix. j. 

2. o-a/3/3ari'birres-] For the abroga- 
tion of the observance of the sabbaths 
see Col. ii. 16 (comp. Gal. iv. 10); 
and for opinions in the early church 
comp. Barnab. 15, Ep. ad Diogn. 4, 
Justin Dial. 12 sq (p. 229 sq), 19 
(p. 236), 21 (p. 238), 23 (p. 240 sq), 
29 (p. 246), Iren. iv. 16. I, Tert. adv. 
Jud. 4. The word (rapparifav is 
not found in the New Testament, 
but occurs frequently in the LXX, 
where it bears a good sense ; comp. 
o-a/3/3art<rfioy in Heb. iv. 9. 

3. Kara KvpiciKr/v] SC. ijp.epav. This 
'living after the Lord's day' signifies 
not merely the observance of it, but 
the appropriation of all those ideas 
and associations which are involved 
in its observance. It symbolizes the 
hopes of the Christian, who rises 
with Christ's resurrection, as he dies 
with Christ's death. It implies the 
substitution of the spiritual for the 
formal in religion. It is a type and 
an earnest of the eternal rest in 
heaven. See esp. Clem. Alex. Strom. 

Vil. 12 (p. 877) OliTOS eVTO\T)V TT)V KUTO. 

TO vayye\tov dici7Tptidp.evos KVptaKrjv 
CKCLVTJV ryv rjp,epav Troiet, orav dTroj3d\\rj 
(pavXov voq/jLO. Koi yvaaTtKov npoo-\d(3ij 
rr/v ev ttVTo> TOV Kupi'ov ava<TTa.(Tiv 80- 

ao>i/, comp. ib. vii. 10 (p. 866). 
Comp. also Barnab. 1 5 dpxhv ^pas 
dy86rjs...o fCTTiv, aXXov Koapov apxyv 
810 Kai clyopev rf]v jp.pav TTJV oydorjv 
fls fv<j>poo"vi'T)V, ev TI Kal o Iijaovs avforrj 
(K vfKpvv K.r.X., Justin Apol. i. 67 
(p. 99) fTTfiBrj TrptoTT] earriv ??fiepa, ev fj 



Ko<rp.ov eTToirjo'e, Kal 'irjcrovs Xptfrroy 6 
ijUfTfpos o-a)T77p rfj avTT) rjfj.epa e/c ve- 
Kpaiv dvco-Tr), Dial. 24 (p. 241) TI j/juepa 
TI dydor) fjLv&Tiipiov TL fi\f Krjpvcra'op.evov 
8ia TOVTCOV VTTO Tov Qfov /iaXXoi/ 717? 
J386p.r)s K.r.X. (comp. ib. 41, p. 260). 
So Irenasus states that the practice 
of not kneeling on the Lord's day 
dated from Apostolic times, and ap- 
pears to have explained that it was 
<rv/z/3oXoi/ rfjs aracrracrecos 1 , Si' rjs TOV 
Xptorov ^aptri TU>V re a/iaprT^arcoi/ KCU 
TOV eV civTtov T(6avaT(i)fjiVov 6a.vd.Tov 
TjXfvfcpcoQrjiJLev (Fragm. 7, p. 828, ed. 
Stieren) ; comp. Tert. de Cor. 3 'die 
dominico jejunium nefas ducimus, 
vel de geniculis adorare.' Melito 
wrote a treatise irfpl Kvpia<fjs (Euseb. 
H. E. iv. 26) in which doubtless he 
drew out the symbolism of the day. 

The day is commonly called \i(a 
[TCOJ/] 0-a/3ar<oi/ in the New Testa- 
ment. As late as the year 57 this 
designation occurs in S. Paul (i Cor. 
xvi. 2), where we should certainly 
have expected KvpiaKij, if the word 
had then been commonly in use. 
Even in Rev. i. IO eyevo^v ev irvev- 
fiaTi ev Ty KvpictKfi j;/ifpa the inter- 
pretation is doubtful, and there are 
good, if not conclusive, reasons for 
interpreting it of the day of judgment ; 
see Todd's Discourses on Prophecies 
in the Apocalypse pp. 59, 295 sq. If 
so, the passage before us is the ear- 
liest example of its occurrence in this 
sense, except perhaps Doctr. Apost. 
14, where the expression is KvpiaK^ 
Kvptov. In Barnab. 15 it is called 
T) j/'/zepa T; oyftorj, where however the 
writer has a special reason for dwell- 
ing on the eighth day. With Justin 
writing to the heathen it is 17 rov 



dvT6i\V Si avTov Kai TOV QavaTOv avTOv, ov Tives 
dpvovvTai' Si ov [M/crTtiplov e\d/3oimev TO TTHTTeveiv, Kai 
Sid TOVTO vTrofmevoimev, iva evpeOco/uiev ju.a6r]Tai ' lr](rov 
Xpi&TOv TOV fUiovov SiSa(TKa\ov ^HJLCOV TTWS fj/xets 

i 6v Tives] oi'rtvcs G; quod quidam (8 rives) L. The paraphrase of g ov rd 
TCKVO. rris airuiXelas dirapvovvrai points to the reading ov rives, A may represent 
either 6 rives or ov rives; al. g. -a 5i' ov] GL; 5t& [A] (apparently). 

3 vTrofievofj-ev] LA; viro^evw^ev G; al. g. 5 ov] GLg Sev i, 7 (Cramer's 

17X101; ijficpa (Apol. i. 67), but to the 
Jews, r) pia. TUIV o-a/3/3ar<az> or rj oydorj 
JUcpa (Dial. 24, 41). Melito's trea- 
tise on this day was designated Trepi 
KvpiaKfjs (Eus. /f. ". iv. 26) ; and 
Dionysius of Corinth also calls it by 
this name, rrjv oypepov ovv Kvpuucrjp 
ayiav ij/jiepav dujyayo/j-ev, as if it were 
the familiar title (Eus. H. E. iv. 


The insertion a>i)i in the Greek 
text is condemned alike by the pre- 
ponderance of authorities and by 
the following words ev fi K.r.X. 

I. dvcrci\v] For this metaphor 
comp. Rom. 2, where again it is applied 
to the resurrection from the dead. 

ov] i.e. TOV Bavarov avTov. The al- 
lusion is to Docetism, which denied 
the reality of our Lord's passion. 
See the note on 8 p,v6ev[ K.r.X. 
for the connexion of this error with 
Judaism here, and the note on Trail. 
9 for the Docetism assailed in these 
epistles generally. In a parallel 
passage, Smyrn. 5 ov rives dyvoovvTes 
dpvovvrai, the relative refers to 'Jesus 
Christ,' and so it might be connected 
with avrov here ; but the meaning 
would hardly be so distinct, though 
the allusion to Docetism would still 
remain. The same will also be the 
allusion, if for ov we read o, as some 
authorities suggest. In this case o 
may be referred either (i) to the 
whole sentence 77 0)7} THJL&V dverciXev 
bt avTov K.r.X., the denial of this 

truth being involved in the denial of 
the reality of the passion and resur- 
rection; or (2) to the words TOV 6a- 
vaTov avTov alone. For this latter 
use of o see Trail. 8 ev Trio-ret o eo-Tiv 
<rapg rov Kvpiov, Rom. 7 aproi/ Qeov 
...o ecrriv o~ap TOV XpiaToi); and 
comp. Col. iii. 14, Eph. v. 5. See also 
below 10, where the common text 
has veav {vfjirjv o eo~Tiv 'irjo-ovs Xpioros. 

2. 81 ov p.vo-Trjpiov] Zahn (/. v. A. 
p. 455) quotes Justin Dial. 91 (p. 318) 
oi K navTcov TO>V eBvaiv dia TOVTOV TOV 


6eoo-e@eiav eTpdnrjo-av K.r.X., ib. 131 
(p. 360) olrivfs 8ia TOV covdevr)p.vov 
Kai oveidovs fj.eo~Tov (JWtfTTfpiov TOV 
o-Tavpov K\r)6evTes V7TO TOV Qeov K.r.X. 

Kai 8ia TOVTO K.r.X.] This sentence 
as far as didaa-KoXov rj^wv is paren- 
thetical, and did TOVTO is perhaps 
best connected with the following 
Iva (see the note on Ephes. 17). The 
apodosis to el ovv oi ev rraXaiols K.r.X. 
at the opening of the section begins 
with TTCO? rip-els K.r.X. 

3. inrofjievop.ev] i.e. l< we endure per- 
secution.' For this connexion be- 
tween suffering and discipleship in 
the mind of Ignatius, see the note 
on Ephes. i fM&fnfs. 

5. ^copi? avTov] This form of error 
was a separation from Christ in two 
ways; (i) In its Docetism it denied 
the reality of His death and resur- 
rection, which are our true bond of 
union with Him ; (2) In its Judaism 


5 cro/meBa ^rja~ai X M P^ Qvrov ; ov Kai ol 7Tpo<pfJTai 

TCU oWeS Tto TTVeVjULaTL fck Si d(rKa\OV CtVTOV 

Kai Sia TOVTO, oV Siicaiws dvefJLevov, Trapwv fiyeipev 


Cat. in i Pet. iii. 19 sq; Land Anecd. i. 32); ov A. oi] Gg; om. Sev. 

6 7rpo<re56/cwi'] g Sev; irpo<redt)Kovv G. 7 Trapou/] Trap u> (sic) G (not 

Trap' wv, as Dressel). 

it substituted formal ordinances for 
God's grace, and so was a disavowal 
of any part in His redemption (see 
8 op.o\oyovfjifv K.r.X.). 

6. r&) Tn/fu/xari] Zahn (com p. /. i>. A. 
p. 462) attaches this to pa6r,Tai ovres ; 
but the connexion with the following 
words seems more natural, as well 
as more consonant with i Pet. i. 1 1 
e8ij\ov TO ev avrols 7rvevp.a Xptarou, 
7rpop.apTvp6fj,Vov K.T.\. 

o5j 8i8d<Tna\ov K.T.A.] For the sense 
in which the prophets expected Him 
as a teacher see the next note. The 
form Trpoo-eSo'/ccoi/ may be retained 
here, but Trpoo-edoKow will not alter 
the sense. I mention this, because 
Zahn (7. v. A. p. 462) separates the 
two words, translating npocrcdoKovv 
'sie schienen ausserdem noch.' For 
irpoo-doKflv, as a later alternative form 
of npoadoKavj see Dindorf in Steph. 
Thes. s. v. ; and for the interchange 
of -60) and -aw generally in some 
early dialects, and in the later Greek, 
see Kiihner 251 (i. p. 606), Winer 
\v. p. 104 (ed. Moulton), A. Butt- 
mann pp. 38, 50. 

7. StKeuW] ' rightly -,' not 'righteous- 
ly' ; see the note on Ephes. 15. 

nap&v Tjyeipev K.r.X.] l He came 
and raised them.' 1 This refers to the 
descensus ad inferos, which occupied 
a prominent place in the belief of 
the early Church. Here our Lord 
is assumed to have visited (rrap^v) 
the souls of the patriarchs and pro- 

phets in Hades, to have taught them 
(<y Sidda-KoXov K.r.A.) the truths of 
the Gospel, and to have raised them 
(yyeipev) either to paradise or to 
heaven ; see Philad. 9 avros (bv 6vpa 
ToO Trarpoj 5t' ys elcrep^ovrai 'A/3paa/>i 
xat 'la-aax KOI 'laicco^ KOI ol rrpocpfJTai 
ff.r.X., comp. ib. 5 ev a KOI Trtorreu- 
(ravTes (sc. ol TrpofpfJTai) eo-adrjo-av, 
with the note. I have already pointed 
out (see the note on 8 e'ftTn/eo'/nei/oi) 
that the functions assigned to the 
prophets by Ignatius strongly re- 
semble the representations in S. 
Peter; and this reference to the 
descent into Hades also has its 
parallel in i Pet. iii. 19, iv. 6. Other 
passages in the N. T. which have 
been thought to refer to it are 
Ephes. iv. 9, Heb. xii. 23. This be- 
lief appears in various forms in early 
Christian writers. Justin Dial. 72 
(p. 298) quotes a passage from Jere- 
miah, > E/zi/T7<r$J7 8e Kvpios 6 Qeos OTTO 
(1. aytos with Iren.) 'lo-pajyX ratvveKpwv 


TOS KOI Kare'/3r; Trpos avroits evayyeXi- 
(rao~&ai avrols TO o-atTrjpiov avTOv. He 
says that the Jews had cut out this 
passage from their copies; and it 
does not appear in extant MSS of the 
LXX. What may have been its his- 
tory we cannot say ; but Irenaeus 
quotes it several times (once as from 
Isaiah, once as from Jeremiah, and 
in other passages anonymously) and 
applies it to the descent into Hades; 




X. Mfi ovv dvaia'rjTwiuiev Tr<s xprj&TOTtiTOS avTOv. 
av yap rifjid^ jjujjiriarr)Tai KaQa TrpaVcro/xey, OVKTl e 
TOVTO, fJUzOijrcu avrov yevofJievoi, /xaflwjuey Kara 

fiv. 6s yap a\\w ovo \JLGLTI KaXeiTai TrXeov 

i avai<T0riTu>fJi.ej>] G; non sentiamus L; avalcrdrjToi w/*ev g; al. A. 
TOJ] x/ 340 " 7 "^ 7 " 7 ? 7 " 05 G. -2 6V 701/3] G; tw (om. 7ap) g; ' enim L; al. A. 

7/Mas /ujmjaercu G ; way persequatur L ; /ti/MfoTjreu ^/-las g. 

see iii. 20. 4, iv. 22. i, iv. 33. i, 12, 
v. 31. i. In the last passage he 
writes 'tribus diebus conversatus est 
ubi erant mortui, quemadmodum 
propheta ait de eo Commemoratus 
est Dominus etc.' He also relates 
(iv. 27. 2) a discourse which he had 
heard from an elder who had known 
personal disciples of the Lord, and 
who stated 'Dominum in ea quae 
sunt sub terra descendisse, evange- 
lizantem et illis adventum suum, 
remissione peccatorum existente his 
qui credunt in eum : crediderunt 
autem in eum omnes qui sperabant 
in eum, id est, qui adventum ejus 
praenuntiaverunt...justi et prophetae 
et patriarchae etc.' So too Tertullian 
de Anim. 55 'descendit in inferiora 
terrarum, ut illic patriarchas et pro- 
phetas compotes sui faceret,' speak- 
ing of the three days between the 
death and the resurrection (comp. 
ib. 7). Hermas makes the Apostles 
and first teachers of the Gospel 
preach to the souls in Hades, Sim. 
ix. 1 6 ovrot ol OTrooToAot KOI ol ftidd- 
crKaXoi ot Krjpvgavres TO ovofia TOV viov 
TOV Qeov...eicrjpvav KOL rots 
Hr)HVois...Ke1voi 8e ot 
K.T.X. These TrpoKejtoi/xTjjuei'oi have 
been described before ( 15) as the 
prophets and ministers of God, as 
well as the first two generations of 
mankind which preceded them. Cle- 
ment of Alexandria, Strom, ii. 9 (p. 
452), quoting this passage of Her- 
mas, explains it as including right- 

eous heathens as well as Jews ; but 
Hermas himself gives no hint 
whether he contemplated this ex- 
tended application or not. In a 
later passage, Strom, vi. 6 (p. 763), 
Clement refers back to his second 
book, as having shown there that 
'the Apostles, following the Lord, 
preached the Gospel to those in 
Hades'; and he maintains that, as 
our Lord preached there to the Jews, 
so the Apostles addressed themselves 
to the righteous heathen, referring 
again to the passage in the Shep- 
herd. Somewhat similarly Hippoly- 
tus de Antichr. 45 (p. 22, Lagarde) 
makes John the Baptist after his 
death preach to those in Hades, as 
a forerunner of Christ, o-rjp.aiveiv /j.e'X- 
AG>J> KaKflcre KareAeuo'fO'&u TOV crwTfjpa 
\VTpovp,vov TUS ayiatv ^v^as K.r.X.; 
and so too Origen in Luc. Horn. iv. 
(ill. p. 917), in loann. ii. 30 (iv. p. 
91). Even Marcion accepted the 
descent of Christ into Hades, though 
(unless he is misrepresented) he 
maintained that the righteous men 
and prophets under the old dispen- 
sation, as being subjects of the 
Demiurge, refused to listen to His 
preaching, and that only such per- 
sons as Cain and the other wicked 
characters of the Old Testament 
listened and were saved : Iren. i. 27. 
3, Theodt. H. F. i. 24; see Zahn 
Der Hirt des Hermas p. 425 sq. 
If this be so, it is a speaking testi- 
mony to the hold which the belief 



5 TOVTOV, OUK e<TTiv TOV Qeov. V7rep8e(r6e ovv TTIV 
typrjit TYIV TraAaiwdela-av Kal evoQ(ra<rav, Kai 
fid\eo-6e ek vkav tyjuriv, os ea-nv 'Irja-ous XpurTos. 

<ro(j.ei>] g; Trpd<r<rw}j.ev G. 4 os] Gg; 6'<ms Dam-Rup 6. yap] G Dam- 

Rup; add. fo g. ir\tov} G; TrXelov g Dam-Rup. 5 ou/c] GL Dam-Rup; 

prsef. OUTOJ gA. 6 /J.erapd\<rde] G; ^era/3dXXeo-0e g. 7 6's] <?/ L; 

o G ; dub. A ; al. g : see the lower note. 

had on men's minds. For the opinion 
of the later fathers on this subject 
see Pearson Exposition of the Creed 
Art. 5. This belief was sometimes 
connected with the incident related 
in Matt, xxvii. 52 TroXXct o-co/zara TG>V 
KfKoip,T]fj.V(ov dyiwv qyepdrjo-av /c.r.X. ; 
e.g. by Euseb. Dem. Ev. x. 8 (p. 
501), and by Severus (Land Anecd. 
Syr. I. p. 33) commenting on this 
passage of Ignatius. 

X. ' Let us not be insensible to 
His goodness. If He were to treat 
us, as we treat Him, we should in- 
deed be lost. Therefore, as His dis- 
ciples, let us learn to live Christian 
lives. He who is called by any other 
name than Christ's, is not of God. 
Put away the sour and stale leaven 
of Judaism, and replace it with the 
new leaven of Christ. Be ye salted in 
Him, that ye may escape corruption. 
It is monstrous to name the name 
of Christ and to follow Judaism. 
Christianity did not believe in Ju- 
daism, but Judaism in Christianity, 
wherein all nations and tongues were 
gathered unto God.' 

I. dvaio-dT)T(Ofjiv] *" be insensible to? 
This verb not uncommonly takes a 
genitive; e.g. Jos. Ant. xi. 5. 8, B. 
J. iv. 3. 10, Plut. Mor. p. 1062 C, 
Athenag. Suppl. 15. The word is 
at least as old as Epicurus, Plut. 
Mor. p. 1103 D. 

rrjs xpTjo-rorTjros ourov] The sub- 
stitution of Judaism for Christianity 
was a rejection of God's " t? a 

denial of Christ's work; see above 

2. av yap K.r.X.] i.e. 'if He should 
treat us with the same scorn and 
defiance with which we treat Him'; 
comp. 2 Sam. xxii. 26, 27 (Ps. xviii. 
25, 26). 

4. n\ov TOVTOV] l beyond this] i.e. 
TOU xptcrrtai'ioTzov. Or is it roO oi/o/zaros 
TOV Xpio-Tov ? For TrXe'oi/ see Polyc. 5. 

5. v7rfpdc<r&] ' dispense with] lite- 
rally ' defer*, and so postpone sine 
die. The word is used somewhat 
similarly in Prov. xv. 22. 

6. (vfLyv K.r.X.] From I Cor. v. 7 
CKKaQdpare TTJV nakaiav ^vp.rjv /c.r.X. ; 
comp. Clem. Horn. viii. 17 o 0eos 
avrovy a><r7rep KO.KTJV vfj.r)v cc\flv 
(ftovXcTo. On the metaphor gene- 
rally see the note Galatians v. 9. 

vXouitffunur] Not simply irakaiav. 
See Heb. viii. 13 for this 'anti- 
quation' of the Judaic law and 

1roUnunaf\ l which has gone sour? 
No other instance of the word is 
given in the lexicons, though ota> 
and wapogifa occur elsewhere. 

7. os] I have preferred this to o, 
because it accords with the writer's 
idiom elsewhere in this epistle, 15 
op <TTIV 'IT/O-OVS Xptoros ; see also the 
note on 7. On the other hand, o 
might stand, and be referred to viav 
vpr)v. For this use of the neuter 
relative see the note on 9. The 
Gospel is spoken of as leaven in the 
parable, Matt. xiii. 33, Luke xiii. 21. 


d\i(r6r]Te iv avrco, *lva /mr) $ia(p6apfj TIS iv v/uuv 9 ewei 
ocr/mris e\e r y%6r](rea'66. CITOTTOV icrTiv ' lrj(rovv 
AaXeu/ KO.I iovbcu^eiv. 6 yap 

OVK els iovSa'icr/uiov e7ri<TTvcrev 9 a'AV ZofSai'oyxos ek 


TrKTrevcracra ets 0eoy 

GL* ; conjungamini (giving a wrong sense to the ambiguous 
dXio-^re) A; aii\l<r6r)Te g. TIS] GL; n A; al. g. 2 oo-^^s] 

L; spii-itu (a confusion of the Syriac tfrTH spirilus and NrV"1 odor} A; 
G; al. g. 'lycrovv Xpto - r6'] gLA; x/ 310 " 7 "^ lf}ffovv G. 

5 ^...crw^x^ 7 ?] * n ? uo omnis qui credidit ad deum congregatus est S 2 5 ft omnis 

1. aXi'o-^re] '^ ye salted? Here 
again is an allusion to another meta- 
phor in the Gospel parables, Matt. 
v. 13, Mark ix. 50, Luke xiv. 34 ; see 
the note on Col. iv. 6. There is a 
possible reference to the injunction 
of the law, Lev. ii. 13 irav dapov 6v- 
a~ias vpaiv aXt aXio^T/VeTat. The 
metaphor is carried out in dia<f>6apf) 
' putrefy,' as well as in oar^s- 

2. T?)S 00-p.rjs] Comp. Ephes. 17 6W- 
abiav rfjs didacTKaXias roil ap^ovTos 
TOV aiciivos TOVTOV with the note. 

3. XaXeli/] < to prof ess? For the ex- 
pression XaXeii/ 'I. X. see the note on 
Ephes. 6. For the whole sentiment 
of the contradiction between Jesus 
Christ and Judaism see Philad. 6. 


The word OC- 

curs again Rom. 3 (v. 1.), Philad. 6 ; 
see Mart. Polyc. 10, Clem. Alex. 
Strom, vii. i (p. 829). The word 
Xpio-Tiavos first arose at Antioch 
(Acts xi. 26), but at what date we are 
not told. About A.D. 60 it is repre- 
sented as used by Agrippa, Acts 
xxvi. 28 : and at the time of the 
Neronian persecution (A.D. 64) it was 
already a common designation of 
the believers; i Pet. iv. 16, Tac. 
Ann. xv. 44 'quos per flagitia in- 
visos vulgus Christianas appellabat] 
Suet. Ner. 16. The derived verb 
v, after the analogy of 

, etc., would be 

coined soon after as a matter of 
course, to designate the peculiarities 
of the new sect, and with it the 
substantive x/Ho-Tiai/io>ios. But these 
epistles furnish the earliest extant 
example of its use. In the New 
Testament the word ' Christian ' is 
still more or less a term of reproach ; 
in the age of Ignatius it has become 
a title of honour : see above 4, 
Ephes. 11, 14 (v. L), Rom. 3, Polyc. 7 
(comp. Trail. 6). 

5. oT] Governed by Trto-reuo-oo-a. 
This correction of the existing Greek 
text cos is required by the sense and 
justified by the authorities. On the 
other hand Zahn (/. v. A. p. 429, 
and here) reads ety 6V with the in- 
terpolator ; but this reading must, I 
think, be regarded as a paraphrase 
of the interpolator after his usual 

7rao-a yXaWa] i.e. 'not Jews only, 
but every race upon earth.' It was 
therefore a larger and better dispen- 
sation than Judaism ; and it approved 
itself as the true fulfilment of the 
prophecy which declared that all na- 
tions and tongues should be gathered 
to God; Is. Ixvi. 18 vvvayayflv 
ivavTa. TO. eQvr\ KOI rag y\axr(ras 
(comp. xlv. 22, 23, Zach. viii. 23). 
The language of Ignatius is some- 




XI. TavTa Se, 


/ULOV 9 OVK 7re 
, a'AA' ok /uiKpoTepos V/ 
6e\w 7rpo(pv\dcr<Tar6aL vjuias /u.ri ejULTrecrelv e*s TO. ay- 
10 KKTTpa Trjs KevoSo^ias, d\\d TreTrXripcxpopricrBe eV TY\ 
yevvncreL Kal TW TrdOei Kal Trj dvacTTacrei Trj 
ev Kcupw Trjs riyefjiovias HOVTLOV fliXaTOV 

qui credit in eum ad deum congregatur A; ^...ffvvfjx^ G; iit.,.congregaretur"L*. 
In g the passage runs ets 6V TTOLV gOvos Trtereva-av Kal Tracro, y\u<rcra. ^0/^0X0777- els deov a-vv/jx^- 7 ^ei Zyvwv] GLS 4 A; irtyvwv g. 

9 trpo(f>v\dcr<r<r6cu] Trpo(f>v\d<T(reff6e G. 10 TreirXrjpo^bpijade'] g (app., but 

with vv. 11.); TreTr\i>]po<j>ope'i<r6ai. G; ut certificemini 84; corroborati-estote A; certi- 
ficemini L. 

what hyperbolical as applied to his 
own time, but not more so than 
some expressions of S. Paul; e.g. 
Rom. i. 8, Col. i. 6, 23. Compare 
the language of Justin Martyr (Dial. 
117, p. 345), and of Irenaeus (i. 10. 2), 
regarding the spread of the Church 
in their own times respectively. 

XI. 'I say this, not because I 
know that you have already fallen 
into error, but because I wish you to 
be forewarned against the wiles of 
heresy. Have a firm belief in the 
Incarnation, the Passion, the Resur- 
rection of Christ. These things are 
no delusive phantoms, but real facts. 
Let no one divert you from your hope.' 

7. Tavra Se] sc. Xeya>. For the el- 
lipsis and the sentiment alike comp. 
Trail. 8 OVK eWt cyvav K.T.X., where 
still more is left to be understood. 
It would be possible to treat the sen- 
tence here as complete, by making 
ravra the accusative after Trpo^uXao-- 
o-eo-0cu; but the antithesis of the 
clauses would thus be destroyed. 
For the sentiment see also Smyrn. 4. 
Comp. Polyc. Phil, n 'Ego autem 
nihil tale sensi in vobis vel audivi.' 

8. ws piKporepos u/icSi'] i.e. as one 
who has no right to dictate to you ' ; 
comp. Ephes. 3 (with the note). For 

other expressions of self-depreciation 
see the note on Ephes. 21 rav eicel. 

9. 7J-po</>uXaGro-eo-$eu] ^ should be OH 
your guard beforehand? So the 
active 7rpo0vXa(ro"co Vfias } Trail. 8, 
Smyrn. 4. Similarly dor<aXib/zcu ii^as 
Philad. 5. 

10 Kfvodogias] ''foolish opinion? 
The word has two senses (i) 'vain- 
glory,' as in Phil. ii. 3 (comp. Kfvodogos, 
Gal. v. 26), Clem. Rom. 35, Philad. i, 
and so most frequently ; (2) 'vain 
opinion/ 'error,' as Wisd. xiv. 14, 
Clem. Al. Protr. 5 (p. 55) <iXoo-o$i'ai/ 
avrffv Kvo8oias fPCKtV dvfi8<>)\orroiov- 
o-av rr)v v\rjv, and so here. This 
latter sense is commonly overlooked 
in the lexicons. 

7rf7T\r)po(f>6pr)(r0c] * 'be ye fully per- 
suaded] the imperative. For this 
sense of the word, and for the con- 
struction 7r\T)po<popel(r6ai ev 'to be 
convinced of a thing,' see the note 
Colossia?is iv. 12. 

TJ7 yei/wjVei] On the Docetism 
which denied the reality of the hu- 
man body of our Lord, and therefore 
of His Incarnation, Passion, and 
Resurrection, see the note on Trail. 9. 

12. liovriov IltXarou] So again 
Troll. 9, Smyrn. i. In all these places 
the specification of the date is in- 


o)v Kai /Se/Saicos VTTO 'Irjcrov XpKTTOV, Trjs e'A.7n'Sos 
, fa 6KTpa7rfjvat /mrjdevi V/ULWV <y.voiTO. 
XII. 'OvaijULriv vfjiwv Kara Travra, eavirep a^ios to. 
el yap Kat SeSe/uat, TT^OS *eva TWV \\VJUL^COV VIULCOV OUK 
el/mi. oiSa OTL ov (f>vo"iov(r6e' 'Ititfovv 'yap XpiorTov 5 
ev eavTols. Kat /xaAAoy, orai/ eTrati/co i/^uas, 

GL; T/^WV Ag* (but with a v. 1.). ytvoiro] G; yfryrai g. 

3 'O^a^v] d)vaifj,i)v G. 5 XptoTdj'] GLA; om. g. 7 ytypcnrTai. 6Vt] 

GLAj ytypairTai (om. ort) g. 6] G; om. g. 9 (TTrouSafere] G; o-7roi5d- 

tended to emphasize the reality of the 
occurrence. The chief motive for the 
insertion of the name in the Apostles' 
Creed was probably the same; see 
Pearson On the Creed Art. iv. p. 371 
(ed. Chevallier). The mention of 
'Pontius Pilate' in connexion with 
the .crucifixion in early Christian 
writings is of constant occurrence, 
e.g. i Tim. vi. 13, Justin ApoL i. 13 
(p. 60), Dial. 30 (p. 247); and pro- 
bably we owe to the prominence 
thus given to the name among the 
Christians themselves the fact that 
he is so mentioned also by Tacitus, 
Ann. xv. 44. 

upaxQevTa] * things done? The 
accusative may be regarded as stand- 
ing in apposition with the object 
involved in the preceding words, 
which are equivalent to eV ro> yewrj- 
flrjvai ical TraOeiv K.r.A. For various 
loose constructions of the accusative 
participle, see Kiihner II. pp. 646 sq, 
667 sq, Winer xxxii. p. 290, lix. p. 
669. The participle, thus isolated, 
emphasizes the reality of the events. 

i. d\r)6a)s] See the note on Trail. 9. 

TTJS eXnidos T)/ZCOI/] As in Trail. 
inscr., 2. So also i Tim. i. i. Comp. 
Polyc. Phil. 8 Trpoo-Kaprep^pfv rfj 

For the longer expression ) 
cXn-ts *7/i<3i/ see the note on Ephes. i. 

XII. 'May I have comfort in you, 
if I am found worthy. For although 
I am bound, I do not compare my- 
self with any of you who are free. I 
know that ye are not puffed up : for 
ye have Jesus Christ in you. Nay, my 
praise will only fill you with shame, 
for The righteous man is his own ac- 

3. ovaiprfv K.r.A.] See the note on 
Ephes. 2, where the whole clause 
occurs, as here. 

4. ci yap K.a\ SeSe/Luu] i.e. 'notwith- 
standing the dignity conferred on me 
by my bonds.' See the note on 
Ephes. 3, where the same phrase 

Trpbs fva K.r.A.] '/ am not compar- 
able to one of you who are free from 
bonds.' For this sense of Trpos see 
Kiihner 441 (11. p. 450) ; comp. e.g. 
Herod, ii. 35 ep-ya \6yov pfa> Trape'^c- 
rat Trpos rrao-av x^P 7 ?" (^ e - <m com- 
parison with any country'), Plat. 
Prot. 328 C 01 IIoAvKAetrov vifls... 
ovdev Trpos rov Trarepa eio-i, Xen. Mem. 

1. 2. 52 fj.r]8afj.ov Trap' avrols TOVS a\\ovs 
eivai Trpos eavrovy Demosth. Symm. p. 

185 fV TaVTfl XP r lf J ' aT> *VO~TiV...irpOS 

aTrcuras ras a\\as...Tro\is. 

5. (pvo-iovo-de] Trail. 4, 7, Smyni. 6, 
Polyc. 4. So too i Cor. iv. 6, 18, 19, v. 

2, viii. i, xiii. 4, Col. ii. 18; comp. 
(f)v<ria><ris 2 Cor. xii. 20. The word 




on 6VTp67re(r6e' ws yeypaTTTai on 6 AIKAIOC CAY-TOY 


XIII. CTTOvSd^ere ovv /3e/3aia)6fjvai eV rots So'y- 

10 fJ.a<nv TOV Kvpiov Kai TWV dTrocrroXwv, *lva TTANTA OCA 

TToieTre KATeyoAcoGHTe (rapKi Kai Trvevjjian, Tria-rei Kai 

ay any, ev via) Kai Trarpi Kai eV Tryeiy/xart, eV 

(rare g. ri TroieZre] g; iroiTJre G. KarevoduQijTe] G; KareuoSw^o-erat g*; 

prosperentur L; spendeatis A (jiriDVn splendeatis for fin^n prosperemini ; see 
Petermann). <rapi] txt G[L][A] ; add. re g. For L see the note on Trail. 9. 

12 & Tryeifytcm] GL* (but add. sancto L 2 ); add. ayltp A; def. g. 

is confined to S. Paul in the N.T. 

'lr)o~ovv yap K.r.X.] 2 Cor. xiii. 5 
Xptoros 'if/croOy ei/ v/ity eorii', ft /LW; TI 
ddoKifioi core. They were ^ptoro^o- 
poi (Ephes. 9). Thus bearing Christ, 
they bore the mind of Christ, which 
was TaTTfivotfrpoa-vvr] (comp. Phil. ii. 

7. dixatos K.r.A.] From the LXX of 
Prov. xviii. 17. In the Hebrew how- 
ever the sense is quite different ; 
'The first man is upright in his suit ; 
then cometh his neighbour and 
searcheth him out.' In other words 
it is necessary to hear both sides of 
a case (see Delitzsch ad loc.\ In the 
LXX the subject and predicate of the 
first clause are transposed, and it is 
rendered Aixatoy eavrov /carjfyopos ev 

XIII. 'Stand fast therefore in the 
ordinances of the Lord and His 
Apostles, that ye may be prosperous 
in all things, with your bishop, pres- 
byters, and deacons. Submit your- 
selves to your bishop and to one 
another, as Jesus Christ submitted 
to the Father, and the Apostles to 
Jesus Christ and the Father, that 
there may be unity of flesh and spirit.' 

9. TOIS 86yp,ao-ii>] 'precepts? i.e. 'au- 
thoritative sayings' : see the note on 
Colossians ii. 14. For one half of the 
phrase comp. Barnab. i rpt'a ovv 

a eoriv Kvpiov, and for the other 
Acts xvi. 4 ra So-y/iara ra Kenpifjicva 


ii. Acareto5a>0/7Tf] 'ye may be pros- 
pered] an adapted quotation from 
Psalm i. 3 navra oo-a av noifi Kareuoa>- 
difo-frcu, where this prosperity is pro- 
mised to those who take pleasure ev TW 
v6fji(o Kvpiov. The compound Karevo- 
8ovv is not uncommon in the LXX, and 
the simple word evodovv occurs four 
times in the N. T. Zahn (/. v. A. 
p. 434, and here) reads KaTevoda>0fj 
after the Latin version prosperentur ; 
but I suspect that the Latin trans- 
lator had KaTfvo8a>6fJTai in his text, 
which (overlooking the itacism) he 
carelessly rendered in this way, as 
if it were KaTevo8a>djj. The remi- 
niscence of the Psalm in the Vulgate, 
which runs omnia quaecunque faciet 
prosperabuntur, and after which he 
has modelled the rest of the quota- 
tion, would assist his mistake. Zahn 
objects to the accusative after /careuo- 
dovatiai, but the Hebrew shows that 
this is most probably the construc- 
tion in the Psalm : comp. also i Cor. 
xvi. 2 6r)o~avpi^o)V o TI av fvodarai. 

o~ap<l Kai Trvevpari] See the note 
on Ephes. 10. 

12. ev vim K.T.A.] The order is the 
same as in 2 Cor. xiii. 13. It is more- 
over a natural sequence. Through 


ev T6\ei, fJieTa TOV d^LOTTpeTreo-rdrov eTrta-KOTrov V/ULMV 
KOL d^i07T\OKOV TTvev/uaTiKOv (TTe<pdvov TOV 7rpea-/3vre- 
piov VJULOJV Kal TCOV Kara Qeov ^laKovcw. i/TroTcry^re TW 
Kal aAAffAots, ws 'Iricrovs XptcrTos TW TraTpi 
crdpKa^ Kal oi dwocrToXoi T<JO Xpicrrto Kal TW 5 
*iva ei/aurts r <rapKiKri re Kal TrvevjjLaTiKri. 
XIV. 6JSak OTL Oeov 76/xere, crvvTOfJiws TrapeKa- 

2 dto7rX6/coi;] txt GL; diorrX6/coi; Kal g; om. A. 4 'I^trous Xptords] 

GLA; 6 xpwrds [g]. 5 Kara <rdpKa] GL; om. A[g] (but g also omits 

several words which follow, app. owing to the homoeoteleuton r warpl): see the 
lower note. T$ X/MOT<] GL ; iesu christo A ; def. g. /cat r irarpl] txt A ; 

add. Kal ry 7n>etf/>iaTt GL: def. g (if the lacuna in g is owing to homceote- 
leuton, it is evidence against Kal r< TTVCIJ par i). 7 <ruj/r6/iws GLg; cum 

the Son is the way to the Father 
(Joh. xiv. 6) : this union with the 
Father through the Son is a com- 
munion in the Spirit. 

1. d|io7rpe7reo-rarov] See the note 
on Rom. inscr. 

2. <rre<ai/ou] Like the Latin ' co- 
rona,' of an encircling attendance; 
comp. Apost, Const, ii. 28, where the 
presbyters are called o-un$ov\oi TOV 


In the primitive assemblies of the 
Christians the bishop would sit in the 
centre, surrounded by his presbyters ; 
see the note on 6 arwedpiov. This 
sense of ortyavos may be illustrated 
by such passages as e.g. Horn. //. xiii. 
736 Tvavrr] yap (re nepl a~T(f)avos noXe- 
IJLOIO Sedrjev, Plut. MOT. 228 E vroXti/ 
rJTis dv8pd(Ti KOI ov TT\iv6ois <TT(pd- 
j/wrai, 'which has its crown, its cir- 
clet, not of towers, but of men.' The 
epithet a^iorrAoKos, 'worthily woven,' 
carries out the metaphor of artyavos, 
for n\eKiv a-Tefpavov is a common ex- 
pression, e.g. Matt, xxvii. 29, etc. 

3. Kara Q(ov] See the note on i 

TO) eVlCTKOTTO) K.T.A.] I Pet. V. 5 V<O- 

Tfpot VTrorayqre npeo-fBvTfpois, Trdvrts 

8e d\\Tj\ois, Ephes. v. 2 

vot dXXijXois : comp. Clem. Rom. 38. 

5. *cara o-ap/ca] These words, if gen- 
uine, would expressly limit the sub- 
ordination of the Son to His human 
nature ; see Rothe Anfdnge p. 754. 
But their absence in some authori- 
ties seems to show that they are no 
part of the original text. 

/cat raS Trarpt] I have struck out 
the addition /cat rcS Trz/ev/Liart, which 
appears in the common texts, as 
suspicious in itself, and as wanting 
in one important authority. It would 
easily be suggested by the previous 
mention of the three Persons of the 
Trinity, eV vto> /c.r.X. On the other 
hand its omission might be account- 
ed for by a homceoteleuton npl and 
TTNI, which are constantly confused : 
see note on Smyrn. 13. 

6. o-apKiKrj re /c.r.X.] See the note 
on Ephes. 10. Comp. Ephes. iv. 4 
ev (rc3|Lia /cat ev irvevp.a. 

XIV. 'I am brief in my exhorta- 
tions, for I know that ye are full of 
God. Remember me in your prayers, 
as also the Syrian Church. I have 
need of your united aid, that the 
Church in Syria may be refreshed 




\ecra v/mas. jULvr]/uLOvevere JULOV ev TCUS Trpoorev^ai^ V/ULWJ/, 
'tva Oeov eTTirvxa), K( *i ffis ev Cvpla KK\rj(rias 9 o6ev OVK 

a^ios el/uLL Ka\ela~6ai. eTriSeo/uiai yap Trjs fjvw/uLevris 

ev Oew Trpocrevxfjs Kat ctyctTrrts ek TO d^icodrjvai TYIV ev 

Cvpia eKK\rj(riav Sia Trjs eKreveias V/ULCOV Spo(ri(r6rjvai. 

XV. 'Acr7rd(^ovTai v^as 'G<j)(rioi OLTTO C/mvpvr]s, o6ev 
i ypd(f>o) vfjiiv, Trapovres ek Sd^av Oeov, w&Trep KCLI 

fiducia (ffwrovwf) A. Trape/cctXecra] g; deprecatus sum L; peto A; irape- 

K^Xevaa G. 10 /caXetcr^ai] /caXetcr^e G. 12 ^/creve/as] see 

below; e/c/cX^crtas GL; eura^tas [g]. In A the sentence runs digna fiat et ecclesia 
syriae ut stillent in ea preces vestrae et firmitas. 

by your fervent supplications.' 

7- 06oC ye'/zere] They are 0eo(/>opoi 
in the fullest sense : comp. Ephes. 8 
oXot ovrcs 0eoO. So Virgil's 'plena 

TrapeKaXfo-a] A common word in 
Ignatius, more especially in the same 
connexion as here, e.g. Trail. 6, Polyc. 
7, etc. On the other hand Tmpa/ce- 
\fvfiv does not occur elsewhere in 
this writer or in the N. T. 

9. 6eoC cViri^a)] On this phrase 
see the note I above. 

rfjs v 2up/a eicKXqo-mj] See the 
note on Ephes. 21 Trpoo-cv^eardc. 

o6fv OVK aios K.T.X.] See the note 
on Ephes. 21 ra>i/ e/cet. 

12. cKTevdas] ' fervency, urgency? I 
have ventured on this emendation 
for eKK\r)(rias, as it is suggested by the 
Armenian Version. The interpola- 
tor's cvTagias may be explained as 
the substitution of a simple for a diffi- 
cult or illegible word, according to his 
common practice. For the connexion 
ofeKTfvijs) eVrei/cor, e'/creveta, with prayer 
comp. Joel i. 14, Jonah iii. 8, Judith 
iv. 9, 12, Luke xxii. 44, Acts xii. 5, 
xxvi. 7, Clem. Rom. 34, 59, Ps-Ign. 
Ephrs. 10. For the supplication 
called eKTevijs in the Greek ritual see 
Clement of Rome p. 270. See esp. 

Ps-Ign. Philipp. 14 at 
v/zcoy fKTa6fiT)(rav fis TYJV ' 
e<K\T](Tiav odev K.r.X., which would 
seem to be taken from this passage. 
The confusion between eKT6N6iAC 
and KKAHCi<\c would be easy, where 
GKKXHCIAN had almost immediately 
preceded. The purists condemned 
these words KTCVWS, exrei/eia, etc.: see 
Lobeck Phryn. p. 311. 

dpoffia-Bfjvai] Pearson compares 
Clem. Al. Paed. ii. 10 (p. 232) rroa 

17/ifTp Ot TTf ftdplTl 8pO(Tl6[J.fVOl TOV 

Qfov. The metaphor of course is 
much older; Deut. xxxii. 2, Prov. xix. 
12, etc. 

XV. * Greeting from the Ephe- 
sians who are in Smyrna. Like your 
own delegates, they have refreshed 
me greatly. Poly carp joins in the 
greeting. So also do the other 
churches. Farewell ; be of one mind ; 
be steadfast in spirit; for this is 
Jesus Christ Himself.' 

13. 'E^eVtot] For these Ephesian 
delegates who were with Ignatius, 
see Ephes. i, 2 (with the notes). 

14. els 86gav Oeov] So too Rom. 
10 ; comp. Ephes. 13, Polyc. 4. A 
more common expression in Ignatius 
is els rip,r)v Qeov ; see the note on 
Ephes. 21. 




oi Kara Trdvra fjie dveTravcrav, a/ma 

CfJLVpvaiwv. KO.I al \onrai 6 6fCfc\f)<r4cu ev 
rj 'Irja-ou XpiorTOv dcnrd^ovraL i)/zas. eppwa-Qe ev 
ot ddiaKpiTOv Trvevfjia, os ecrnv 
'Irjorovs Xi&TOS. 5 

i avtiravaav] GLA; aveiraija-aTe g. 2 tTriffKbirij) 2/j,vpvalwv] GLA; om. g. 

4 Geou] GLA; om. g. adiaKpiTov] gLA (the order being Trvev/na KCKTIJ- 

ftfroi adidifpirov in g) ; diaKpiTov G. 5 'l77<roCs Xpt(rr6s] txt GL; al. g; add. 

valete fratres; amen A. 

For the subscription of G see the title to Philadelphians. LA have no sub- 
scription. For g see the Appx. 

i vp.els~\ SC. ndpecrTf. The 
Magnesians were present in the per- 
sons of their representatives men- 
tioned above, 2. 

I . Kara navra K.r.X.] For this fa- 
vourite Ignatian phrase see the note 
on Ephes. 2. 

ap.a noXuKapTrw] These words are 
perhaps better taken with do-ird^ovrai, than with the clause immedi- 
ately preceding; comp. Trail. 13 
d<r7raerai upas tf dyd.7rr) 2/itpi>ai'a>i/ feat 

2. ai XotTrat K.r.X.] i.e. through their 
representatives, who also were with 
him : comp. Trail. 1 2 a/na rals (rvp.- 
Trapovcrais /not fKK\r)(riais TOV Geov. 
The Trallians would be included 
among at XotTrat here; comp. Trail. 

ev rt/ijy K.r.X.] i.e. 'not the honour 
which is implied in the ordinary 
greetings of men, but the honour 

which belongs to the sphere of, which 
springs from, Jesus Christ.' Thus it 
is a fuller phrase for ao-7raeer&u ev 
Kupi'w (e.g. i Cor. xvi. 19). 

3. eppao-Qe] See the note Ephes. 2 1 . 
ev 6/ioi/ota 0eov] See above 6 


4. a8ta*piToi>] 'unwavering, stead- 
fast ; comp. Trail, i a/xco/ioi/ Sidvoiav 

KOI dftidicpiTov, and see the note on 
Ephes. 3. 

0? eVrti/ K.r.X.] See above 7 (ac- 
cording to the reading adopted), and 
compare the still stronger expressions, 
Trail. 1 1 rov Qeov evaxriv eVayyeXXo- 
/xei/ov, OF etmv avros, Ephes. 14 ra Se 
duo ev evoTrjTi yev6p,eva Qeos eVrti/. 
These parallels seem to show that 
the antecedent to os is not dSioKpiroi/ 
Trvevfta, but the whole sentence, more 
especially the exhortation to concord; 
since unity is the prominent idea in 
all these passages. 




' A FTER leaving Magnesia the road leads to Tralles,' writes Strabo 
JL\. (xiv. i, p. 648). Here again the route of the geographer accords 
with the sequence of the Ignatian letters (see above pp. 2, 97). As we 
have followed him from Ephesus to Magnesia, so now we follow him 
from Magnesia to Tralles. Magnesia is nearly equidistant between the 
two, being about fifteen miles from Ephesus, and about seventeen or 
eighteen from Tralles (Artemidorus in Strabo xiv. 2, p. 663, efc TpaAAeis 
...fir ets Mayv?7<riav eKarov TfTrapaKovra [<rraSioi], ts "Ec^cow 8' c/carov 
*KO(TIV, ets 8e 2/Avpvav rptaKoo-tot tiKocnv). The road between Magnesia 
and Tralles runs from west to east on the right bank of the Maeander, 
having the mountain range of Messogis to the north, and the river 
and plain to the south; 'a broiling and dusty journey,' 'aestuosa et 
pulverulenta via,' as it is described by Cicero (ad Att. v. 14) who 
travelled along it in the latter part of July, on his way to his province 
about the same time of the year (Rom. 10) when the delegates of 
the churches must have been traversing it in the opposite direction 
to pay their respects to Ignatius. It is described by Artemidorus as 
'a high-road trodden by all who make the journey from Ephesus to 
the East ' (Strabo xiv. 2, p. 663, KOIVIJ TIS 0805 reTpiTrrai aTracri rots CTTI 
ras ai/aroXas o8onropov(nv e 'E<eVou). For a description of this road 
see Hamilton Asia Minor i. p. 533 sq. 

The ancient city of Tralles was situated on the right bank of the 
river, at some distance from it, and occupied a square or oblong 
plateau with steep sides, a prolongation of the hills which jut out 
from the main range of Messogis. It thus formed a strong natural 
fortress (Strabo xiv. I, p. 648, tSpvrcu 8' TJ fjikv TWV Tpa\\tav<Sv TroAts e7rt 
TIVO? aKpav e^oi/ros ipv^vrfv KCU ra KVK\.<a 8' tKCtvois evepK^). It 


is said to have owed its origin and its name to a colony of the Thracian 
Trallians (Strabo /. c. p. 649). Its modern representative is Giizel- 
Hissar or the Beautiful Castle, also designated Aidin from the province 
of which it is the capital, to distinguish it from other places which have 
the same name. Aidin Giizel-Hissar, which lies on the lower ground at 
the foot of the ancient city, is a large and flourishing town with a popu- 
lation variously estimated at from thirty-five or forty to sixty thousand 
people. It is the terminus of the Smyrna railway, and stands in the 
centre of a very fertile district, which has been described as the orchard 
of Asia Minor. Among its chief products now, as in ancient times 
(Athen. iii. p. 80), are figs and raisins for the Smyrna market. 

Owing to its natural advantages Tralles was always a wealthy place. 
Attalus, the Pergamene king, whose magnificence passed into a proverb 
(Hor. Carm. i. i. 12), had a famous palace here (Plin. N. H. xxxv. 49; 
see also the inscription on a coin, TRAA . ATTAAOY, Mionnet Suppl. vu. 
p. 460), which under the Romans became the official residence of the 
high-priest of Tralles for the time being (Vitruv. ii. 8 ; comp. Boeckh 
C. I. G. 2934 [ap]xtepaTuoi/Tos). Somewhat later Cicero, in his defence 
of Flaccus, describes this city as ' gravis locuples ornata civitas.' De- 
nouncing an obscure person, one Maeandrius, who claimed to represent 
the Trallians in their complaints against his client, he asks what had 
become of the illustrious names among their citizens; 'Ubi erant 
illi Pythodori 1 , Aetideni, Lepisones, ceteri homines apud nos noti, 
inter suos nobiles? ubi ilia magnifica et gloriosa ostentatio civitatis?' 
If they are content to put forward such a mean representative, he 
adds, then let them abate their pride, 'remittant spiritus, comprimant 
animos suos, sedent arrogantiam' (pro Place. 22, 23). Some years 
later Strabo speaks of Tralles as surpassed by no other city of Asia 
in the opulence of its principal inhabitants (/. c. o-woiKetTcu KaXws et TIS 
a\\rj TWV Kara rrjv 'A(riav VTTO evTro'pwi/ av0pc)7rtov), and in illustration of 
this fact he mentions that the Asiarchs or Presidents of the Games, 
who incurred great expenses in maintaining the splendour of their 
position, were constantly taken from its citizens. At the martyrdom 
of Poly carp the Asiarch Philippus, who presided, was a Trallian (Mart. 
Polyc. 12, 21). At the same time, while the chief citizens thus enjoyed 
high distinction at home, the lower population contributed to swell 

1 This Pythodorus is mentioned also Pompeius. Julius Caesar stripped him 

by Strabo (xiv. i, p. 649). He had of his wealth in consequence, but he 

amassed a 'princely fortune' (f3a<ri\iKty succeeded in again amassing as large a 

ovfflav) of more than 2000 talents, but fortune as he had thus lost. His daughter 

unfortunately espoused the cause of was Queen of Pontus when Strabo wrote. 


the flood of greedy adventurers who sought their fortunes in the 
metropolis of the world and threatened to sweep away everything that 
was Roman in Rome (Juv. iii. 70). Altogether Tralles seems to have 
been a busy, thriving, purse-proud place, much given to display, and 
not altogether free from vulgarity. Cicero is not always as compli- 
mentary to this city, as it suited his purpose to be, when he was 
defending Flaccus 1 . 

When Caesar landed in Asia after the battle of Pharsalia, the 
Trallians were not slow to pay their homage to success. A miracle 
sealed their allegiance. A statue of Caesar had been erected in the 
temple of Victory at Tralles. A palm-tree shot up through the hard 
pavement at the base of the statue ; and it is even said that the goddess 
herself turned round and looked upon the effigy of the conqueror 
(Caes. Bell. Civ. iii. 105, Plut. Vit. Caes. 47, Dion. Cass. xli. 61, Val. 
Max. i. 6. 12). Under Augustus, whom it regarded as its 'founder* 
(Bull, de Corr. Hellen. x. p. 516), the city took the name of Caesarea. A 
boastful inscription speaks of it as ' the most splendid city of the 
Caesarean Trallians' (Boeckh C.I. G. 2929 ?J Aa//,7rpoTaV7 Kato-apeW 
T/oaAAiavwi/ TTo'Xts ; comp. Lebas et Waddington Inscr. 600 a, Papers of 
American School at Athens \. pp. 94, 113, Bull, de Corr. Hellen. x. p. 517). 
From this time forward till the end of the first Christian century the 
coins commonly bear the legend KAICAPGGON . TRAAAIANCON, and some- 
times even KAICAPGCON alone (Mionnet iv. p. 181 sq, Suppl. vii. p. 462 sq; 
comp. Eckhel Doctr. Num. in. p. 125). This loyalty to the emperors 
brought its return to the Trallians. During the reign of Augustus 
(about B.C. 26 24) the city was visited by an earthquake, a catastrophe 
to which this region was and is especially liable. The earthquakes at 
Tralles play a prominent part in the Sibylline Oracles (iii. 459, v. 287). 
On this occasion the destruction which it caused was very considerable 
(Strabo xii. p. 579 TO yv/xvao-toi/ KCU aXXa p-fpfj (rvveirecrtv : Agathias ii. 
17, p. 10 1, e<rio-0T7 T ttTrao-a *ai avcrpaV^ KCU ovBtv avrfjs o TI ecrccrwo-ro : 
comp. C. I. G. 2923). The emperor however came to its relief and 
contributed largely to the rebuilding. It seems to have recovered 
rapidly from the effects of this calamity ; for under Tiberius we find the 
Trallians competing with other great cities of Asia for the honour of 
erecting a temple to the emperor and senate, but they were passed over 
as parum validi (Tac. Ann. iv. 55) 2 . 

1 3 Philipp. 6 ' Aricina mater. Trallia- flourishing cities of Asia Minor, such as 
nam aut Ephesiam putes dicere.' In the Tralles or Ephesus. 
eyes of a Roman a small country-town 2 The expression is commonly sup- 
like Aricia was far nobler than the most posed to mean insufficient wealth, but 



The patron deity of the city was Zeus (C. L G. 2926 rr/s 
7roAea>s...iepas TOV AID'S ; comp. Bull, de Corr. Hell'en. x. p. 516) sur- 
named Larasius (Mionnet iv. pp. 179, 183, Suppl. vn. pp. 462, 465, etc., 
Amer. School at Athens i. pp. no, 112; comp. Bull, de Corr. Hellen. 
m. p. 468 ; comp. Waddington Inscr. 604), written also Larisius or 
Larisaeus by Strabo (ix. p. 440, xiv. p. 649) these latter modes of 
spelling being adopted apparently with a reference to tradition or the 
theory that Tralles was colonized from the Thessalian Larissa (Strabo 
ix. /. C. uroos Se KCU o Aapicrios Zev? eKei#ei> eTrcovo/xacTTat) and the high- 
priest already mentioned (p. 144) was doubtless the functionary of this 
god (Strabo xiv. /. c. ex wv T n v t*p*Mrvnp TOV Ato? TOV Aopuratov). But 
besides Zeus, we read also of the worship of Demeter (C. I. G. 2937 
tepeia &qflijrpos) t of Dionysus (C. /. G. 2919 Aiorucrw BaK^tiw TO> orj/j.oo-c(a ; 
comp. ib. 2934), and of ^Esculapius (Vitruv. vii. i). Among the games 
celebrated at Tralles in honour of different deities are mentioned the 
Pythia (C. 1. G. 2932, 2935, Mionnet iv. pp. 181, 192, 194; see Wad- 
dington Inscr. 598) and the Olympia (Wood's Discoveries at Ephesus 
Inscr. vi. 14, 20, pp. 60, 70, Mionnet //. cc. etc.), as well as those bearing 
the name of Hercules (C. I. G. 2936 / aedXouriv arap/:?e[os] 'Hpa/cA^os; 
comp. Amer. School at Athens i. p. no). The city boasted of several 
buildings, of whose architectural character notices have been preserved 
(Vitruv. ii. 8, v. 9, vii. i, 4). Nor was it without distinction as the 
mother of famous men. Of orators, it boasted Dionysocles and Damasus 
who was nicknamed o- /compos (Strabo xiv. p. 649), both doubtless 
representatives of the affected and florid Asiatic style, for which indeed 
this city was famous (Cic. Orator 234 'quasi vero Trallianus merit De- 
mosthenes'). It had also an illustrious school of physicians, of whom 
two are mentioned by name, Philippus and Thessalus (Galen Op. xin. 
p. 105, xiv. p. 684 ; comp. C. I. L. i. 1256). At the time when Ignatius 
wrote, Tralles was represented in literature by a living writer, Phlegon, 
the freedman of Hadrian, whose works have partially survived the wreck 
of time (Miiller Fragm. Hist. Graec. in. p. 603 sq), but whose fame 

this interpretation may, I think, be ques- was also set aside on this occasion for 

tioned. When we readjust below 'pau- the same reason as Tralles, is elsewhere 

lum addubitatum, quod Halicarnassii commemorated for its wealth (Tac. Ann. 

mille et ducentos per annos nullo motti xiv. 27, see Colossians pp. 6 sq, 43 sq); 

terrae mutavisse sedes suas, vivoque in and Tralles itself must have been very 

saxo fundamenta temfli adseveraverant,' flourishing at this time. On the other 

we are led to suspect that parum validi hand both localities were a prey to 

refers to the insecurity of the ground earthquakes, 
owing to earthquakes. Laodicea, which 


chiefly rests on the fact that he is quoted by Christian writers as a 
heathen witness to the preternatural darkness which shrouded the 
Crucifixion (Miiller /. c. p. 606 sq). At a much later date Tralles 
gave birth to an illustrious son, who has left to posterity a far more 
impressive memorial of himself than these third-rate literary efforts, 
Anthemius, the architect of S. Sophia at Constantinople (Procop. de 
SEdif. i. T, p. 174 ed. Bonn.). Altogether Tralles was invested with 
sufficient interest in herself and her history to induce two authors at 
different times, Apollonius of the neighbouring Aphrodisias (Miiller 
Fragm. Hist. Grace, iv. p. 310 Tlepi TpaXXe'wv) and Christodorus of the 
Egyptian Coptos (ib. p. 360 IlaTpia TpaAAeW), to take it as the subject 
of their writings. 

Of the evangelization of Tralles no record is preserved 1 ; but the 
hypothetical account which has been given of the foundation of the 
Church in Magnesia (p. 102) will probably hold good for this neigh- 
bouring city also. We can hardly doubt that it owed its first know- 
ledge of the Gospel to the disciples of S. Paul. Lying on the high- 
road between Ephesus and Laodicea, where flourishing churches were 
established through the agency of this Apostle almost half a century 
before Ignatius wrote, Tralles would not have been allowed for any long 
time to remain ignorant of the Gospel. This epistle however contains 
the earliest notice of Christianity in connexion with Tralles. 

'Sub idem fere tempus,' writes Livy, describing the Roman con- 
quest of these regions (xxxvii. 45), 'et ab Trallibus et a Magnesia quae 
super Maeandrum est et ab Epheso legati...venerunt.' The words would 
apply equally well to the incidents of the Christian conquest. These 
same three cities sent their delegates to meet Ignatius at Smyrna ; 
but, while Ephesus and Magnesia were each represented by several 
persons (see above pp. 15, 102), Tralles, as being more distant, was con- 
tent with sending a single representative, its bishop Polybius ( i). At 
least no mention is made of any other name. The Epistle to the 
Trallians is written by the saint in grateful recognition of the attention 
thus shown to him through their bishop, whose grave and gentle de- 
meanour he praises ( i, 3). 

The main purport of the letter is a warning against the poison of 
Docetism ( 6 n). As an antidote he recommends here, as else- 

1 The Greek books (Oct. n) represent dation in fact, that a Philip, more pro- 
Philip the Evangelist, whom they identify bably however the Apostle than the 
with the Apostle, as the founder and first Evangelist, resided in proconsular Asia ; 
bishop of the Church of Tralles (T/actXX?;, see Colossians p. 45 sq. 
Mensea). The story has this slender foun- 

10 2 


where, union among themselves, and submission to the bishop and 
other officers of the Church ( 2, 3, 7, n, 12, 13). The denunciation 
of Docetism is fuller and more explicit in this than in any other of 
his letters. On the other hand no allusion is made to the Judaic 
side of the heresy ; but a comparison with his language elsewhere 
shows these false teachers to have been Judaizers also (see the notes, 
Magn. 8, 9, n, Philad. inscr., 5, 8, Trail. 9). He acquits the Trallians 
indeed of any complicity in this heresy hitherto, but he writes to put 
them on their guard ( 8). Nor would the caution be unneeded. We 
might safely have assumed that in a busy thriving city like Tralles, 
situated in a district where Jews abounded (see Colossians p. 19 sq), 
there would be a considerable Jewish population which would act as a 
conductor to this heretical teaching, even if we had no direct in- 
formation of the fact. A document published by Josephus however 
(Ant. xiv. 10. 20) mentions the opposition of the Trallians to an ordi- 
nance of the Roman governor giving permission to the Jews to keep 
their sabbaths and to celebrate other sacred rites without interruption ; 
and, whether this document be genuine or not, it is satisfactory 
evidence of their presence in Tralles in considerable numbers before 
the age of Ignatius. The interest moreover which the Sibylline Oracles 
take in Tralles (see above p. 145) points in the same direction 1 . 

Tralles does not occupy any prominent place in the subsequent 
history of Christianity; but like Magnesia, it is represented from time 
to time at the great synods of the Church. At the Council of Ephesus 
the bishop of Tralles records his assent to the orthodox doctrine in 
explicit terms (Labb. Cone. in. p. 1024 sq, ed. Colet). He signs his 
name in a way which furnishes an instructive parallel to the opening 
of the Ignatian letters ; 'Hpa/cXeW, o KOL eo'<iAos, eVey/oai^a (ib. p. 
1080; comp. p. 1222, where the second name is written in Latin 
Theophanius : elsewhere he gives his first name only, in. pp. 996, 
1024, iv. p. 1135). At a later meeting held at Ephesus, the notorious 
Robbers' Synod, A.D. 449, Maximus bishop of Tralles commits himself 
to the opinions of the majority and to the heresy of Eutyches (iv. p. 
894, 1117, 1178, 1187); but he appears afterwards to have recanted, 
for his assent to the decrees of Chalcedon (A.D. 451) is attested in his 
absence by his metropolitan, the bishop of Ephesus (iv. p. 1503). 

1 May not the unidentified XDI?"^ placed at 11. -May not this Lud be 

(Tarlusa or Tralusa), which is men- Lydia, rather than Lydda as Neubauer 

tioned in the Jerusalem Talmud Taanith (Geogr. du Talm. pp. 80, 268) takes it? 

iv. 8, be our Tralles? The incident Tralles is sometimes spoken of as a 

which took place at Tarlusa is elsewhere Lydian city by classical writers. 


Amongst the letters of remonstrance addressed to Peter the Fuller, 
and purporting to have been written a few years after the Council of 
Chalcedon, is one bearing the name of Asclepiades bishop of Tralles 
(v. p. 241 sq). At later Councils of the Church also bishops of Tralles 
were present. 

The following is an analysis of the epistle. 

' IGNATIUS to the CHURCH OF TRALLES, which has peace through 
the Passion of Christ, an apostolic and hearty greeting.' 

' Polybius your bishop informed me of your blameless disposition. 
Seeing him, I seemed to see you all, and I glorified God for your 
kindness in sending him ( i). Be obedient to your bishop, if you 
would live after Christ. Submit also to the presbyters. The deacons 
too must strive to please all men and avoid offence ( 2). Let all 
reverence the deacons in turn, as also the bishop and the presbyters. 
I am persuaded you do so ; for I have received a token of your love 
in your bishop, whose gravity and gentleness must command the 
respect of all ( 3). I fear lest I should fall through spiritual pride. 
I wish to suffer, but I know not whether I am worthy. I lack gentle- 
ness ( 4). Though I could reveal the mysteries of the heavens, yet 
I forbear for your sakes. Notwithstanding my fetters and my know- 
ledge of heavenly things, I am not yet a disciple ( 5). I beseech you, 
touch not the rank weeds of heresy. The cup of poison is sweetened 
with honey to deceive you ( 6). Shun these false teachers and cling 
to Christ and to your bishop. Whosoever stands aloof from the altar 
is not pure (7). I say this by way of warning. Strengthen your- 
selves with faith and love, which are Christ's flesh and blood. Give no 
occasion to the heathen to blaspheme ( 8). Turn a deaf ear to the 
seducer. Christ was truly born, truly lived, truly died, and truly 
rose again, even as He will truly raise us ( 9). If all this had been 
mere semblance, as these men say, why am I in bonds? Why am I 
ready to fight with wild beasts ( 10) ? Avoid these rank growths which 
are not of the Father's planting. They are no true branches of the 
Cross. The head cannot exist without the members ( n).' 

' I greet you from Smyrna. I appeal to you by my bonds ; be 
united and submit to your bishop and presbyters. Pray for me that 
I may attain my desire ( 12). The Smyrnaeans and Ephesians greet 
you. Pray for the Church in Syria. Once more, be obedient to your 
bishop and presbyters. I am devoted to you. I am in peril now, 
but God will answer my prayer. May you be found blameless in Him 

( 13).' 


, o Kai Oecxpopos, ^yaTrrj/uLevrj Oeco TrctTpi 
Xpi&TOV, KK\rj(ria dyia Ttj ovcry zv Tpd\\ecriv 

npOC TpAAAlANOyc] rpaXiavols lyvdrios G (not written rpaXXtai'ots, 3.5 given 
by Dressel); ignatius traksiis L*; rou aiirov eTrtoToX?? -rrpbs rpaXKrjaiovs (with the 
number /3 in the marg.) g* (but 1 has the form ad trallianos) ; ad trallianos A. 

I 0e<...X/H0"roO] GL ; irapa 6eov Trarpbs KO.L t'^croO %/>i0"roO g; a deo patre et 

npoc Tp<\AAiANoyc] Steph. Byz. 
s. v. says of this city TO fOviKov TpaX- 
\iavos, and the statement is fully 
confirmed by evidence of all kinds. 
It is the only form on the coins, even 
to the latest date (Mionnet IV. p. 
178 sq, SuppL vil. p. 439 sq). It 
alone occurs in inscriptions, whether 
Greek (C.I.G. 2926, 2929, 2935) or 
Latin (Orell. Inscr. 5298, 6232) ; nor 
does any other form appear to be 
found in any classical writer, either 
Greek or Latin. Boeckh indeed sup- 
poses that there was also a form 
TpoXXeTs (C.I. .11. p. 584,comp. HI. p. 
30), but his own data do not bear him 
out. The form TpaXXets is indeed 
found elsewhere (see Schmidt-Al- 
berti Hesych. Lex. iv. p. 168), but it 
* refers to a Thracian people. So again 
TpaXXioi occurs (see Steph. Byz. s. v. 
TpaXXia), but it denotes the inhabi- 
tants of the Bithynian town Trallium. 
Pearson again (ad loc.) is wrong in 
saying ' Gives etiam ab antiquis Lati- 
nis Tralles dicebantur, ut a Varrone 
apud Apuleium': Varro personifies 
the city Tralles itself, Apul. ApoL 42 
'Trallibus de eventu Mithridatici belli 

magica percontatione consulentibus.' 
The word is most commonly spelled 
TpaXXiaz>os, but it occurs sometimes 
with a single X; e.g. Mionnet IV. p. 
187, SuppL vir. p. 472. In the edict 
of Diocletian it is written indifferent- 
ly TpaXXtai/os and Tpa\iavos, Corp. 
Inscr. Lat. in. pp. 1191, 1193. 

On the other hand there is the 
greatest variety in the title of this 
Ignatian Epistle. The Greek of the 
genuine Ignatius and the Latin of 
the interpolator have the common 
form TpaXmi/oi, Tralliani; while 
conversely the Greek of the interpo- 
lator and the Latin of the genuine 
Ignatius read instead TpaXX^o-ioi, 
Tralesii. Jerome again refers to it 
as ad Trallenses ( Vir. III. 16) ; in the 
Parall. Rupef.^ ascribed wrongly to 
John of Damascus (Op. II. p. 772, 
Lequien), it is entitled trpos TpaXXaei9 ; 
and in the Pseudo-Ignatian Epistle 
Antioch. 13 the form seems to be 
TpaXXaiot. Generally however the 
correct form is given. So for in- 
stance Theodt. Dial. I (iv. p. 51 ed. 
Schulze), Chron. Pasch. I. p. 417 (ed. 
Bonn.), Sever. Ant. Fragm. (preserv- 


'Aarias, K\CKT Kai 

eprjvevoixrri eV crapKi 

domini nostri iesu christi A (where et seems to be the commencement of a correction, 
preparatory to substituting the commoner form et domino nostro etc., but not carried 
out). 2 TpaXXetriv] g; rpaXea-Lv G; tralesiis L; in tralliano (from a nom. 

trallianus} A. 3 rijs 'A<rtas] GL; urbe asiae A; om. g. 

ed in the Syriac; see I. p. 171). So 
too the Greek translator of Jerome 
(Vir. III. 1. c.). It is clearly also 
the form which underlies the Ar- 
menian title of the epistle. On the 
other hand the fragments of the 
Syriac Version (see III. pp. 678, 682) 

give ^ A A . \ O-AAixA, 
v V v v' 

'Titiliyu.' These words are ob- 
viously corrupt ; but possibly they 

stand for CLiAA-i^ 'Tralliyu,' which 
cannot have been derived from TpaX- 
Xtavoi and might represent TpdXXtoi, 
but probably was invented by the 
Syriac transcriber or translator him- 
self. These facts show that the present 
heading of the Greek Ignatius, Tpa- 
Xtai/ols 'lyj/drtoy, is very much later 
than the epistle itself, and has no 
authority whatever. I have therefore 
substituted a title which conforms to 
the others. 

IGNATIUS, called also Theophorus, 
beloved of God, and having peace 
through the passion of Christ, hearty 
greeting after the Apostolic fashion. 

I. 0fo> Trarpi] On this dative, 
which stands for VTTO Qeov irarpos but 
does not, like it, directly describe 
the agent, so much as the person in- 
terested, see Winer Gramm. Ixxxi. 
p. 274 (ed. Moulton), Kiihner 423 
(ii. p. 368 sq) ; comp. Neh. xiii. 26 

2. ev TpoXXea-ti/] The plural form 
is by far the most common 
name of this city, not only in Greek, 
but also in Latin (e.g. Juv. Sat. iii. 
70; Orell. Inscr. 321, Quoted below; 
C. I. L. in. 144). Very rarely how- 
ever the singular TpaXXip is found: 

e. g. C. I. G. 2936 TroXios ' eycprjpe /ze 
8rjfj.os TpaXXcos flv deff\oi(riv K.r.X., 
Inscr. in Agath. Hist. ii. 17 (p. 102, 
ed. Bonn.) eop&oo-e Tpd\\iv rav TOTC 
Ke<\i[j.fvav, Orac. Sib. iii. 459 TpoXXtt 
' r) yeirav 'E<prov, ib. V. 289 noXvrj- 
pare TpdXXtr (see C. I. G. II. pp. 557, 
1119), comp. Bekker Anecd. p. 1193 
TpaXXi?, TpaXXtoy: and so in Latin, 
Plin. N. H. v. 29. 

3. rfjs 'Ao-iW] The Roman pro- 
vince of * Asia' is meant ; comp. Orell. 
Inscr. 132 ' Natus in egregiis Tralli- 
bus ex Asia,' Agath. Hist. ii. 17 
(p. ICO) TpoXXets r\ jro\ts r) ev 777 'A(ria 
vvv KoXovfievrj xa>pa; comp. Strabo 
xiv. I (p. 649). It is therefore a poli- 
tical designation. Ethnographically 
or topographically, Tralles was as- 
signed sometimes to Lydia (Steph. 
Byz. s. v.), sometimes to Caria (Piin. 
N. H. v. 29, Ptol. v. 2), sometimes to 
Ionia (Diod. Sic. xiv. 36, Mionnet 
Suppl. VII. p. 477). Probably this 
last was the designation which the 
Trallians most affected, as neither 
Lydians nor Carians stood in very 
high repute (Cic. pro Place. 27). 
For similar instances of various eth- 
nological attributions in the case of 
towns in this neighbourhood see 
Colossians p. 17 sq. The addition rfjs 
'Ao-tas is not quite so superfluous 
here as in other cases (e.g. Ephes, 
inscr. ; see the note there), since there 
were other places bearing similar 
or identical names, e.g. TpaXXr?s in 
Phrygia, TpciXXis in Caria, TpaXXi'a 
or TpaXXetr in Illyria ; see Benseler- 
Pape Worterb. d. Griech. Eigenn. 
s. vv. But our Tralles was far the 
most important of them all. 

-fi] Used probably, as here, of 



TrvevfJLari TO) 7rd6ei 'Irjcrov Xpurrov 
ev TY\ ek O.VTOV dj/aa'Tacrer fjv Kai dcnrd^ofjiai eV 
T<w 7T\rjpcoiULaTi ev aVocrToXt/cw xapaKrfjpi, Kai 

i irvev[j.aLTL] g ; afy*cm GLA ; see the lower note. r< 7ra0ei] G ; et 

passione L; iv iradei [g] (the context being much altered); om. A. 
5 dSia/cptroi'] GL[A]; avvirdKpirov g. 6 Kara 0i/crtv] GL ; 

churches in I Pet. v. 13 

2 Joh. 1,13. SO alsO e/cXcKTOl, CK\K- 

TOV yevos, of Christians generally, I 
Pet. i. i, ii. 9. On this meaning of 
'election,' as distinguished from its 
more restricted sense, see the note on 
Colossians iii. 12. 

aio0e'o>] Like other compounds of 
agios, a favourite word with Ignatius; 
Magn. 2, Rom. inscr., i, Smyrn. 12. 
In Rom. inscr. it is applied to a 
church as here ; in all the other ex- 
amples, to individuals. 

eV o-apKi K.r.X.j The existing Greek 
text ev aapKL Kai ai/iari ra> 7rd6ei 
'IT/O-OU Xpiarou K.r.A. can hardly 
stand ; and I have thought it best 
to adopt from the interpolator's text 
TrvfvpaTL for ai/zart. There is the 
same confusion of nvcv^an and tu- 
/iart in the authorities in Smyrn. 3. 
With this reading we have the com- 
mon Ignatian combination 'flesh and 
spirit'; see the note on Ephes. 10, 
and comp. especially the opening 
addresses in Magn. i IrtMrtv rfgopMU 
a-apnos Kai nvevp-aros, Rom. inscr. Kara 
crapKa Kai 7TVfvp.a rfV(t>\iivoLS K.T.A., 
Smyrn. I Ka^Xco/ueVovs eV rai oravpo) 
...(rapKt re Kai TTJ/ev/nan. 

The alternative would be to omit 
ro) Travel, as a gloss. To this mode 
of remedy the Armenian Version 
gives countenance. In this case the 
passage might be compared espe- 
cially with Philad. inscr. TJV dand- 
opat cv ai/nart 'l^troO Xpta-roi), Smyrn. 
I ^8pa(Tfj,fvovs (v dydirjj fv rco ai/xari 
Xpio-roi). The sentence would then 

be directed against Docetic error, 
and would signify 'reposing peace- 
fully in the belief in and union with a 
truly incarnate Christ ' ; comp. Smyrn. 
3 KpaBevTfs r?7 (rapKi avrov Kai ra> 
ai/uin (v. 1.). 

1. TW Travel] 'through the passion? 
For the prominence given to the 
work of the Passion in these epistles, 
see the note on Ephes. inscr. T/I/W- 
fjLfvrj KOI fK\\eyfj.evr) cv Trddei d\r]6lvto. 

TTJS eXnidos j)fiwi/] See the note on 
Magn. ii. 

2. cv TTJ K.T.X.] To be connected 
closely with rfjs fXnidos These 
words define wherein Jesus Christ is 
the Christian's hope. 

ev ro> Tr\rjp(i>p.aTi] l in the pleromaj 
the sphere of the Divine graces. It 
is no mundane salutation which the 
writer sends ; see the note on Magn. 
15 ev Tipfl 'lrj(rov Xptcrrou. For the 
sense of TrXj/pco/za see the note on 
Ephes. inscr. Other explanations, 
such as 'in the whole body of the 
Trallian Church' (Smith ad loc.\ or 
' in the plenitude of Apostolic power ' 
(Bunsen Br. p. 139, interpreting it 
by what follows), or 'in the fulness 
of Christian good wishes' (Zahn 
I.V. A. p. 416), seem to be excluded 
by the use of the word or by the 
grammar of the sentence. 

3. ev aVoo-roXiKO) K.r.X.J ' after the 
manner of the Apostles? It is a salu- 
tation which followed the precedent 
set in the Apostolic epistles. Another 
interpretation is ' in my Apostolic 
character or office ' e.g. Vedel. ad 




5 I. AfJKAfHW ^idvoiav Kai dStOKfttTOV eV 

t<yvwv iJ/zas e^oi/ras, ov Kara xpiicriv d\\a Kara (f>v(Tiv 
Ka6(Jos eS^AaxreV JJLOL /7oAi/'/3*os o' eTnV/coTros vfjiwv, os 
BeXy/man Oeov Kai 'lr]<rov Xpiarrov ev 

KTrj<nv g; sagaci sapientia A. 7 /toi] GLA; om. g* (MSS, but ins. 1). 

8 0eou Kai 'Irjaov Xptoroi;] GL; domini nostri iesu christi A; 0eou iraTpbs 

KVpiOV 'I. X. /C.T.X. g. 

loc. p. 1 8, Bunsen ^r. p. 139, Lipsius 
Aecht. p. 56; but this would make 
the writer contradict himself, as Zahn 
has pointed out (/. v. A. p. 415); 
for just below, 3, he disclaims 
giving them orders o>s ciTrooToXoy. 
On the other hand see Mart. Ign. 
Ant. I avrjp (v rots TTCKTIV dnoa-roXiKos, 
but this is not his own estimate of 

I. 'I know how blameless and 
steadfast ye are naturally. This 
knowledge I have obtained from 
your bishop Polybius, who is with 
me in Smyrna, and has so warmly 
sympathized with my bonds that in 
seeing him I have seemed to see 
you all. I heartily welcome your 
kindly interest as manifested through 
him, and I am full of thanksgiving 
that ye show yourselves thus fol- 
lowers of God.' 

5. "A/ia>/ioi> K.r.X.] See the eulogy 
of the Trallians in Apoll. Tyan. Ep. 
69 (Philostr. Op. u. p. 364, ed. Kay- 
ser) els Tijvde ryv jfupa* OVK av e^ot/xt 
irpOKplvai TpaXXiaviov vp.icv ov A.v8ovs, 
OVK 'A^aiovy, OVK *Ia>vas K.T.\....VVV Sc 
P.OVOV vpas tiraivelv Kaipbs avdpas re 
TOVS jjyovpevovs V/LKUI/, eos TroXu Kpeir- 
TOVS T&V Trap' erepois} KOI Xoya> 


ddiaKpiTov K. T. X.] 'unwavering, 
steadfast, in patient endurance? For 
aSia/<piToj> see the note on Ephes. 3. 
Here it is closely connected with eV 
vnonovfi, which probably refers to 
some persecutions undergone by 
the Trallian Church. 

6. ov Kara XP^ LV K-r.X.] l notfrom 
habit but by nature^ ; comp. Ephes. 

I O KfKTr)O~df <pV<r(l...TO 

Barnab. i ovroas 

ib. 9 6 rr)v ep.(pvTov dupeav TTJS 
avrov 6ep.fvos fv See Cope's 
note on Aristot. Rhet. i. 7. 33. For 
the opposition of <pvo-is and xp^o-ir 
see Plut. Mor. 1115 F, 1 1 16 A ; comp. 
the passages in J arm's Methodius p. 
124. The same contrast is repre- 
sented elsewhere as between (pvo-is 
and ao-KTjo-is (Plut. Mor. 226 A); be- 
tween (pvais and naideia (Plut. Vit. 
Them. 2); between (pvo-is and edos 
(e.g. Arist. Rhet. i. n, p. 1370, Plut. 
Mor. 132 A) ; between (pvo-is and 
rpo<pq (Plat. Tim. 20 A, Legg. 961 B); 
between <pv<ris and 6c<ris (Macar. 
Magn. iii. 13, iv. 26); etc. This is 
one of those passages in which the 
language of Ignatius takes a Gnostic 
tinge; see Iren. i. 6. 4 jj/xas fiev yap 


yovo~i...avTovs e 
TTJV x<*P tv ' com P- Clem. Alex. Strom. 
ii. 3 (p. 433). The interpolator has 
KTTjo-tv, where <pvo-iv stands in the 
text of the genuine Ignatius, and the 
passage of Irenaeus might seem to 
favour this. But the alteration was 
doubtless made to obtain the com- 
moner antithesis of \PW^ an d 
KTfja-is (e.g. Philo Leg. ad Cat. 2, II. 
p. 547), 'temporary occupation' and 
'absolute possession,' 'usus' and 
<" tnancipiuiri* ; comp. Cic. Fam. vii. 
29 'sum xP'l crl ^ v tuus, 


Kat oi/Tcos fjioi crvve-^dpf] SeSe/uLevw ev XpurTio 
'Irjcrov, ftjcrre juie TO TTCLV 7r\ri6os v/mwv ev avTio 6e(*)pfj(rai. 
ovv Trjv KCITCC Qeov evvoiav Si CIVTOV, 


evputv u^uas, ft) eyvwv, 
II. ''Oral/ <yap TOJ eTTKTKOTra) 
'Irja'ov XpicTTtt), (paivecrde JULOI ov /cara avOpwTTOiK 


I X/u<rr 'lyffov] LAg; lyffov xP iffr <? G. a ^ewp^o-at] g; Oeuprjcrde 

G ; speculer L ; w'<# A : see the lower note. 3 etivoiav] GL ; v/xa)v e^otav g ; 

Zwzaw mentem vestram A. 4 <?56a(ra] gloriatus sum L; glorificavi dominum 

meum iesum christum A ; ^5ofa Gg*. ws I7VWI/] GL ; quomodo et didi- 

cistis A; om. g. 5 w$ '^ou Xpicrry] GLSjA Sev-Syr 2; cos ry /c^y [g]; 

om. Dam-Rup 5. 6 /cara d^^pwTroi/s] secundum homines L; si cut homines 

Sev-Syr 2; Kara fodpuirov Gg Dam-Rup; * corpore S X A: see the lower note. 

Attici nostri : ergo fructus est tuus, 
mancipium illius.' At the same time 
the substitution of /cr^o-ty for <f)v<ns 
would recommend itself as getting 
rid of a questionable doctrine. 

1. o-wfxdpT] SeSe/xeVw] ' he re- 
joiced with? or perhaps, ' congratu- 
lated me in my bonds? For o-vyx a ~ 
pfjvai comp. Ephes. 9, Philad. 10, 
Smyrn. n, and see note on Philip- 
pians ii. 17. 

2. eV avrw] i.e. as being the re- 
presentative of the whole body. For 
this use of the preposition comp. 
Magn. 6 eV rots Trpoycypapficvois 7rpo<r- 
(UTrois, Ephes. I ev 'Oj/^crt/io). 

^ewp^o-ai] This reading is to be 
preferred. There seems to be no 
good authority for the middle 0eo>- 
pela-Sai, though it appears in some 
corrupt texts of classical authors; 
see Dindorf and Hase Steph. Thes. 
s. v. 

3. a7TodeaVei'os i ] Apoll. Tyan. Epist. 
69 addressing the Trallians says, ris 
ovv atrta, 81 TJV anode \o^ai pev vpas 

Kara Qeov] On this Ignatian phrase 
see the note Magn. i. 

sc. i>n<av, which the inter- 

polator inserts for clearness. The 
Trallians appear to have sent some 
substantial proofs of their goodwill 
by the hands of Polybius. 

4. r'Soacra] '/ gave glory to 
God.' For this absolute use comp. 
Polyc. I 'ATroSe^o/jtei'os (rov rfjv tv 
0ec5 yvwfj,r)v...v'rrfp8o{;a(i), and see 
also Ecclus. xliii. 28 6o|a^oi/r nov 
la-xvorfDjjLev ; The reading e'oa is self- 
condemned, independently of au- 

coy cyvav] e as / had been informed] 
referring back to the foregoing 

/^i/xTjras /e.r.X.] See the note Ephes. 

II. 'When ye submit to your 
bishop as to Jesus Christ, ye live 
after Jesus Christ, who died that 
you through faith in His death 
might yourselves escape death. Do 
nothing without your bishop; and 
be obedient also to the presbyters 
as to the Apostles of Jesus Christ. 
The deacons likewise must study 
to satisfy all men; for they are 
ministers of Christ's mysteries, not 
of meats and drinks. Therefore it 
is their duty to shun all blame, 



d\\d Kara 'Irjcrovv Xpia-rov, TOV Si ri 

*iva TrurrevcravTes eis TOV BdvaTOv avrov TO a 

dvayKctiov ovv ea-Tiv, coonrep TroieiTe, avev 
v /x^Sei/ 7rpd(rcrLv v/mds' d\\' i/7roTaV<recr0e 
7rpe<r/3vTepi(*), a>$ [rots] dTroa-roXois 'ltj(rov 
XpiorTOv, Trjs e\7ri$os rifjitov, eV w SidyovTes [eV 

10 TOV 

7 ^as] GSjAg Dam-Rup Sev-Syr; vos L. 8 Trurretfcrai'Tes] G; 

g; credentes L; quando creditis S X A Sev-Syr. 9 aWep] GLSjA; oaa-n-ep g. 

10 7r/xWeu>] G; irpurTeiv g. u7roTacr(re<r^e] GSjA; vwoTO(r(re<r8cu L [Antioch 

14]; the authorities for g* vary. n r 

byteris S x ; sacerdotibus A (see below on 7). rotr] G 
Xpiorou] GLSjg Antioch; xP iffT v A. 12 &> ayr 

om. GL; al. A. 

GL*g Antioch; 
om. g Antioch. ' 
gS x (see the next note); 

as they would shun the fire.' 

6. Kara dvQpwTrovs ^eovres] So too 
8. See also Ephes. 9 K.Q.T 
iov (according to the read- 
ing proposed). S. Paul uses the 
singular Kara av8pa)7rov (see the note 
on Galatians iii. 15); and the re- 
miniscence of S. Paul has doubtless 
led to the substitution of avOpurrov 
for dvdpuTTovs in some texts here. 

8. iva iria-Tevo-avTcs x.r.X.] Comp. 
Magn. 5 eav pr) avOatpeToas e^o)/xei/ TO 
aTTodavelv K.r.X. 

9. wo-nfp TroietTf] Comp. Ephes. 
4, with the note. 


Magn. 7 with the note. 

11. TO) 7rpeo-/3urepto>] See the note 
on Ephes. 2. 

cos TO"IS oirooToXoif K.T.X.] They 
stand in the same relation to the 
bishop, as the Apostles stood to 
Jesus Christ. So again Smyrn. 8; 
comp. Magn. 6 TWV *p*crfivr4pmf ds 
TVTTOV (Tvvcdpiov TWV aTTOo-ToXcoi/ (with 
the notes), and below 3. Con- 
versely the Apostles are called irpeo-- 
fivTtpiov eVcK\9<rtafi in Philad. 5. 

12. (v <w K.T.X.] i.e. 'if we live in 

Him now, we shall be found in Him 
hereafter.' But in order to get this 
sense it seems necessary to insert 
eV avrcp, which appears in the inter- 
polator's text. The words without 
this addition can hardly have this 
meaning, since eV o> cannot well be 
made to do double duty. If, intend- 
ing this sense, Ignatius omitted ev 
aura), we must regard this as an illus- 
tration of the hasty writing in which 
these epistles abound and which is 
explained by the circumstances of 
the writer (see above, pp. 28, 1 10, 159). 
An alternative would be to read the 
conjunctive, eV w didyovTes evpe^crco- 
ftetfa 'in whom may we be found 
living'; but the existence of a future 
conjunctive is very questionable (see 
Winer Grainm. xiii. p. 89), and our 
Greek authorities here do not coun- 
tenance it. So too in Rom. 4 JW... 
eupe$/7(rojuai (not &a...fvpA^a'ai^mi) is 
substituted by the interpolator for 
iva...ycv<opcu of Ignatius. In I Cor. 
xiii. 3 the authorities show that the 
alternative is between the fut. indie. 
Iva Kavdrjo-opai (not Iva Kavd^o~a)fjiat) 
and the conj. aor. Iva 


del Se Kai TOI)S SMKOVOV* ovras 


ov yap f3pcojULa.Tcov Kat TTOTCOV eicriv SiaKOvoiy d\\' e'fc- 

i ev/>e077<ro>e0a] Gg* (MSS, but 1 has inveniamur} ; inveniamur L (= ei5pe- 
0?7(ruv/,e0a, if it be not a slip of a Latin scribe). The Oriental Versions are; ita 
ut inveniamur quod in ipso (fQ ID \\1 = eodem) vivimus ^ (which seems 
certainly to have read iv atry and perhaps evpedija-u^eda) ; ut inveniatur vita 
vestra cum Us A (a corrupt text of a loose rendering of the Syriac). /xwr- 

rijpiuv] g; fjLVffr-npiov G. The versions, which all have the genitive, are as fol- 
lows; diaconos ministros existentes mysteriorum L x (ministros being supplied to 
assist the sense) ; diaconos qui sunt filii mysterii S l ; diaconis gui sunt partidpes 
mysteriorum A. 2 'ITJO-OU Xpto-rou] GLSjA; xP i<J " r0 ^ lyffov g. irdffiv] 

GLS X Antioch 14; deo et hominibus A; om. g. 3 jS/jw/xdrwi'] G 

Antioch ; ciborum L ; Ppwrwv g. 4 virrjp&rai] GLg Antioch ; om. 

SjA. o^] GLg Antioch; et propterea A; om. S x . auroi>s] GS a Ag* 

(but 1 praecepta eorum obseruare} Antioch ; vos L (MSS, doubtless a scribe's error 
for eos). <pv\<io-(rc(rdai TO. ^7/cX^aTa] G ((f>v\a<r<re(rde, but corrected by a 

later hand) L Antioch ; -rd ^ykX^fiara <f>v\a.TTff0at g. 6 'O/xo^wj] G 

Antioch; similiter et L; et ita S x ; ^/ (om. o/no^ws) A; al. g. roi)s StaxoVoi/s... 

Trarpos] TOI)S Staxovovs ws irjffovv -P lffT v > ^ J Ka ^ T ^" tirlffKOirov 6vra vlov rov 
irarpos G; diaconos ut mandatum iesu christi, et episcopum ut iesum christum 

I. Set 8f ai K.r.X.] This is not an 
injunction of obedience due to the 
deacons, as the preceding sentence 
might suggest, but a statement of 
requirements from them, as the fol- 
lowing words clearly show. Not their 
claims, but their duties, are enforced. 

TOVS SiaKovovs ovras K.r.A.] ''those 
who are deacons (ministers'] of the 
mysteries of Jesus Christ? This 
assertion is justified by what fol- 
lows, ov yap /3po)/iaTo)' K.r.X. The 
reference here is to the deacons, and 
not (as some have supposed) to the 
presbyters. See Smyrn. 10 o>y dia- 
KOVOVS 0eoO [XpioToiJ], Polyc. Phil. 5 
6fioia>s diaxovoi a/ie/i7rrot...6>s GeoC KOI 
XpioToi) 8id<ovoi Ka\ OVK dv6pwTra)v. 
Comp. I Cor. iv. I co? vTryperas Xpt- 
oroO Kat otKoro/zov? fjLV(TTr]pi(i)V GeoO, 
which passage seems to have in- 
fluenced the expressions here. In 
a later writer SIOKOVOVS /zutrnjpiW 
would probably refer to their at- 

tendance on the priest when offi- 
ciating at the eucharist. But such 
a restriction of fj.vo-Trjpio)v would be 
an anachronism in Ignatius. He 
apparently uses the word in the 
same wide sense in which it is used 
by S. Paul, 'revealed truths.' 

2. Kara Trai/ra] According to S. 
Paul's example, I Cor. x. 33 icadus 
Kayo) TravTa TTCUTIV apeo"KO). 

3. )8pa)/xaTa)i/ K.r.X.] See Rom. 
xiv. 17, Col. ii. 1 6, Heb. ix. 10. The 
diaconate was originally instituted 
SiaKovcIv rpaire^ais (Acts vi. 2) ; and 
these less spiritual duties of the 
office, such as the distribution of 
alms, the arrangement of the agape, 
and the like, tended to engross the 
interests of the deacon (i Tim. iii. 
8 sq). He needed therefore to be 
reminded that the diaconate had a 
higher aspect also. The mode of 
expression here may have been sug- 
gested by Rom. xiv. 17. 



Oeov vTrrjperar Seov ovv avrovs (f)v\d(r<re(r6ai 
a ok Trvp. 

5 TO. 

III. 'QIJLO'KJOS Trdvres evTpe7T6(r6a)(rav TOVS 
0)5 'Irjaovv XpiffTOV, cos Kai TOV 67ncr/co7rw oWa TVTTOV 

existentem filium patris L ; a diaconis sicut a iesu christo tt ab episcopo qui est in 
forma (NDQ1D2) patris S l (for KDQ1D see the note on Magn. 6); a diaconis sicut 
a iesu christo et ab episcopo sicut a patre deo A; avrovs [i.e. TOI)S StaKoVovs] u?s 
XpiffTov Irjo'ovi', ov <f)V\a.Ks elffiv TOV rbirov, <is /cai 6 eiriffKOTros roG Trarpos raJv 
6'XciH' TUTTOS VTrdpxci g ; TOUS dtajcoi'oi'? (is lyvovv xpi(TToV /cat TOP eiriffKoirov u>s TOV 
TraT^pa Antioch. Comparing these authorities we arrive at these results, (i) In 
the first clause we must reject the reading of L ws vro\T]v li)<rov XP'^TOU, as standing 
alone against all the others (GSjAg Antioch) which support the simple ws iyvovv 
XpiffTov (g however transposing and reading x/ucrroV irjvovv, but dominum iesum 
christum 1). (2) In the second clause the corrupt vlov of GL must certainly be 
rejected in favour of TVTTOV, which appears in Sg and is loosely paraphrased in A 
Antioch. (3) The second w$ is somewhat awkward, and the sentence would gain by 
its rejection or transposition, Kal rbv MOKOTTOV ws 6vra TVTTOV K.T.\. (or in this case 
we might perhaps read u>s IVTVTTOV for ws OVTCI vlov, as nearer to the traces of the 
MS); but it appears in this place in Gg, while on the other hand the versions are 
not of much account in such a case. It ought probably therefore to be retained, 
as it is capable of explanation. (4) For an account of the anomalous reading of L 
in both clauses see the lower note. 

4. avrovs (frvXao-crfadai K.T\.] It 
is S. Paul's injunction also, that the 
deacons should be ai/e'yKX^rot, I Tim. 
iii. 10 ; comp. Polyc. Phil. 5, Apost. 
Const, ii. 10, viii. 18. The reading 
avT<Zv is condemned by the authori- 
ties even in the interpolator's text, 
and it interferes with the sense. 

III. 'At the same time let the 
laity pay respect to the deacons as 
to Jesus Christ, while they reverence 
the bishop as the type of God the 
Father and the presbyters as the re- 
presentatives of the Apostles. With- 
out these three orders no body of 
men deserves the name of a Church. 
This rule, I am persuaded, you fol- 
low; for I have with me a pattern 
of your love in the person of your 
bishop, whose gentle demeanour is 
in itself a powerful lesson. Even 
the godless heathen must reverence 

him. I spare you for the love I 
have towards you. Though I might 
have written more strongly, I for- 
bear; nor do I venture, being a 
convict, to command you as if I 
were an Apostle.' 

6. 'OpnW] As the deacons are 
required to consult the wishes of the 
laity, so in like manner must the 
laity pay respect to the deacons. 
For this reciprocation introduced by 
o/zoiW, even where the duty is not 
identical, comp. I Pet. iii. 7. The 
-rravres here corresponds to the iraaiv 
of the preceding sentence. As the 
deacons have duties towards all, 
so they claim respect/ram all. 

7. o>y 'Irjcrovv Xpto-roi/] This start- 
ling comparison of the deacon to 
Jesus Christ rests on the assumption 
that the relations of the deacon to 
the bishop are analogous to those 


TOV TrctTpds, roi)s Se 7rp6(r/3vTpovs o)s arvv&piov Oeov 
Kai [ok] <rvvecrfjiov aTTOCTToXiav xcopis TOVTCOV KK\rj<ria 
ov KaXeiTai. Trepi cbv TreTreio'iuLaL v/uLas OVTCOS eyeiv TO 


Kal cis] G Antioch; KO! (om. ws) LSjA [g]. <rvvdefffj,ov] conjunctionem 

Antioch; cnWecr/ios G; g also has <rw5eo-/ios, but as a nominative, the 

of Christ to the Father ; comp. Apost. 
Const, ii. 26 o 5e dictKovos TOUTOJ [rco 
rapi(rra(7$a>...Kai Xeirovp- 
avTai ei> 7rao~iv a/it/iTrreoy, cos o 
Xpicrros, TroicoV acp' eaurou oOSeV, ra 
apecrra Troiel rco Trarpi Travrorf, /^. 3O 
a>y yap o Xptcrros oi/fv roO vrarpos 1 
owSei' TTOtcT, ovrcoff ouSc o SiaKOJ/os- ai/eu 

6 dittKOVOS TO) eVKTKOTTO) dva(f)fp6T(t), CDff 

o Xptoroy ra> Trarpi' K.r.A. See also 
the note on Magn. 6. 

The preponderance of authority 
seems to show very decidedly that 
this is the original text. But if so, 
how can we account for the reading 
of the Latin translator? It is pro- 
bably to be explained as having 
arisen from a combination of two 
readings, TOVS 8ia<6vovs cos eWoX^i/ 
'li]arov XpKrroC and TOVS o~ta.K.6vovs 
coy 'l^o-oCy Xpto-rov. The former of 
these was probably in the first in- 
stance a marginal illustration taken 
from another passage, Smyrn. 8 TOVS 
5e SiaKovovs eWperrecr^e coy 0eoC eV- 
roXifv, or an emendation suggested 
by this parallel. It would then dis- 
place the original reading cos 'irjo-ovv 
Xpto-rov in the text; and this latter 
would be inserted just below, where 
it seemed to be required, the corrupt 
reading OVTO. vlov (for 6Wa TVTTOV) 
having set the transcriber on the 
wrong track. 

cos KCU TOV eirio-Kojrov K.r.X.] The 
sentence would be rendered much 
smoother, if coy were transposed and 
placed before ovra TVTTOV. As the 
text of this epistle here and in the 

immediate neighbourhood (see be- 
low ayaira>v *.r.X.) has been much 
tumbled about, such a change would 
perhaps be justifiable. I have pre- 
ferred however to retain it in the 
place where it is found in most 
authorities, because it thus introduces 
the analogy of the relation between 
Jesus Christ and the Father as ex- 
plaining the previous injunction. 

TVTTOV TOV Trarpos] See the note on 
Magn. 6 els TVTTOV Qtov. 

I. cos ow&piov K.r.X.] ' as the 
council of God and (as) the band of 
the Apostles? As the bishop sits in 
the place of God, so too the corona 
of presbyters (Magn. 13) is compared 
to the company of the Apostles, 
seated, as it were r on thrones encir- 
cling the Eternal Throne. The ter- 
restrial hierarchy is thus a copy of 
the celestial ; comp. Rev. iv. 4 KVK\O- 
6fv TOV 6povov dpovoi e'iKO(ri Teo~(rapes' 
ical errl TOVS dpovovs ei/tocri Teo~o~apas 
irpeo-pvTepovs Ka6rjfj,vovs (comp. vii. 
n). The o-vvedpiov TOV 0eoO is de- 
fined by o-vv8e.o~fjiov reov aVooToXooz/ ; 
and the second cos-, which is dis- 
credited by external authority, inter- 
feres somewhat with the sense. On 
this comparison of the presbyters to 
the Apostles, and on the arrangement 
in the early Church which suggested 
it, see the notes on Magn. 6 o-wedpiov 
TWV aTTooroXcoi/, ib. 13 arT(f)dvov TOV 
TTpeo-fivTepiov. For this concrete sense 
of 0-vvdeo-pos, signifying an aggregate 
and so either 'a bundle' of letters 
or 'a band' of persons, see the note 
on Colossians iii. 14. It occurs with 




yap e^fJL7r\dpLOV Trjs dya7rris VJJLWV \a(3ov KCII 
5 jue0' eavTOv ev TU> eViCT/coVa) v/mwv, ov OVTO TO KCLTCL- 
r] juaBrjTeia, r\ Se TrpaoTrjs avTOv 

construction having been changed. 
vestrae 1). 5 fj,e6' eavrov] G; 

4 fyiaJv] GLA; om. g (MSS, but add. 
' eftavrov g (edd., but see the Appx). 

much the same meaning as here, 
though in a bad sense 'a confede- 
racy, a conspiracy,' in 2 Kings xi. 14, 
xii. 20, Jer. xi. 9. 

It will thus appear that both the 
comparison of the deacons to Jesus 
Christ and that of the presbyters to 
the Apostles flow naturally, though in 
separate channels, from the idea of 
the bishop as the type of God. But 
the combined result is incongruous, 
for the presbyters are made to occupy 
a lower place in the comparison than 
the deacons. We may suppose there- 
fore that the last clause TOVS de Trpeo- 
pvTcpovs K.r.X. was added as an after- 
thought by Ignatius, without noticing 
the incongruity. This is only one 
among many indications of extreme 
haste, to be explained by the circum- 
stances under which these letters 
were written (Rom. 5). 

2. xeopis TovTw K.r.X.] i.e. 'With- 
out these three orders no church has 
a title to the name, deserves to be 
called a church'. This seems to be 
the meaning of ov icaXctrtu, 'is not 
spoken of, 'is not recognised', as 
in Heb. iii. 13 axpis ou TO 
KaXelrai ; comp. Polyc. 7 os dvvijo-f 
0oopop.os Ka\flo-6ai, Magn. 14 o 

3. IT (pi ooi/] ' concerning 'which 
things\ not referring to roimov, but 
to the general injunctions of the pre- 
ceding sentence. 

4. e^ejuTrXapioi/J See the note on 
Ephes. 2. 

rye dyaTTTjs vpa>v] This is treated 
by Jacobson as a mere compliment- 

ary form of address, like 'dilectio 
vestra,' 77 tiW/Sfia vfj.wv, 'your grace,' 
'your holiness,' and the like. Pear- 
son explains 13 77 aycnrrj 'S/j.vpvaicw 
and Smyrn. 12 77' ayoTrrj ra>v aeX(/>c3i/ 
(comp. Philad. n) similarly. Any 
such usage however would be an ana- 
chronism here. For r) dydnrj vp,wv 
comp. Rom. I, 9. Polybius was an 
illustration of their affection for the 

5. eauroO] For (pavrov ; see Winer 
Gramm. xxii. p. 188. 

/caraoTTj^a] i demeanour'' \ comp. 
Plut. Vit. Marcell. 23 OVTC $o/ 
SIKT/I/ ovre 6vfjia> npos TOVS 

TOV (TVVljdoVS p,Ta(3(l\Q)V KaTCKTTr) /Lta- 

rof, aXXa Trpaa)? navv /cat KOCT/ZICOS 
ro rfjs 8i<r]S re'Xoy eVSf^o/uei'oy. The 
derivation suggests, though it does 
not require, the idea of ' composure] 
1 quietude 1 ' staidness* (comp. Orig. 
C. Cels. iii. 80 ro rfjs o-apKos eiWatfep 
Karao-rTj/xa) ; and hence <arao-rr;/iari- 
KO* signifies 'of calm demeanour,' 
as in Plut. Vit. Tib. Gracch. 2 t'&Ya 
Trpoo-WTTOV Kai /3Xe'p^cm /cat KivfaaTi 
irpaos Kal Karao-rr]fj.aTt.Kos r\v. See 
Wetstein on Tit. ii. 3, where fcara- 
O-TTJUO. occurs. The view of Hammond 
(on Tit. ii. 3), that Kardo-rijua signifies 
rank, office (from KaOia-Tavai 'to ap- 
point,' Acts vi. 3, Tit. i. 5), is desti- 
tute of support from usage. 

6. peydXr) pa6r)Tcla\ I Pet. iii. I 
tva...8ia rrjs ra>v yvvaiK&v dva(TTpo(pij$ 
avev \6yov Kfp8r)6ijo-ovTat. See also the 
language which Ignatius uses respect- 
ing Onesimus of Ephesus (Ephes. 6} 
and Damas of Magnesia (Magn. 3). 




Kai TOVS d6eovs evTp7rea-6ai. 



*LVCL wv 



ets TOVTO 


i ov] GLg*. There is a plural in A, which probably therefore read u>v. This is a 
possible reading, but evrpt-rreffOai elsewhere in Ignatius takes an accus. (see the note 
on Magn. 6). dyairuv...^^^ /c.r.X.] dyairwvras tbs ov faldofjiai favTov irorepov ypafaiv virtp TOVTOV els TOVTO ifrid-qv K.T.\. G; diligentes quod non parco 
ipsum aliqualem potens scribtre pro illo, in hoc existimer ut etc. L ; etiam quoniam 
amo vos, parco vobis scribere vchementer et glorificare; sed et non sum stifficiens sicut 
apostolus praecipere vobis, quoniam vir aliquis condemnatus sum A; ayawuv v/j.3.3 
<j> o~vvrovii}Tpov e7ri<rrerXai, tVa IJ.TI 5ow Ticrlv elvat TrpoffavTris i) eTriSeijs /c.r.X. g. 
Here the text of GL is seriously corrupt. In attempting to restore the reading 
we may observe as follows: (i) The agreement of A and g establishes one unques- 
tionable emendation; eavrov iroTepov is a corruption of vvvTovuTepov: see the lower 
note. (2) The coincidence of the same authorities shows that dyatrwv is correct, and 
that the corruption is in -ras a>s ov. Having regard to the sense as given in Ag, 

1. TOVS aOeovs] i.e. ''the heathen? 
who were a#eoi e'i> r<5 KoV/zw, Eph. ii. 
12. See also Clem. Hem. xv. 4, 
Clem. Al. Protr. 4 (p. 52), Paed. iii. 1 1 
(p. 300). Origen (c. Cels. i. i, iii. 73) 
speaks of T; afcos rroXvdcoTTjs ; comp. 
Mart. Ign. Rom. 8. On the other 
hand, the Christians themselves were 
denounced by the heathen as a#eoi, 
because they had no images or 
shrines or visible representations of 
deity; Mart. Polyc. 9 (comp. ib. 3), 
where the cry against Polycarp is 
aipf rovs dOeovs, which he himself, 
looking els Tvavra rov o^Xov TO>V fv r<5 
oraSico dvo/itoi/ edviuv, catches up and 
repeats. See also Justin Apol. i. 6 
(p. 56), ib. 13 (p. 60), Athenag. Suppl. 
3, 4, 30, Clem. Alex. Strom, vii. i 
(p. 828 sq), Minuc. Octav. 8, Tertull. 
Apol. 10 sq ; comp. Clement of Rome 
i. p. 34. Below, 10, the epithet 
adeoi seems to be applied to the 
Docetic teachers (see the note 

2. o-vvTovtoTfpov] 'more urgently* ; 

comp. Polyc. 7 vp.v TO o-vvrovov rfjs 
dXqdffjoff. This emendation is much 
less violent than it seems at first 
sight, cyNTONcorepON for G&YTO no- 
repON (see the note on aXX' ov% K.T.\. 
just below). At all events the inter- 
polator's text leaves no doubt about 
its correctness, as Pearson saw long 

3 vrrep TOVTOV] i.e. rot) fmcrKoTrov 
i5/i<ai/, or possibly 'on this matter.' 

aXX' ovx K.r.A.] The state of the 
text in the immediate neighbourhood 
(e.g. at the beginning of this chapter ; 
see also 4 of yap Xeyovres AC.r.X. and 
6 ot /cm toi K.r.X.) shows that the 
archetypal MS of GL must have 
been much worn and probably muti- 
lated in this part. Accordingly I 
have sought to remedy the text here 
on the hypothesis that some words 
have dropped out. For eavTov see 
the note on favTov above. I have 
chosen this form (rather than c'pav- 
TOV} here, because it better explains 
the corruption of a-vvrovwrfpov just 



IV. rio\\d (ppovo) ev Gear d\\' e/uLavrov /meTpco, 
'iva juLri ev Kav^rjorei ctTro A.o)/zca vvv yap juie Set TrXeov 
<po/3elcr6ai Kai /my Trpocre^etv rots (pvcriovcriv /ze* ol yap 
JULOL fjiacrriyovariv /me. dyajrco jueV yap TO 

I have substituted u/xas ot/rws. (3) These two authorities also seem to indicate 
that some words have dropped out, probably between inrtp TOVTOV and et's rouro. 
What these were it is impossible to say, owing to the capricious changes in g 
and the habitual laxity and constant omissions of A. I have hazarded a conjecture 
in accordance with the general sense of A. Hilgenfeld (Zdtschr. f. Wiss. Theol. 
xxi. p. 541 sq) has his own conjectural reading, but he does not seem to me to be 
on the right track. . 4 diardo-ffw/jiai] praecipiam L; SiaTOffao^ai Gg (but in the 
latter the form of the sentence is altered, ovx ws d,7r6(rroXos dtaratrcro/Acu). 
6 IloXXdi (ppovu h 0e] GLS Dam-Vat 3 ; multa cogito in divinis A ; om. g. 
This and the following chapter appear at the close of the Epistle to the Romans 
in 2. 7 fj.e Set TrX^] G ; me oportet phis L* (but oportet me plus Lj) ; irKeibv 

fj.e del [g] Dam-Vat i (but quoted by Max, ir\tov /te Set). 8 pri] GLSAg 

(but om. Max Dam-Vat). ol yap \tyovrts /JLOI ^acmyova-tv pe] GL; ol 

yap yue t-rraivovvTes (j,a<TTiyov<ru> g (but Max Dam-Vat quote it eTraivovvres yap fie 
/j.a(TTiyov(ri[v]} ; illi enini qui die tint mihi talia flagellant me S; def. A: see the 
lower note. 

before. For the construction of Iva 
COmp. Luke i. 43 Tr66ev /ioi rovro Iva 
e\drj ?) MTTJP /c.r.X., I Cor. iv. 3 els 
f\a^i(TTov ecrrtv Iva i50' vjitov avaKpidat, 
I Joh. iv. 17. 

4. a>v KaraKpiTos /c.r.X.] His posi- 
tion as a condemned criminal is taken 
as a type of his unworthiness in the 
sight of God. See the note on Rom. 4, 
where he uses similar language of 
his relation to the Apostles. For 
Siarao-o-w/zai comp. also Efihes. 3 ov 
8iaracr(ro/iai cos a>j/ n (with the 

IV. ' I have many deep thoughts 
in Christ. Yet I put restraints upon 
myself, lest my boasting should be 
my ruin. I have need to tremble. 
The praise of these men is a stum- 
bling-block and a torture to me. 
For indeed I earnestly desire mar- 
tyrdom, but I know not whether I 
am worthy of it. The envy of the 
devil fights against me all the more, 
because it is unseen by many. So 


then I have every need of a gentle 
spirit, which defeats the prince of 
this world/ 

6. IloXXa <poi/c3] Comp. Herod, ix. 
1 6 TroXXa (ppoveovra fjLr)8evos Kpareftv. 
Similarly Barnab. I o-vveidws e'/naurc5 
on (V vfjuv \a\yaras TroXXa 

epavTov juerpa>] '/ take the measure 
of my self \ 'I do not exceed my 
proper bounds'; a reminiscence of 
S. Paul, 2. Cor. x. 12, 13, eV am>!s 
eavrovs p,TpovvTS...yp.el.s 8e ov< fls 


7. TrXe'ov (popelo-dai] So Philad. 5 
(pojBovpai /xaXXoi/, eo? coi/ 

8. 01 yap \eyovTfs ftoi] This can 
hardly be correct as it stands, and 
probably some words have fallen 
out : see the note, 3 aXX' ovx K - T '^ 
on the mutilated state of the arche- 
typal MS in these parts. It is gene- 
rally supposed that Ignatius sup- 
presses some words addressed to 





< 'N A ' ' ^ > >/y. / J \ \ 

iVy a\\ OVK oiba ei a^ios ei^r TO yap 

oi; c^a/i/erai, e/xe Se [VAeoj/] 7roAe/*er. 
Trpaorrjros, ev r] KaraXveraL 6 ap^cov TOU aiwvos 

i 7-6] Gg (but the latter with a v. 1. 6). 2 7r\<?oj>] GL ; om. SAg. 

It was perhaps interpolated from TT\QV 0oj3e?<r0cu above. 3 TrpaorTjros] 

Gg Dam-Vat 4 Dam-Rup 6; TT/WTTJTOS Anton 9. ev 77] GLg Anton; e? 

$ Dam-Vat-Rup; dub. SA. 4 TOVTOV] txt GLSA; add. 6 5ia/3oXosg; add. 

5ia/3oXos Dam-Vat-Rup Anton (but these writers may be quoting the interpolator's 
text, not the genuine Ignatius). 5 MTJ ov] G; nonne L; ^ yap OVK g; 

om. SA. dvi>a/j,ai] GLSA; ipovMftip [g] (but 1 has poterani). vfjuv] 

LSA [g]; om. G. 6 vrjiriois otiaiv] GLg; om. SA. irapadu] G; 

Trapa6u/j.a.i g. 7 criryYj'w/Aoi'etTe] G ; vijyyvwTe g. The converse change is 

made in Rom. 6. 

him such as /xapru? ea-rj (Smith ad 
loc., Uhlhorn p. 23, Zahn /. v. A. pp. 
416, 572 sq); but there is no adequate 
reason for the suppression. With 
more probability Bunsen (Br. p. 121) 
supposes that the word p.aprvs has 
accidentally dropped out owing to 
the following (j,ao-Tiyov<riv. It seems 
probable that the title here dis- 
claimed by Ignatius would be that 
of a martyr or witness : comp. Euseb. 
H. E. v. 2 (quoted by the commen- 
tators here) ewrore ns THJLWV di e'Tnoro- 
\f)s 77 8ia \6yov fiapTvpas avrovs 
7rpo<r6i7rei/, fTrenXrja'a'ov TtiKpas' yftecas 
yap 7rapfx*P vv T *l v T V S fOprvpiae 
irpo(rr)yopiav rw Xpi(rr<5 rw TTKTT^ KOL 
d\rj6ivm ndprvpL K.T.X. Hilgenfeld 
(A. V. p. 204) suggests that the 
writer may refer to the name &o- 
cpopos ; but as this name implies 
obligation rather than renown, and 
as the writer of these epistles boldly 
claims it elsewhere, this suggestion 
has little to recommend it. Possibly 
the Syriac Version may preserve the 
true text, and we have only to add 
Totaura. Comp. Smyrn. 5 rl yap [pe] 
co^eXfT, ft e/ze crraivcl TIS } with the 

I. TO yap fflos /c.r.X.] i.e. 'the 
jealous opposition of Satan, who 

attempts to rob me of the crown of 
martyrdom'; comp. Rom. 5 ^rjOfv p.e 
frjXao'ai T(OV oparoij/ /tat T<OV aopaTa)^, 
iv a 'irja-ov Xptorov eVtrv^a), i.e. 'may 
no power of man or devil interpose 
through envy to prevent my finding 
Christ by martyrdom '. As these are 
the only places in Ignatius where 
77X0?, ^T/XoOv, occur, it seems natural 
to explain the one passage by the 
other. The interpolator therefore 
correctly interprets the sense, when 
he adds TOV ex^pov after fj\os. For 
the allusion see the next note. Other 
interpretations are; (i) 'My passion- 
ate desire, my excessive ambition, 
for martyrdom', as e.g. Voss p. 287, 
Smith p. 88, Jacobson adloc., Dressel 
ad loc. ; but the language of Ignatius 
elsewhere throughout suggests that 
he would consider such a passion as 
the reverse of blameworthy ; (2) * The 
opposition and ill-treatment from my 
guards' (Rom. 5), Nirschl p. 101 ; 
but I do not see how the connexion 
involved in yap can be explained on 
this hypothesis. 

2. TroXXois pev ov $atVrai] i. e. 
'many fail to see this jealousy of 
Satan in its true colours, and so 
unconsciously abet him.' Ignatius 
is alluding, as I suppose, more es- 


5 V. Mrj ov ^vvafjictL VJMV TO. eTrovpdvia ypd^fsai ; 
d\\d <f>o/3ov/uiai JJLYI vrjTriois ov(Tiv V[MV (3\d/3rjv 
Kctl (rvyyvtopovelTe JULOL, juuiTrore ov Svvr}6evT6s 
a-Tpayya\(x)6rJT. Kal yap eya), ov Kadon Se'Se/za* 

^TjTrore] GL ; ^77 g ; cautus enim sttm ne forte S ; et caveo [A] (omitting the 
remaining words of the sentence). The insertion in S is probably a translator's 
device to ease the awkwardness of the negatives. 8 ffTpayya\w67JTe] g; 

strangukmini L; implicemini 2; <rTpdyya\ov 0TJre G; def. A. eyw] txt 

GLSjSAg; add. Xefyw (?) Sev-Syr 4C (but om. Sev-Syr 7): see Zahn I. v. A. 
p. 180, /?. et Pol. Ep. p. 355. Ka06n] The rendering of L secundum 

qiiodcnmque seems to represent Ka.8' o n, not Kad' OTIOVV, as Zahn supposes. 
Kal] GS^Ag Sev-Syr 4C, 7 (but om. Sev-Syr 7 v. 1.); sed L. 

pecially to those Roman Christians 
who were desirous of obtaining a 
reversal of his sentence, and whose 
interposition he strongly deprecates 
in the letter to the Roman Church. 
He describes this interposition some- 
times as a (^Xoy 'jealousy' (Rom. 
5, quoted in the last note), sometimes 
as a fiao-Kavia 'envy' (Rom. 7 ftav- 
kavia ev vfjuv /IT) KaroiKfirco : COinp. ib. 
3 ovdfTTOTf e'/3a(7Kai/are ovdevi). It is a 
device of the devil who would effect 
his ruin, and he entreats the Chris- 
tians of Rome not to ally themselves 
with the Evil One (Rom. 
aiwvos TOVTOV 8iapird(rai /if 
fjujftfls ovv TWV irapovrav V/ACDI/ /So^^et 

TrXe'oi/] i. e. * all the more because 
it eludes the notice of others', if the 
word be genuine. 

TroXf/iza] ' wars against me\ For 
this construction of TroXf/zetv with an 
accusative, which is common in 
Polybius, Diodorus, and later writers, 
see Wesseling on Diod. iv. 61 : comp. 
Clem. Horn. xix. 20, Hippol. p. 166 
Lagarde. On this tendency of the 
later language to substitute the ac- 
cusative for other cases, see the notes 
on Galatians v. 7, 26. 

3. KaraXi/'erai K. T. X.] Ephes. 13 
Kadaipovvrm at dwa^fis TOV Sarava KCU 

\vfTai o oXedpos avrov ; comp. John 
xii. 31, xvi. u, i Joh. iii. 8. 

6 apxM K.T.X.] See the note on 
Ephes. 17. 

V. 'Am I not able to write about 
heavenly things ? Yet I fear lest 
such strong meat should not be suit- 
ed for you babes. Forgive me, I 
would not have you suffocated. Nay, 
I myself, though I am privileged to 
be Christ's prisoner and though I 
could unfold all the mysteries of the 
celestial hierarchy, yet do not there- 
fore hold myself to be already a dis- 
ciple. We want much, in order that 
God may not be wanting to us.' 

6. p.}) vrjTriois K.T.X.] Suggested 
by i Cor. iii. i, 2, OVK jSvvrjQrjv \a\fj- 
(rat a>s Trvevna.TiKo'is, aXX' cos (rap- 
KLVOIS, <BS vrjTriois ev XptOTO)' yaXa 
fTTOTKra.) ov /3pt5/Lia' OUTTO) yap edvvacrOf, 
dXX' ovde fn vvv 8vva(rdf. 

7. o-uyyi/co/ioi/eTre /uoi] ' bear with 
me ', i. e. * when I refuse to give you 
this strong meat' : comp. Rom. 6 
arvyyvcore poi. On the form crvyyvon- 
liovelv see Lobeck Phryn. p. 382. 

Xa>pij<rai] ( to take it /;/.' The 
word is used transitively again 
Smyrn. 6. 

8. oTperyyaXco^re] * be choked*. 
The word occurs Tobit ii. 3. Other 
forms are orpayyaXaco, 

II 2 



voeiv TO. eTrovpdvia KCII ras TOTro^ecna? ras 
dyye\iKas KCLI TS tn>dTa<ri$ rets dp^ovTiKas, opaTa 

i dtivafjiai voeiv] gSjSA Sev-Syr (twice); Swa^evos (om. yoeti') GL* (not 
potens scire, as it is commonly read). The consensus of authorities excludes 
the supposition that voeiv is a gloss: see the lower note. 2 nal] 

GLS a [A][g] Sev-Syr 4c; om. Sev-Syr 7. 3 ^77] G (written et 

577) Lg Sev-Syr (twice); om. S^A. ^#777775 et>0 GLS (discipuhis 

sum mihi] A g Sev-Syr (twice); discipuli estis mihi Sj (doubtless an error 
of transcription in the Syriac, pJVin for JV1!"I). 4 yfuv] GSj 

Sev-Syr 4c; vobis L (the MSS, but doubtless a scribe's error for nobis)\ 
fjioi [g]. For SA, which have a singular, see the next note. 

For the metaphor see Hieron. Epist. 
84 (i. p. 525) 'ne parvuli atque lacten- 
tes solidioris cibi edulio suffocemur', 
Op. Imperf. in Matt. Horn, xxxviii 
(Chrysost. Op. vi. p. clxi) 'sicut enim 
infanti si dederis fragmentum panis, 
quoniam angustas habet fauces, offo- 
catur magis quam nutritur ; sic et 
homini imperfecto in fide et puero 
sensibus si altiora mysteria sapientiae 
volueris dicere, anglistam habens 
fidem et sensum magis scandalizatur 
quam aedificatur' (comp. xlix, ib. p. 
ccv), passages quoted by Pearson 
(V. I. p. 517, and ad loc.}. 

ov KaQoTi dedepai] Comp. Ephes. 
3 ei yap /cat Sede/zat ev TO) 6v6p.aTi, 
ov7TO> a7T7prto-/iat fv 'irjaov Xptoro)' 
vvv yap apxyv e^co rov fiadrjTeveardaL. 
On the manner in which Ignatius 
regards his bonds, see the note there. 

I. voflv] 'am competent 
to understand*. For this expression 
comp. Hermas Sim. ix. 9, 14; so 
Eph. iii. 4 8vvao-6f...vof)(rai. Pear- 
son saw that this must be substi- 
tuted for 8wdfifvos ', and his opinion 
has been confirmed beyond question 
by the versions and citations dis- 
covered since. The change is not 
great; AyNAMGNoei for AYNAMGNOC 
(Svfa/iat being written dvva^c}. 

ras TonoQeo-ias K.r.A.] 'the disposi- 
tions of the angels- \ i.e. their distribu- 
tion in their several ranks or in the 
several celestial spheres : comp. Clem. 

Alex. Strom, vii. 2 (p. 833) -q 
ayy f\ o 6 f cr i a KOI drj pe^pis ^/J-iav av- 
rS)v aXXoi VTT a\\ois ft- cvos Kai di evos 
(rco^o/ifj/ot re KOL cr<&ovTes Siarerci^a- 
rat. For rorrodfo-ia 'a topographical 
description' see Cic. ad Att. i. 13, 16. 
Just such a roTTodforia of the celestial 
hierarchy is given in the Test. Duod. 
Pair. Levi 3, where the different 
ranks of angels with their several 
names are distributed through the 
seven heavens. The large space 
which angelology occupied in Jewish 
and Christian speculation in the 
Apostolic age, appears from the in- 
cidental language of S. Paul; e.g. 
Ephes. i. 20, 21 inrepdva ndcrrjs dp%fjs 
Kal eov(rias KOI Svi/a/Aetay *ut Kvpiorrjros 
KOI iravros ovo^aros oi>o/uao/xei/ov 
K.T.A., Col. i. 1 6 TO. opara <at ra aopara, 
c'iTf flpovot etre KvpiorrjTfS f'irc o.p\al 
eire eovcriai, and the condemnation 
of dpYfcrKela TO>V dyyeXav Col. ii. 1 8. 
On this whole subject see the notes 
Colossians i. 16, ii. 18 ; and to the 
references there given add Papias 
(Routh Rel. Sacr. i. p. 14), Hermas 
Vis. iii. 4, and (for Jewish angelology) 
Gfrb'rer Jahrh. des Heils I. p. 357 sq, 
Eisenmenger Enid. Judenth. II. p. 
374, Edersheim Life and Times of 
Jesus ii. p. 748 sq. See also the 
discussion about angels in Orig. c. 
Cels. vi. 30 sq, especially c. 40, where 
Celsus brings this charge against 
the Christians, ecapaKevai irapa Ttai 




T Kai dopara, Trapd TOVTO %$* 
7ro\\d yap tj/uuv \6i7rei, 'iva Qeov /m 
5 VI. HapaKaXco ovv v/uLas, OVK eyco d\\' 77 

GLSj Sev-Syr; airo\ei<J>du [g]. The whole sentence TroXXa... 
Xeuru(j.e0a is thus translated in the Oriental versions ; multum enim deficinms 
ne a deo destitiiamur Sj ; multum enim deficiens sum a perfectione quae digna 
est deo 2; sed quod valde deficiens sum a similitudine dei A. Thus 2A seem 
to give loose paraphrases of the original Syriac rendering, which is preserved 
in Sj. After this sentence 2 has estate incolumes perfecte in patientia iesu christi 
dei nostri) which forms the conclusion of the Epistle to the Romans (see on Rom. 
10). 5 i] dyd-m]] GLSjAg; ^ x&P 1 * Dam-Rup i (see i Cor. xv. 10). 

of cognisance. So again in Smyrn. 
6 (see the note). For opara /cat aopara 
see also Rom. 5. 

3. Trapa rovro] l on this account*'. 
see Rom. 5 (with the note). 

fj,a6rjTT]s dpi] See the notes on 
Ephes. i, 3. 

4. TroXXa yap /c.r.X.] i.e. 'we still 
lack much, that we may not be left 
behind by God, may not fail in find- 
ing God', where XetVeo-0ai GeoC is 
the negative of ftrtrvx^v Qeov, a 
favourite Ignatian phrase (see the 
note on Magn. i). For the con- 
struction here comp. Hermas Vis. iii. 
I o-oi 6"e TroXXa Xf tTret iva /c.r.X. ; and 
for the characteristic Ignatian play 
on XeiVet, Xet7rco/Lie$a, see the note on 
Smyrn. 5 p.aXXoi> Se /c.r.X. 

f)\uv\ i.e. 'you and myself alike.' 
VI. ' I therefore entreat you yet 
not I but the love of Christ to eat 
only the wholesome food of Christi- 
anity and to abstain from the noxious 
herbs of heresy. These false teach- 
ers mix poison with Jesus Christ; 
they impose upon men with their 
plausible professions ; and the deadly 
drug, thus disguised with a sweet 
flavour, is thoughtlessly taken, though 
death is its consequence.' 

5. napafcaXco ovv /c.r.X.] The form 
of the sentence is here suggested by 
I Cor. vii. IO 7rapayye'XXa>, OVK eyca 
aXXa 6 Kvptoy. 

7rpeo-/3ure'poij rfjs T^ere'pas So^y rvy- 
Xavovcri /3i/3Xt'a /3ap/3apa dat/ioz/coi/ ovo- 
fj.ara e^oira /cat reparetay. For the 
passage here comp. Smyrn. 6 ra 
firovpdvta <al 77 So^a rav dyyeXcof Kai oi 
ctpxovres oparot re /cal aoparot. 

2. TCIS (Tvo-rdo-eis x.r.X.] ' the as- 
semblages, musterings, of the hea- 
venly rulers'\ comp. edviical o-vora- 
o-ety, Polyb. xxiv. I. 3, xxx. 10. 6. 
The iip%ovTf.s here, like the ap^ai in 
S. Paul, are angelic beings : comp. 
Justin Dial. 36 (p. 255) oi eV rots 
oupai>ols raxOfVTfs VTTO Tov Qfov apxov- 
Tts (quoted by Jacobson on Smyrn. 
6). For dpxovriKos see Celsus in 
Orig. c. Cels. vi. 27 cYcpaw Se T&V \e- 
yofjLevaiv dpxovTiKotv K.r.X. (comp. 33), 
from which it appears that in some 
systems of angelology op^ci/roco! de- 
noted a particular class of the ce- 
lestial hierarchy. Jacobson would 
translate o-uo-rao-eis 'the conflicts', 
comparing Ephes. 13 TroXf/uoy eVoupa- 
viwv Ka\ fTTiyfiuv, but such an idea 
seems to be quite inappropriate to 
this context. The word occurs again 
Rom. 5. 

opara re KCU aopara] The know- 
ledge previously mentioned (ra eVov- 
pdvid) has reference to the things 
invisible; but opara are also named 
here (after the precedent of S. Paul, 
Col. i. 1 6) for the sake of including 
all things which fall within the range 

1 66 



XpKTTOv, fjiovn TY\ XpLCTTiavfj Tpocj)rj 
d\\OTpias Se PoTavrjs 

JJTIS ecrTiv aipeo"is' 

I 'ITJCTOU Xptcrrou] GLSjg; rou Kvpiov TJ/JLWV 'I. X. A Dam-Rup. 
GL; xP LffTiCLViK l Dam-Rup; christianismi A; gratiarum actionis 
Si; al. g. xP^ "^ e -" c * 7r ^X eo '^ e ] LS X A; xP^ ff ^ at ---^' ir ^X '^ ai G Dam-Rup; 

al. g: see the lower note. 3 ot /cat $ 7rape/x7rX^/foi;criv] ot xaipol TTO,- 

pe^Tr\KOV<nv G; /cat 7rape/ut,Tr\{Kov<riv Dam-Rup; qttae et inquinatis implicat L; 
Kal TOV Ibv TrpoairXtKovTes TTJS ir\dvr}$ ry yXvuelq. Trpoffrjyopia g. The renderings 
of the passage in the Oriental Versions are: eortim qui commiscent semetipsos 
in (cum) jesu christo Sj; jam commiscent semetipsos cum jesu christo A. They 
may have had simply ol /cat irape^ir\^KovaLv and supplied the semetipsos to make 
sense. The rendering of L perhaps arises from a further corruption of the 
corrupt text of G, oiK(uponrape/\eKovffLV being read ot Kal pvTrap' e/j,ir\Kovffu> ; 

I. Tptf>ii\ Comp. Rom. 7 
i rpo(j)fj 

17 So- 

The imperatives, besides 
being better supported than the in- 
finitives, are more in the manner of 
Ignatius, who prefers this mood with 
TrapaicaXelv ; see below 12 TrapctKaXei 
...dta/AeWre, Rom. 4 Trapa/KaXco, 
[j.r)...yevr)<Td, Philad. 8 TrapaKaXto Se 
vjj,asj p.r)8(v Trpacrfrere (where the infi- 
nitive Trpda-creiv has been substituted 
in some copies). So too 7rapaiva> 
with an imperative in Magn. 6. The 
exception is Polyc. I TrapaicaXeo (re 
npoo-dflvm K.r.X. 

2. poravrjs] Heresy or error is 
called (3oTavr), a rank weed, a noxious 
herb, again in Efihes. 10, Philad. 3. 
For the meaning of Pordvrj see the 
note on the former passage. In the 
Gospel of the Egyptians our Lord 
was reported as having said irao-av 
(pdye ftoTavrjv, rrjv 8e TTiKpiav e%ovcrav 
p.r) (pdyys, Clem. Alex. Strom, iii. 9 

(p- 54i). 

3. ot Kal tea] This emendation 
involves a very simple change, K&IICOI 
for K&ipoi. For the construction 01 
(i.e. 01 alpcTLKoi understood from the 
preceding cupeo-i?) comp. e.g. Thucyd. 
VI. 80 aTTo rieXo7roi/v^(rov TrapfcrofjievTjs 
w^eXfiay, ot rrSi/Se Kpeucraovs clvl TO 
irapdnav, and see Kiihner 356, II. 

p. 49 sq., Matthiae 435. For the 
metaphor of toy, as used here, comp. 
Hernias Sim. ix. 26, Clem. Horn. 
x. 14. See also Clem. Horn. xix. 15 

OVX fpTTTU>V 6 iOS flpyd^fTO, OV TtoV 

KaKutv ftoravav al eVe'pyetat, for the 
same connexion of words as here. 
Zahn refers to Iren. i. 27. 4 'Christi 
quidem Jesu nomen tanquam irrita- 
mentum proferentes, Simonis autem 
impietatem varie introducentes, mor- 
tificant multos...per dulcedinem et 
decorem nominis amarum et malig- 
num principis apostasiae serpentis 
venenum porrigentes eis.' 

7rapfp,7r\Kovo-iv] l infuse\ An ob- 
jection has been raised to such an 
emendation as the one adopted on 
the ground that it 'vitio incongruae 
metaphorae laborat' (Churton in 
Pearson V. I. p. 103). If indeed the 
derivation of the word be scrutinized, 
we have in this expression 'inter- 
weave poison' a combination of me- 
taphors as violent as e.g. in i Tim. 
vi. 19 diro6r]o-avpiovTa$ QepeXiov. A 
liberty however might well be con- 
ceded to an inexperienced writer like 
Ignatius, which the greatest of mo- 
dern poets has asserted, when he 
speaks of 'taking arms against a sea 
of troubles'. But usage entirely jus- 
tifies the combination. It appears 



I6 7 

01 Kai ito 7rapejUL7r\eKOV(riv 'Itjcrovv Xpicrrov, 
, aiaTrep OavdcnfJiov 

comp. Ephes. 16, where pinrapos is rendered inquinatus (the only passage where 
the word occurs in Ignatius). The paraphrase of g points to the true reading. 
Voss first suggested ot /cat to??, which some later editors have accepted. I 
have substituted t'y for tots, as nearer to the traces of G, as corresponding 
to the singular in g, and as more natural in itself: see the lower note. 
Kara^LOTTLarevofJifvoi] Dam-Rup (see the note on Ephes. 16 /ca/co5i5acr/caXia) ; 
/car' afyav iri<sr^vo^voi G; om. L (perhaps because the translator could make 
nothing of the unusual word) ; ut simplices credere faciant A ; ita ut credatur-iis 
(credanfur) S^ al. g. The renderings of ASj are paraphrases of Karaio- 

that the words napcfj.Tr\fKfiv, 
ir\oKT], were employed especially in 
this connexion, as medicinal or culi- 
nary terms; e.g. by the physician 
Diphilus of Siphnus in Athen. ii. 
p. 57 C ot <rTp6fti\oi...6topaKos Kadap- 

TlKol Sta TO fX lV 7ra P 6 flTTfTrXf yp.VOV 

TO pr]Tii>(t>8(s, Agatharchides in Photius 
Bibl. ccl. 12 TOVTOV [TOV Kapirov TOV 
rraXiovpov] o~v(j.p.iyfVTos /coXXoSSes 1 /xci/ 

TO TTCLV 7TO\V fJLO\\OV yivfTCll, doKfl 8* 

oiov j)5uo"/xaros rj nape /j.7r\OKrjs rdiv 
f\ftv. The more common words 
however in this sense in medical 
writers are the single compounds, 
7rapcnr\K(iv, naparrXoKT] ; e.g. Galen 
Op. xiv. p. 1 68 (ed. Kiihn) if pay /3o- 
ravrjs iniKpov TL TrapcnrXfKtov, ib. p. 367 

dfOVTO.1 TT)S TtoV CTTV<p6vT(t)V 7rap(Ur\O<TJS 

...Trapa.7r\Kiv ri r<av (TTV(p6vTO)v, ib. 
p. 398 (TTvpaxa rrjv vypav fti'as eXato) 
TrapaTrXeKe, Sext. Empir. Pyrrh. i. 
IO2 ^v/xcoi/ TIVWV napcnrXoKT], Clem. 
Alex. Strom, i. I (p. 325) 

See also Macar. Magn. iii. 37 

(? J 33) <TVp.TT\f^aVTS... r Lv T) 

TOV 8ia/3f/3X^/xi/ou (pappaKov 
K.r.X.; comp. ib. iv. 25 TO oi/o/xa TOV Xpt- 
orou avfjL7r\(iKev Tols vSao~i. Thus the 
language here will have a parallel in 
the somewhat elaborate medical meta- 
phor of Polyc. 2. The verb Trape/mXe'- 
Kftv occurs in other connexions in 

Clem. Horn. vi. 19 and ib. Ep. Clem. 5. 
Karaio7rioreuo/zei>oi] t 'imposing by 
their professions of honesty' 4 '; comp. 
Polyb. xii. 17. I Iva. Se /LIJ) dogwpev TO>V 
avftpav fcara^ioTTio-reuea-^ai, 
.ias Trapara^ecas /c.r.X. 
For the bad sense of d|to7rtaroj, 'spe- 
cious, plausible', and so 'an impostor/ 
see the parallel passage Philad. 2 
vroXXoi yap XVKOI a^ioTrioroi ydovT) Kcnty 
at^/zaXcoTt'^ouo-iv TOVS deoftpopovs (with 
the note). From this comes the verb 
dgionto-Tfvc a-dai, which on the analogy 
of d<ra>reiW0eu, 8ia\KTiKVfo-6ai, 7Tp- 
Trepfveaflai, TrapafioXevfcrdai, etc. (see 
the note on Philippians ii. 30), sig- 
nifies 'to play the a^iomo-Tos ', 'to 
make loud professions of honesty'. 
It does not appear to occur in extant 
standard writers, but is recognised 
by Hesychius s. v. ppevOveo-Qai, 

and by Suidas s. v. dvaTrcio-Trjpiav, 
dioTTio-TfvovTai 8e ot StSao-KaXoi Xe- 
yovTfs K.r.X. (from the scholiast on 
Arist. Ntib. 866). Hence the com- 
pound KaTaio7rioT;eo-$at, 'to over- 
power, or impose upon, by playing the 
part of an a|io7no-ros', on the analogy 
of KaTaXaoVV6(r0ai, 


etc. There can be no 
doubt about the reading here, though 

1 68 


OTrep 6 d'yvowv dSecos Xafji/Sdvei iv r$ovr\ 





i OTTp...To aTTodavew] see the lower note; oirep 6 ayvouv ydews \a/j.j3dvei lv 
)' Kaicei (so written and punctuated) TO aTro6aveii> G ; 6'irep 6 ayvouv ?/5^ws Xa/x- 
fiavei, h TjSovy KaKrj TO airodaveiv Dam-Rup ; quod qui ignorat delectabiliter accipit et 
in delectations mala mori L (where et is added to help out what seemed to be a 
defective construction) ; ita ut is qui non novit in voluntate mortem accipiat Sj ; ut 
ii quos non cognoscunt aim voluptate mortem accipiant A. 3 roi>s rotoi/rovs] 

Dam-Rup [g] (but in g the verb is a,<r(f>a\lfco-6e) ; rots TOIOVTOIS G. 4 GeoO] 

it depends solely on the quotation in 
the Parall. Rnpef. 

- i. oivo/xeXiroff] l< wine mixed with 
honey'', comp. Polyb. xii. 2. 7. Dios- 
corides (Mat. Med. v. 16) explains 
wherein it differs from olvos /zcXirtrT;?, 
how it is made, and what are its me- 
dicinal qualities. For the idea in the 
text comp. Theoph. ad Autol. ii. 12 
KaBancp (f)app.aKov TI dr)\r)TijpLov <rvy- 
KpaOev /neXirt fj o'lvo) TJ erepw rti/t ro TTOLV 
Troifl j3Xa/3epoi/ K.r.X., Anon. adv. Marc. 
i. 85 (Tertull. Op. ii. p. 783, Oehler) 
'dulcique cruentum circumfert mi- 
seris mixtum cum melle venenum', 
Lactant. D. I. v. i 'incautos animos 
facile irretire possunt suavitate ser- 
monis...mella sunt haec venenum 
tegentia...circumlinatur modo pocu- 
lum caelesti melle sapientiae', Ephrem 
Syrus Op. Syr. n. p. 554 A 'et pro- 
pinavit simplicibus amaritudines (ve- 
nena) dulcedine commixtas' (speak- 
ing of the hymns of the heretic 
Bardesanes). Thus these impostors 
were mimicking genuine physicians, 
who disguised their curative drugs 
in the same way : Plut. Mor. p. 13 D 
tarpoi ra niKpa TO>V (pappaKtov rols 
yKvKccri ^u/ioTy Kara^iyvvvres rrjv re'p- 

\|^ll/ 7Tl TO (TVfJL<ppOV TtdpodoV fVpOV, 

Julian Caesar, p. 314 OVK olo-Oa, cJ 
IIpo/3e, on ra Trucpa (papp.aKa p-iyvvvres 
ol tarpoi rw /AeXtKpciro) 7rpoo-<pe'pou0-i; 

K.r.X.] Comp. Clem. Horn. 
x. 1 2 o\> yap, ei ri$ 7rpoo-Xa/3oi 
dyvowv, OVK 

' 'without apprehension^ as 
e.g. Plut. Mor. p. 477 aSeeos Kat ai/u- 
TroTrrtoy. I venture on this conjecture, 
which is suggested by the interpola- 
tor's paraphrase iva o nivcov, rfj y\vKv- 
rarr] K\airf\9 TTOIOTTJTI rrjv 

iraprj. The alternative would be to 
eject 7/Sewy altogether, as a gloss of eV 
7/Soi^. At the close of the sentence 
the reading of the Greek MS /ca/ctT ro 
ditoQavfiv is tempting; but the paral- 
lel passage Philad. 2 (quoted above 
on KaragioTno-Tcvofjifvoi) is decisive in 
favour of KOK?? (rather than Ka/<et), 
and this is also supported by the 
great preponderance of authori- 

VII. 'Therefore be on your guard 
against such men. Your best security 
is to shun pride and self-sufficiency, 
and to hold fast to Jesus Christ, to 
your bishop, and to the ordinances 
of the Apostles. He only is pure, 
who is within the pale of the altar. 
In other words, he that acts apart 
from the bishop and presbyters and 
deacons is not pure in conscience.' 

3. rov? TOIOVTOVS] This correction 
is necessary, as (pvXdo-o-eo-dai does 
not take a dative. A similar cor- 




5 'Irjcrov Xpicrrov Kai TOV eTTKTKOTrov Kai TCOV 
TWV aVocrroXft)!/. 6 e'f/ros 6vo-ia<TTrjpiov wV Ka6apos e<TTiv y 
6 Se e/cT(k 6vcriaorTripiov wV ov KaBapos 


GL; om. A. It seems however to have been in the text used by the interpolator 
(either with or without 'Itjcrov XpioToC), for g has elvai axupiarovs deov-.-aldefode 5 
Kai rbv tiriff KOTTOV v^iCov ws ~x,piffTov, Kada v/juv ol fj,a.Kdpioi diera^avro ci/TrooToAot. See 
the lower note. 7 6 d...(jv ov Kadapos tcrTiv] qui vero extra altare est 

non mundtts est L; om. G (doubtless owing to homoeoteleuton). The clause is 
recognised in g, where the sentence is abridged 6 5 ^/cr6s wv oiVos tvriv 6 x u P^ 
K.T.\. For the whole sentence 6 3 ^KTO^.^TOVT^TLV A has merely et: the trans- 
lator perhaps had before him a text with the same omission as in G and, finding 
nothing to explain rovr&mi', struck it out and substituted a connecting particle in 
its place. 

rection was required in the MS, 
Magn. 6 eWpeVfO-tfe aXAr/Xotr. 

4. fir) <f)v(riovp.vois] Comp. Magn. 
12 oiSa on ov (f)vcriov<rd(. In both 
passages Ignatius refers to the pride 
of self-assertion, which rebels against 
lawful authority. 

Geoi)] Probably this word should 
be omitted with the Armenian Ver- 
sion. Though Ignatius frequently 
speaks of Jesus Christ as God, it 
may be questioned whether he ever 
so styles Him without some explana- 
tory or qualifying phrase ; see the 
note on Ephes. inscr. TOV Qeov qn&v. 
Hence the awkwardness of the ex- 
pression is at once apparent. For 
other doubtful cases see Smyrn. 6, 
10, with the notes. If Qtov be re- 
tained, it should perhaps be separated 
from Xpio-rov, 'of God, of Jesus 
Christ, and of the bishop, etc.'; but 
the absence of the connecting par- 
ticle is hardly consistent with the 
genius of the Greek language. In- 
stances of such omission occur in- 
deed in the existing Greek text of 
Ignatius; 12 els Tifj.rjv irarpos, 'irjo-ov 
Xptorou, KCU TO>V aTrocrroAooi', PJiilad. 9 
Ti)v napovo-iav TOV Kvpiov r//zcoi> 'iT/a-oO 
Xpicrrou, TO Trddos avTov, KOI TTJV dva- 
o-Tao-iz>, but in both passages there are 
good grounds for questioning the 

reading (see the notes). 

5. rc5i/ 8iaTayp.aT<i)V K.r.A.] The 
reference is doubtless to the institu- 
tion of episcopacy. Early tradition 
points to S. John as mainly instru- 
mental in establishing an episcopal 
organisation in Asia Minor, and to 
him more especially Ignatius may be 
referring here; comp. Clem. Alex. 
Quis Div. Salv. 42 (p. 959) oVou 
p.ev fTTio-K&irovs Karao-r^o-wi', OTTOV 8e 
oXas KK\r)(rias app.oo'wv K.T.A., Fragin. 
Murat. p. 33 (ed. Tregelles) * cohor- 
tantibus condiscipulis et episcopis 
suis', Tert. adv. Marc. iv. 5 'ordo 
episcoporum ad originem recensus 
in loannem stabit auctorem.' So 
Irenaeus iii. 3. 4 says of Polycarp 

WTO OTTOO-ToAcoi' KClTaO-Tadfls IS Tr)V 

*Ao*tai' ev Trj fv Sp.vpVT) KK\r/(Tia eVt- 

o-KOTToy, while elsewhere (v. 20. i), 
more especially in reference to the 
Asiatic elders, he speaks of 'epis- 
copi quibus apostoli tradiderunt ec- 
clesias'. See Philippians p. 212 sq. 

6. o CVTOS 0wruMrrr)piov /c.r.A.] For 
the meaning of Ovo-iao-Trjpiov, 'the 
place of sacrifice', 'the court of the 
altar', and for the application here, 
see the note on Ephes. 5. It sym- 
bolizes the congregation lawfully 
gathered together under its duly ap- 
pointed officers. 


TLVy 6 X^plS eTTKTKOTTOV Kal 7rp(T/3vT6pioV Kal 

Trpdcrcrwv TI, OVTOS ov Kadapos eorTLV rrj (rvveiSt 

VIII. OVK 67rel eyvwv TOIOVTOV TI ev vuuv, d\\a 

G; rod e7ri07co7rou g. 7r/)e<r/3i;Te/>iou] GL*; TWJ> 

rtpuv g; sacerdotibus A (this is the common rendering of Trpeo-fivrtpiov in A, and 
therefore it determines nothing as to the reading). Kal diaK6j>wv] Kal diaKovov 

GL; Kal ruv dtaKovw g (having inserted articles before the previous words); om. A. 
i irpcurffwv TI] GL ; TI irpdo-ffuv g. 4 Trpoopwv] irpb bpuv G. 5 TTJV] 

written above the line, though prima manit, in G. Hence it is omitted by many 
editors. 6 dvaKTr/craffde] Cotelier; ava.KTLffa.ffde G (which similarly in 


the note on Magn. 7. 

didKowv] This alteration is neces- 
sary with Trpeo-fivrepiov, which seems 
certainly to be the correct reading. 
If Trpeo-jSvrepov could be retained, 
diaKovov might stand. The alterna- 
tive is to eject /cat dianwov as a later 
interpolation, since it is wanting in 
the Armenian. 

2. Kadapos /c.r.X.j Comp. I Tim. 
iii. 9, 2 Tim. i. 3, ev KaOapq avveidij- 


VIII. ' I do not say this, because 
you have already fallen into such 
errors, but I wish to put you on your 
guard against the snares of the devil. 
Therefore be gentle-minded; renew 
yourselves in faith, which is the 
flesh, and love, which is the blood, 
of Jesus Christ. Let no man enter- 
tain any ill-will against his neigh- 
bour. Give no opportunity to the 
heathen, lest through the folly of a 
few the whole body of God's people 
be evil spoken of, and thus the woe 
denounced by the prophet fall upon 

3. OVK eVei] i.e. Ov Aeyo> raCra 
eWi K.r.X. : see Magn. 1 1 (with the 

4. 7rpo<puAd0-(ra>] l l keep watch 
over you in good time\ as Smyrn. 4 

7rpo(puAa(7crcD fit vfj,as a?ro ratv Orjpicov 

TUP dvdp<0noiJ.6p(p(0v'. comp. Magn. 
ii. In Xen. Me?n. ii. 7. 14 it is used 
of the watch-dog, who is represented 
as saying to the sheep cyw dpi 6 
Koi vpas avras (rcoa>z/ wore pr/rc VTT' 

ap7rae(T0ai, eVet vpfls "ye, ft pr) fya> 
rrpo(pv\dTToipi vpas, ovd' av ve- 
peo-flai dvvaio-Qf K.T.\. The same 
metaphor of the flock guarded against 
the attacks of wild beasts appears 
to underlie both these Ignatian pas- 
sages. The false teachers are wolves 
in sheep's clothing : comp. Philad. 2 

07TOU fie 6 TTOLprjV (TTIV, K 

aKoXovtfetre* TroXXoi yap \VKOL a 

TOI x.r.X., with the end of 6 in this 


ras evedpas] Comp. Philad. 6. 

5. TTpaiJTrddeiav] The word occurs 
only once in the Greek Bible, I Tim. 
vi. ii, where the common text has 
TrpaorT/ra, which the interpolator sub- 
stitutes here also. The verb Ttpavna- 
faiv (npaonadelv) occurs Philo de Prof. 
I (i. p. 547), and the substantive 
Trpavndfaia ib. de Abr. 37 (II. p. 31). 

6. dvaXaftovres] < taking up\ i.e. 
'as your proper arms of defence'; 
comp. e.g. Eph. vi. 13, 16, ai>aXa/3rre 
rr]V 7rai>07rXt'ai>, dvaXafiovres rbv flvpeov. 

ai/a/cT^o-ao-^e] ' recover, refresh '. 
This is doubtless the right reading. 
The phrase dvaKrao-Qai eavrov is com- 


7rpo<pv\d(ro-(t) vfjids OVTO.S fj.ov 



TOV $ia{3d\ov. i)^e?9 ovv T^V TrpaiJTrdQeiav 
vTes dva.KTYi<raa'()e eavrovs ev TrlcrTei, o e(7Tiv 
TOV KvpioVy Kat ev dyd-Try, o <TTIV cu/ma ' Irjcrov 

Philad. 6 writes Kriffuvrat. for KT-fjauvrai.}; recreate L; reqiiiescere-facite S X A: see 
the lower note. o] quodl,; 6s G; quae (or quod) Sj; al. Ag. The whole clause 
runs in S lt in fide quae (quod) est in spe (M12D1) et in convivio (juctinditate 
NDD132) sanguinis jcsu christi (where ayairr) is taken in the sense of a love-feast, 
comp. Sniyrn. 8) ; in A, fide et spe et coena sanguinis christi (where, as Petermann 
foresaw, there is a confusion of the Syriac &OD2 caro and N~QD spes). 

mon; e.g. Epict. Diss. iii. 25. 4, Jos. 
Ant. ix. 6. 4, Dion Chrys. Or. vii. 
p. 223. As it denotes recovery after 
fatigue or hunger or sickness or 
wounds or the like, we must suppose 
that the peril of the Trallians was 
more serious than Ignatius was will- 
ing to state in words (Oi5/c Ve! eyi/o>i> 
K.T.X.). The metaphor in both dva- 
Xaftelv and avanTCKrOai eavrovs is 
probably taken from campaigning; 
comp. Polyc. 6. If the other verb 
(avaKri^fiv) had been used, the words 
would have been dvaKTiaare cavrovs 
rather than avaKricracrOf favrovs. 

o eo-Tiv a-apt; K.r.X.] This is the 
food which their refreshment de- 
mands. The reference is only indi- 
rectly to the eucharist. The eucha- 
ristic bread and wine, while repre- 
senting the flesh and blood of Christ, 
represent also faith and love. Faith 
is the flesh, the substance of the 
Christian life ; love is the blood, the 
energy coursing through its veins and 
arteries. See esp. Clem. Alex. Pacd. 
i. 6 (p. I2l) /Spoofia 8e 77 TricrTis els 

<TTfp(fjLVio)Tepa TTJS O.KOTJS V7rcipxov(ra 
d7TiKa^Tai...<al 6 Kvptos... 
ijvcyKev 8ta (TVftjSoXoo 
/zov ray (rapxay, etTrcoV, Kat lit ere 
TO af/xa, tvapycs TTJS TTiVrecoy KOI 

eVayyeXtay ro TTOTI/JLOV aXXrjyopwv, 81 
<av TI KK\T)(Tia...a.p8Tai re /cat auerai, 
(rvyKpoTflrai re KOL (rvfjLTnjyvvTai e'^ 
dp.(polv, (Tco/zaroy p.ev rrjs TTiVrecos, "^v^s 
8e rrjs fXnidos, d){T7rep /cat o Kvptoy e'/c 
vapKos /cat at/xaros' rep yap ovrt atjua 
rrjs TriWecoff ?) IXnis, e'(p' ys avve^frai, 
Ka.Qa.TTfp VTTO ^Isvxrjsj y irians' dicnrvev- 
(Taa"f]s 8 r^y cXiridos SLKTJV etcpvevros 
atptaroy ro {OTIKOV rrjs TrtVrecoy VTTCK- 
Xverat, where the application of the 
image is exactly the same as here, 
except that 'hope' is substituted for 
'love'. Zahn (/. v. A. p. 349 sq) 
explains the words here differently ; 
he supposes that faith and love are 
so described, as the means whereby 
we participate in the flesh and blood 
of Christ, i.e. are united with Him. 
See Rom. 7 aprcy 0eou #e'Xa> o ecrriv 
o~ap TOV Xpto"rou...<at Tro/xa 6e\a> TO 
alpa avrov o e'cmi/ dycnrr) a(f)6apTO$ (with 
the note). In Philad. 5 Trpoa-cpuyeoi/ 
rc5 euayyeXto) coy crap/ct 'lijo^ou, we have 
a different application of the eucha- 
ristic metaphor. See also the notes 
on Ephes. 5, Smyrn. 6, 12. 

For the neuter relative o, referring 
to the ferninine substantives irioret, 
dydnT] respectively, see the notes on 
Magn. 9, 10: for the combination of 
'faith' and 'love', see the note on 
Ephes. i. 




XpKTTOv. /mrfieis v/ua)v KCITO. TOV TrAf/cnW 

dfyopjULas S/Sore rols eOv&Tiv, iva fj.ri Si 

a(j)povas TO ev6eov 7r\fj6os (3\a(r(f>riimfJTai' OY'AI yap 

B A AC HM 6?T<M. 5 

i ir\r}<rtoi>] g Dam-Vat 6. This is also the reading of G, though several edd. 
print ir\ir)<riov, which appears also in the Casanatensian copy. ex^rw] 

txt G; add. TI here, Dam- Vat; add. TI after vpuv g; add. aliqiiid (before 
habeat) L; add. simultatem A. 3 rb tvdeov] Dam-Vat; TO ^ 6e$ G; ^w<7 

/ ^ L (but in 10 &0eoi is translated sine ded}\ dei A. The reading Zvdeov 
perhaps underlies the loose paraphrase of g, where 6 X67os /cat TJ Si5a<rKa\la is 
substituted for TO ZvQeov Tr\rjdos. /3Xacrc/>77/i^Tat] ^SXatr^r/yuerrai G. 

I. e^eVw] So ex tv Tl *<" TWOS, 
Matt. v. 23, Mark xi. 25 ; e^fw KaTa 
TWOS, oTt K.T.X. Apoc. ii. 4, 20. Zahn 
refers to Hermas Mand. ii. eeis KCITO 
TOV aSfX^ov, 6"/;;/. ix. 23 01 tar aXX?)- 
Xcoj/ exovTfs (comp. Vis. iii. 6), for the 
omission of the accusative here. 
Comp. also 2 Cor. v. 12 e^ew Trpos 
Twa, 'to be able to answer another'. 
The upper note shows how TI is 
supplied differently in different texts. 
K.T.X.] i Tim. v. 14 
irjv 8i$6i>at TCO 
XoiSopi'as x a P tv - 

3. vdfov\ Comp. Eus. H.E. x. 4 
(p. 470) T *js v/xeTt'pas evOeov TroijMJ/r/s. 

Ovai yap K.T.X.] A loose quotation 
from Is. Hi. 5 Oav^a^Tf /cat oXoXv- 
eTe* TaSe Xe'yfi o Kvpios, At' 
dia navros TO ovop.d p.ov j3 
(v TOIS edveaiv, a passage which is 
likewise quoted indirectly by S. Paul 
Rom. ii. 24; comp. i Tim. vi. i, Tit. 
ii. 5. See also Ezek. xxxvi. 23. None 
of these other passages however ac- 
count for the departure of the Igna- 
tian quotation from the LXX of Isaiah : 
nor is it explained by the original 
Hebrew. The interpolator brings it 
somewhat nearer to the LXX; OvVi 
yap, (f>rjo-lv 6 irpofprjTrjs cos e'/c Trpoo-coVov 
TOV eov, 6V ov TO oVojLta fj,ov /SXaoxpT/- 
Tols fQveo-iv, but the chief 

peculiarity Oval...oY ov remains. As 
the Armenian Version omits the whole 
clause Ot5a! yop...cirl TIVCW ^\ao-(f)rj- 
fjiflTat, it might be thought that this 
quotation was a later interpolation ; 
see instances of interpolated quota- 
tions, Ephes. i, 2, Rom. 3, 6. But, 
besides that it is found in all the 
other authorities, the passage of 
Isaiah is similarly quoted in Poly carp 
Phil. 10 'Vae autem [illi] per quern 
nomen Domini blasphematur', and 
twice in the Apost. Const, i. 10, iii. 5, 
Oval yap, <p//o~i, 6Y ov TO ovop,d p,ov 
/SXaoxp^/xerrcu eV Tots (Bvecriv (but with- 
out the Oval in a third passage, vii. 
24) ; and as both these writers had 
the Epistles of Ignatius before them, 
there is a certain presumption that 
they derived the quotation from him. 
Moreover the Armenian omission is 
easily explained by the homceoteleu- 
ton (3\ao-(J)T}iJLrJTai, /SXacrcpq/ierrcu. There 
is no trace of the Oval in the Hexa- 
plaric versions ; and Justin (Dial. 17, 
p. 235) and Tertullian (adv. Marc. iii. 
23, iv. 14) both quote the passage 
without it. For instances in later 
fathers where it is quoted Oval K.T.X., 
as here, see Cotelier on Apost. Const. 
i. 10. In [Clem. Rom.] ii. 13 we have 
apparently this same passage quoted 
in two forms (see the note there). 




IX. Ka)(f>a}6tiTe ovv, OTCLV vfjiiv X^P^ 'Itl&ov 
XpiorTOv \a\rj TIS, TOV e/c yevovs AaveiS, TOV CK 
Mapias, 09 dXridws 6*yi/wfftf, e(f>ayev 

re KCII 

Otal...j3\a.<r<piifJieiTcu] GL; and so g (with additions and variations); om. A: 
see the lower note. 6 o5v] GLg Theodt; om. [SJ A. 8rav] G 

(6V &v) LS a g Theodt; in omni quod A. vfuv] here, Gg; after xp l(rr v 

Theodt ; after loquatnr [SJ ; om. A. 7 Aaveld] dad G. 8 fls] 

This is clearly the reading of G. re] GS^Af?) Theodt; om. g [L]. 

In this matter the authority of L is of little value; it sometimes reproduces re 
(e.g. Magn. i, Trail. 5, Smyrn. i, 12), but more commonly omits it (e.g. Magn. 5, 
Trail. 12, Rom. 3, Smyrn. 6, 12, 13, Polyc. i). 

IX. 'Therefore stop your ears, 
when any man would deny or ignore 
Christ. Believe it: He was true 
man, the descendant of David, the 
child of Mary. His human body 
was no mere phantom. He was 
really born. He really ate and drank. 
He was really persecuted, crucified, 
put to death a spectacle to men and 
angels and demons. And so too He 
was really raised again by the Father, 
who will as surely raise us also 
through Jesus Christ, in whom alone 
is true life.' 

6. Koocpoo&jre] See Ephes. 9 pv- 
o-avres TCI <2ra, with the note. 

^oopis 1 'lr)(rov K.r.A.] See the note 
on Ephcs. 6 77 ircpl 'Irjcrov K.r.A. 

7. e/c yevovs Aavei'5] Enforcing 
the reality of Christ's humanity, as 
elsewhere in Ignatius; see the note 
on Ephes. 18. 

e'fc Mapt'ay] Another mode of ex- 
pressing Christ's human nature, as in 
Ephes. 7, 1 8 ; so too Smyrn. I ytyev- 
VTjpevov d\T)6a>s ex -rrapdfvov. 

8. d\r)do>s] The watch-word against 
Docetism; as in Magn. n, Smyrn. 

The opposition to Docetism is a 
main characteristic in Ignatius; but 
it has various degrees of prominence 
in the different letters. In the Epis- 
tle to the Romans, as addressed to a 

foreign church, and in the Epistle to 
Polycarp, as addressed to an indi- 
vidual, it does not appear at all. The 
letter to the Ephesians contains allu- 
sions to it, but they are indirect (inscr. 
the reality of the passion, 18 the scan- 
dal of the cross, 7,20, the stress laid 
on Christ's humanity). In the four re- 
maining letters heresy is directly at- 
tacked. In Trail, (inscr., 2, 9, 10, TI) 
and even more fully in Smyrn. ( i 8) 
Docetism, as such, is denounced at 
length. In Magn. ( 8, 9, 10) and in 
Philad. ( 5, 6, 8, 9) he appears to 
be attacking Judaism rather than 
Docetism ; but from incidental no- 
tices (Magn. 9 ov TIV*S apyeuvrcu, n 
TTfTr'hTjpoCpoprjo-df V K.T.A., Trpa^^eVra 
d\r)6ci)s Koi Pffiaicos ; Philad. inscr. 
dyaAAia>/i.e'j/7/ K.r.A., 3 r< ? iradei ov 
0-vyKarari$ercu, 5 &s (rapid 'l^o-ot), 8 
6 (rravpbs avrov K.r.A.), it appears that 
this Judaism was Docetic, so that it 
is the same with the heresy of the 
Trallian and Smyrnaean Epistles, 
though attacked from the other side. 
This Docetism, as appears from the 
notices in these two epistles, was 
extended to the birth, passion, and 
resurrection, in fact to the whole 
human life of Christ. 

ycvvq0T}] 'was born': see the note 
on Ephes. 18. 




Kai a.7re6avev, fiXeTrovrcov 



os Ka 

eyepavTOS CLVTOV TOV TraTpos avTov, Kara TO 

TOVS TncrreiWras avTco OVTWS .5 

/uLoa)]Uia os Ka 

I Uovrlov ILXcb-ou] GLAg Theodt; ILXdrou TLovriov S r 

]; om. [A] [Theodt]. 2 rwi/j G Theodt; om. g. eirov- 

paviuv] G [Theodt]; ovpavlwv g. Theodt is alone in transposing the order and 
reading einyeiuv Kal eirovpaviuv. 3 i57rox#oj>t'wi>] G ; Kara^Oovltav g 

[Theodt] (after Phil. ii. 10). 4 Kara rb 0/jiotwfj.a 6s Kal K.r.X.] G; qui 

et secundum similitiidincm nos credentes ipsi sic resuscitabit etc. L ; ita ut et nos 

1. eVi Iloi^rtov IltXarou] On the 

significance of this form of expres- 
sion, as giving force to the protest 
against Docetism, see the note Magn. 

2. /3Af7roi>TG>i> K.T.A.] Comp. Phil. 
ii. IO TTOV yovv /ca/i^r; fTrovpaviwv Kal 
(TTiyfiatv Kal KaTa^6ovio)v : see also I 
Cor. iv. 9. 

3. icat d\r)6ti>s riyep6ri\ See Orig. C. 
Cels. ii. 1 6 ruiels TO doxelv eVi TOV 
Tradelv ov TCKTcrop-ev, Iva fj,^ \lsev8rjs 
avTov Kal T) avao-rao-is- 77, dXX' d\r)6ys' 6 
yap d\r)0G)s OTrodavtoV, el aj/eVr^, aX^^cos- 

/, o 8e doKcav dnoTeflvrjKcvai OVK 

4. tyeipavTos /c.r.A.] Apparently 
a reminiscence of 2 Cor. iv. 14 ei'Sores 
on o eyeipas TOV Kvpiov 'iqaovv Kal 
TUJMS o~vv 'lrjo~ov eyepet, I Thess. iv. 
14 et yap rrio~Tfvofj.v OTI ITJO~OVS ajreda- 
vfv KOI aveo~Tr], ovreos KOI o Qeos TOVS 
Koip,r]6VTas Sia TOV 'IT/O-OU afi (rvv 
avTfo : see also Rom. viii. ii. So too 
Polyc. Phil. I o de eyeipas avTov CK 
veKpwv Kal rj/nay eyepel. 

Kara TO o/jLoio^ua K.r.X.] For the 
sense see Rom. vi. 5 dXXa Kal [<rv/z- 
(pvToi T&5 o/zoi(io/iari] TTJS dvao-Tao~O)S 
fo-opcda, which passage Ignatius pro- 
bably had in his mind. The sentence 
would be simplified by the transpo- 
sition, os Kal KOTO. TO 6fj.oi(i)ua for Kara 
TO o/^ouo/ia os KOI, as suggested by the 

versions ; but in a transposition they 
are not a safe guide. Zahn goes 
further and reads ov Kal Kara ro o/zotco- 
pa. An easier correction would be 

&>$ for o?, SO that Kara TO o/zouo/na coy 

would be equivalent to ouoims as. 
The tautology Kara ro oftoio)^a...ovr cos- 
is explained by the circumstances 
under which the letter was written : 
see the next note. 

6. o TraTrjp ai;roC] Added to 
show that the agent intended is not 
Christ, as the form of the sentence 
might otherwise suggest. This is 
one of many instances, in which these 
letters betray haste of composition. 
Markland, Petermann, and others 
would omit these words, but without 
sufficient reason. It is true that they 
are wanting in the Armenian ; but, 
as the Syriac from which the Arme- 
nian was taken contains them, the 
omission is obviously due to the Arme- 
nian translator or to some transcriber. 

TO d\r)6ivbv fjv] See the note on 
Ephes. ii. 

X. 'If it be true, as these godless 
unbelievers affirm, that Christ did 
not really die. then why am I a pri- 
soner ? Why do I desire to fight 
with wild beasts ? In this case I die 
for nothing ; and I lie against the 

8. a&oi, K.T.A.] ''godless men, / 


eyepel 6 Trarrjp airrov ev XptGTo) 'lrj(rov, ov 


r\v OVK 

X. .i Se, w&Trep Tti/es aOeoi 6Vres, TOVT(TTII> 
, \eyowrff TO So/cell/ TreTrovQevai CCVTOV, avroi 

qui credimus in eum itidem resuscitabit etc. S 3 ; itidem et nos credentes in eum 
secundum eandem rationem resuscitabit A; al. g: see the lower note. 
6 6 7raT77p...'Ii7(7oO] GL; pater jesu christi S x (the change of a single letter 2 
for 1 would produce pater eius in jesu christo, which was doubtless the prior 
form of the Syriac); om. A (as being superfluous); al. g. ~ -- *----"~i 

G ; T$ doKeiv [g] ; secundum videri L. 

9 TO 

mean disbelievers'. The first, word, 
not being strictly applicable to these 
heretics, needs explanation: 'They 
are disbelievers 1 , says Ignatius, 'and 
therefore they have severed them- 
selves from God'. By calling them 
adfot (see 3 above) he places them 
on a level with the heathen ; comp. 
Orig. c. Cels. ii. 3 aipeo-fw d6ea>v KOI 
'L/o-oi) TrdvTT] dXXorpiW. So Tertull. 
de Cam. Chr. 15 'merito ethnici 
talia, sed merito et haeretici : num 
quid enim inter illos distat, nisi quod 
ethnici non credendo credunt, at 
haeretici credendo non credunt?', 
speaking also of a form of Docetism. 
The same epithet UTTIO-TOS is applied 
to these Docetics in Smyrn. 2, 5, as 
not believing in the reality of Christ's 
birth, life, and death. Comp. Iren. 
iii. 1 8. 7 'Venit... omnibus restituens 
earn quae est ad Deum communio- 
ncm: igitur qui dicunt eum putative 
manifestatum, neque in carne natum 
neque vere hominem factum, adhuc 
sub -veteri sunt danmatione...n.<ys\ 
devicta secundum eos morte'. Igna- 
tius seems to have the same idea 
here. It is the reality of Christ's 
humanity, as well as of His deity, 
which makes communion with God 
possible to the believer. Those there- 
fore, who deny this, hold themselves 
aloof from God ; they are still adfoi 
fv TW Korr/u.a> (Ephes. ii. 12). See also 

Cyrill. Hier. Cat. iv. 9 (p. 56) <f)ay<av 
coy rpels d\r)6<as KCU TTKWI/ coy r?/izeiy 
d\T]d(os- el yap 0awacr/j,a 771; j) evavdpca- 
7rr)(Tis, (pavraa-fjia Ka\ r) a-forrjpia. 

9. ro doKelv] ( in appearance*. For 
this adverbial use of ro SoKflv comp. 
Smyrn. 2, 4. The former of these 
passages is almost word for word 
the same as here. See also Tertull. 
de Cam. Chr. I ' et partus virginis et 
ipsius exinde infantis ordo ro doKfiv 
haberentur', where some editors read 
r&> doKelv. But the dative is read in 
the interpolator's recension here and 
in Smyrn. 2, 4 ; and so also in Philo 
Leg. ad Cai. 34 (p. 584), 42 (p. 594), 
Orig. in Hieron. c. loann. Hieros. 25 
(n. p. 431), Hieron. c. Pelag. ii. 14 
(If. p. 758), at least in the printed 
texts. The accusative however seems 
altogether to be preferred here. The 
construction is different in Plat. Gorg. 
527 B fj,\fTrjTOV ov TO doKflv flvai dya- 

6ov dXXa ro emu, which Jacobson 
quotes as a parallel. 

avTol ovrfs K.r.X.] ''being themselves 
nothing but outward profession*. 
Similarly Iren. iv. 33. 5 'judicabit 
autem eos qui putativum inducunt... 
putativum est igitur, et non veritas, 
omne apud eos' ; Tertull. adv. Valent. 
27 *ita omnia in imagines urgent, 
plane et ipsi imaginarii Christiani'. 
Hippolytus plays on the word SOKT]- 
rf/s in another way; Haer. viii. n 

1 7 6 


TO So/ceZj/, eyco TL SeSejuLai ; TL Se KOL 

6r]pio/ma^fj(raL ; 
\lsevSoimai TOV Kvpiov. 


oiy /cara- 


i T/ 

/cal] L* (but with a v. 1.) Sev-Syr 2; TI 5 G; rf ^war^ S a A; /cai 
[g]. 2 <fya oti>~\ Voss; &pa ov GL; quare Sj (the same interrogative 

with which it has twice translated rl just before); &pa (om. o5v) [g] Sev-Syr 
(at least ovv is not translated) ; et A. But S X A seem to have transferred dpa 
ovv to the sentence eycb rf 5^5e/*at. 5 ou] GLg Dam-Rup i Sev-Syr. 

There is no authority for the reading c3i>. I do not quite understand Zahn's 
statement, l &v Sf r, 15 [i.e. S a ] A, quorum hie ad fructus, ille ad propagines traxit 
pronomen, uterque enim Kapirovs 6avaTr](popovs habet.' S x translates the sing. 
Kapirov here (as it does Kapiros just below) by the plur. of K"1ND, this being a 
common practice with Syriac translators, and necessarily therefore it substitutes a 
plural in place of ou. In this it is followed by A. In A the form of this plural 
pronoun gives no indication of gender, and it might be referred equally well to 
s, if we had not the Greek to determine the reference for us. In S x the 

eavrovs Trpoa"f]ypf\)crav a>v ov 
TO O'OKC'IV civai rivas Karavooi>fj.ev pa- 
TOIOVTCIS, dXXa TTJV fK ToaavTTjs v\rjs 
Iv o0^aX/uai (j)fpofj.VT)v di(\(y- 
Pearson (on Smyrn. 2) com- 
pares Epiphan. Haer. Ixxvi. 10 (p. 
923) dvo/jLotov Trarpi \tya>v o~v avo^ioios 
yeyovas, K\Tjpa)df\s TOVTO TO ovop.a, 
vndpx<i)v TU>V ev Geai o-&>- 
In the same vein Plato 
makes merry with the views of those 
philosophers whom he calls of peovTes, 
Thecet. 181 A. 

i. ryo) TL SeSe/zai] i.e. 'The atone- 
ment becomes an unreality, and there- 
fore my sufferings for Christ are 
vain'. The argument is put in a 
somewhat different form in Smyrn. 4 
fl yap TO 8oK.flv Tavra fTTpax&r] virb TOV 
j Kayat TO SoKelv Se'Se/zat. 

fta^Tjo-at] ' I pray that 
I may fight with wild beasts' : comp. 
Ephes. i, Rom. 5. The same verb 
occurs with an aorist infinitive, 12 
below, Ephes. 2, Rom. 5, Smyrn. n. 
This passage is obviously a reminis- 
cence of I Cor. xv. 32 Kara avtipa- 
irov 0tyHopqjx9<ra K.T.A., as the argu- 

ment shows. The Br^pio^axflv of S. 
Paul however is probably metaphori- 
cal, while that of Ignatius is literal. 
2. dcopcav ovv K.T.A.] Comp. Gal. 

11. 21 apa X/M0TOS Stopeai/ cmeOavcv. 
apa ovv /c.r.X.] l in this case I lie 

against the Lord\ i.e. 'my life and 
my preaching alike are a falsehood 
against Him, for they assume that 
Christ really did rise'. The whole 
argument here is founded on i Cor. 
xv. 12 sq: see especially ver. 15 
fvpio-Kopfda de Kal v/^euSo/iaprvpep TOV 
0foO, on (p,apTvpr)o-(i[iv Kara TOV Qtov 
OTL rjycipfv TOV Xpitrrbv K.r.X. For apa 
ovv comp. Rom. v. 18, vii. 3, 25, viii. 

12, etc. The reading ov (which re- 
quires to be read interrogatively, apa 
ov = nonne} is possible in itself (see 
Kiihner Gramm. II. p. 1027), but not 
good here. 

XL 'Shun such false and irregu- 
lar growths ; for their fruit is poison- 
ous and causes immediate death. 
These men are not the planting of 
the Father; otherwise they would 
have been seen to be branches of 
the Cross and have borne imperish- 




5 yevvwcras KapTrov 6avaTt]<f)6pov, ov eav yeixrrjrai 
irapavra d7ro6wj(rKi. OVTOL yap OUK eicriv (p 

el yap rjcrav, e<paivovTO ai> K\d$oi TOV (TTavpov, 
r\v av 6 KapTros avTtov a(p6apTOs' St ov eV TW 

existing text has the fern. fTl3fcD, which would refer to irapa<f>v<idas, but this is doubt- 
less a scribe's error for the masc. jirUD. yevvijTat] yevv-rjTe (with cu written 

above, but whether frima manu, is doubtful) G. rts] here, GL Dam-Rup ; 

before yeva"r]Tat g. 6 irapavra} Trap avTa G ; TrapavTiKa [g] Dam-Rup. 

yap] GLSj Dam-Rup ; om'. [g] A. 7 Trar/ao's] GLS x Ag ; TOV Tryei^uaros 

Dam-Rup. For the not uncommon confusion of TTNC and rrpc see the note on 
Smyrn. 13. rjvav] GLA; add. <f>vrela irarpbs S l ; add. TOV irarpbs K\dSot [g]. 

8 nai fy o.v 6 Kapirbs O.VTV /c.T.X.] GL; et fructus eoruni incorrupti manerent in 
pas stone cruets domini nostri citjus membra estis S x ; et fructus eoruni permanens. 
iam signo cruets domini nostri vos membra estis eius A (for the substitution of signo 
for passione see above, p. 26) ; al. g. The Syriac translator must have had a 
mutilated text, which omitted di oC and TrpoovcaXetTcu. 

able fruit the Cross, whereby He 
calleth us unto Him, being His own 
members. The Head cannot be 
found apart from the members, 
forasmuch as God promiseth union, 
which union is nothing else than 

4. Trapac^vaSay] * excrescences, off- 
shoots' 1 '; comp. Clem. Alex. Paed. i. 8 

(p. 138) Ka$uXo/zai>ei yap fj.rj K\adcvo- 
p.evr) 77 a/iTrcXoy, ourcos 8e Kal 6 av6pa)- 
iros- Kadaipei Se UVTOV ras fvftiJiovoras 
Trapu(f)vd8as o \oyos, r) fia^atpa, K.r.X. 
The word is used of an adventitious 
shoot or other growth of a plant. 
Aristotle, Plant, i. 4 (p. 819), writes 
Trapacpvddes de flat TO. dno TIJS pifrs 
TOV devdpov /3Xacrrai/oi/ra, but Theo- 
phrastus Hist. Plant, ii. 2. 4 con- 
templates their springing from other 
parts besides the root, for he says 
f'aj/ dno pi'C 7 ?? J/ napa(pvas y. This word 
occurs several times in the LXX, 
where however it is not used with any 
precision. The metaphorical sense 
is naturally very common, and ap- 
pears at least as early as Aristotle, 
Eth. Ntc. i. 4 (p. 1096). See also the 


allegory of the Trapcxpvddes in Hermas 
Sim. viii. i sq. 

6. Trapaura] ''forthwith ' ; comp. 
Mart. Ign. Ant. 6. It is a good classi- 
cal word : see Lobeck Phryn. p. 47. 

(pvTfia TraTpos] So again Philad. 3 
8ia TO fifj dvai OVTOVS (pvTfiav naTpos. 
The reference is to Matt. xv. 13 
7ra<7a (purei'a f)v OVK eCpvTevcrfv 6 Trarnp 
IJLOV o ovpdvtos /c.r.X., which passage 
the interpolator has introduced into 
his text here. 

7. K\d8oi TOV vTavpov\ This they 
are not, for they deny the reality of 
the Passion. On the prominence 
given to the Cross by Ignatius in 
refuting Docetism, see Ephes. 18, 
Philad. 8, Smyrn. i, with the notes. 

8. a<p6apTos] For the Cross is the 
true gvXov farjs. 

6V ov] sc. TOV aTavpov ; comp. Gal. 
vi. 14, Eph. ii. 1 6, Col. i. 20. See 
also Ephes. 9 Sia TTJS wxavrji 'irjo-ov 
XpKTToii, os fo-Tiv aTavpos. The in- 
termediate clause, ai ?)v av o Kapnos 
avrav acpdapTos, is parenthetical. 

fv TO) Tfddci avTov] See the note on 
Ephes. inscr. 


7 8 



TTpocTKaXeiTai iv/zas, oWas /ueXri avrov. ov 
ovv K(pa\ri X^P^ YCWtlOrjvcti avev /meXwv, TOV 
Oeov evutcriv e7rayye\\ofjievov 9 6s earriv ai/ros. 

XII, 'A<T7rab/uat i/juas aVo C/mvpvris, a/ma rals 
(rvjunrapova'ais /ULOI eKK\tj(riais TOV Oeov, ot /cara TravTa 5 
ime dv67rav(rav crapKi re KO.I TrvevfJLciTi. TrapaKaXel v 
TO. Sea-pa JULOV, a eVe/cei/ ' Itjaov XpKTTOv 

3 8s] G; ^w0rf L; al. A; def. g. 5 ^01] g* (but with a v. 1. 

mihi L; ywou G ; apud vos A. iravra] GL ; Trav [g]; dub. A. 

1. TrpoovcaXeirat] i.e. probably 6 
Xptorror, to whom the preceding and 
following avrov must necessarily refer: 
comp. Clem. Rom. 22, where Trpoo-- 

i)ftas is said of Christ. 

As in Rom. xii. 4 sq, I Cor. 
vi. 15, Eph. v. 30, and especially 
i Cor. xii. 12 sq, which last passage 
has suggested the words following 
here: comp. ver. 21 ov 9vyara...ij 
Kf<j)a\Ti K.r.A. See also Clem. Rom. 
37, 46 ; comp. also Ephes. 4. 

ov Svi/arat ovi/] i Now it is not 
possible (in the nature of things) //;#/ 
a head should be born without limbs' 1 ; 
and therefore the existence of Christ 
as the Head implies the attachment 
of the believers to Him as His mem- 
bers. Perhaps however we should 
read yvr)6r)vat for yevvr)6f)vai. 

2. rov Gfov fvaanv K.r.A.] i.e. 'God 
supplying the principle of cohesion, 
which principle is nothing else than 
Himself; comp. John xvii. 21 sq 
iva navres ev cuo-ii>, Ka6a>s OTV, TrdYep, 
cv epol Kaya> ev o~o/, Iva KOI avroi fv 
r^iiv taviv K.r.A. With os CO-TIV avros 
comp. Ephes. 14 ra 8e Svo cv CVOTTJTI 
yevoptva Qeos c<rriv, and see the note 
Magn. 15. For the attraction of 
os see the note on Magn. 7. The 
interpretation suggested by Smith, 
' qui Deus est ipse Christus] is quite 
out of place. 

XII. 'The churches present with 
me at Smyrna join in my salutation. 
I appeal to you by the chains which 
I wear in Christ : Remain in unity 
and prayerfulness. It is your duty 
one and all, but especially the pres- 
byters, to assist and cherish the 
bishop, to the honour of God, of 
Christ, and of the Apostles. Listen 
to me, lest this letter rise up as a 
witness against you. I desire your 
prayers that by God's mercy I may 
attain the martyr's crown for which 
I thirst, and may not be rejected.' 

4. TCUS av^Trapovo-ais /zoi K.r.A.] 

The churches who were present 
in the person of their representa- 
tives ; comp. Magn, 1 5 /mi at Aowrai 
8e eKK\i]<riai...acnrdovTai v/nas. Among 
these were the Ephesians (Ephes. 
i sq.) and the Magnesians (Magn. i), 
from both which churches several 
delegates were present with him. 

5. /tara Trai/ra K.r.A.] On this 
common Ignatian phrase see the 
note Ephes. 2. 

6. arapKi re K.r.A.] See the note 
on Ephes. 10. 

TrapaKaAet v/ui? K.r.A.] For similar 
appeals in S. Paul see Eph. iv. i napa- 
KaAto ovV vfjias fya> 6 dearfiios K.r.A., 
Philem. 9 p>ci\\ov 7rapaKaA<u, rotovror 
a>v cos IIavAo...6Vo7uos Xprrov 'l?/rrov ; 
comp. Col. iv. 1 8. 


aiTOv/ULevos Oeou eTriTv^eTv Sta/meveTe ev Trj O/ULOVOLO. 

vfuicov Kal Trj juieT d\\rj\cov Trpocrev^rj. TrpeTrei yap 

to vfJiiv TO?S Ka6' eva, eaipeT(*)s Kal 


ev dyciTrrj aKOvcrai JJLOV, 'tva fjir] ek /uLapTVptov at 

6 fj.e] here, GL; before /caret [g]. n Kal els TL/JL^V 'I. X.] g; et uni- 

geniti eius domini nostri jesu christi etc. A ; 'lyo-ov XpurTov (om. Kal els ny-riv) GL : 
see the lower note. 

7. 7repi$e'pa>] See the notes on 
Ephes. u, Magn. i. 

8. GeoO 7riTvxelv] So too below, 
13. For this favourite Ignatian 
phrase see the note on Magn. i. 

fita/zeVere] These are the words of 
the appeal (napaKoXel) which his 
bonds address to them. For this 
favourite construction in Ignatius, 
who prefers the imperative to the 
infinitive after TrapaKaXclv, see the 
note on 6 XP*7"# 6 above. 

10. TOLS KCL& era] See Eph. v. 33 
for this expression. Similarly ol KUT 
aj/fipa below, 13 (see the note on 
Ephes. 4). In Rom. xii. 5 we have 
the strange expression TO Kaff els. 

Kal] The transposition 
, suggested by Jacobson, 
seems unnecessary ; comp. 13 o/xoiW 
Kal (with the note). For the adverb 
e'cupe'ra> comp. Smyrn. 7 (with the 
note), and for the corresponding ad- 
jective cgaipfTos, Philad. 9. Neither 
word is found in the N.T., but egai- 
pfTos occurs in the LXX, Gen. xlviii. 

22, Job V. 5. 

11. dva^vxeiv] See the note on 
Ephes. 2. 

fls Tifjirjv /e.T.X.] For this Ignatian 
mode of expression see the note on 
Ephes. 21. 

Trarpos /c.r.X.] If the Greek MS of 
Ignatius be followed we must punc- 
tuate ' to the honour of the Father 

of Jesus Christ, and of the Apostles' 
(making 'Ljo-oC Xptorrov dependent on 
Trarpos), rather than * to the honour 
of the Father, of Jesus Christ, and of 
the Apostles' ; for the latter connexion 
would almost necessarily require a 
connecting particle, KCU 'Irjo-ov XprroC 
(see the notes on 7 ax<opurrois eeou 
K.r.X., and Philad. 9 rrjv Trapova-iav}. 
But in this case the omission of ' the 
honour of Jesus Christ' would be in- 
explicable. The probability however 
is that the right reading is preserved 
in the interpolator's text, which inserts 
another Kal fls TL^V before 'Ir/o-oC 
Xptarou, and that a transcriber has 
ejected the words as a superfluity. 
Zahn defends the common text on 
the ground ' scriptoris menti simili- 
tudinem illam obversari, quam et 
inter episcopum Deumque Christi 
patrem, et inter presbyteros aposto- 
losque intercedere existimat' (comp. 
Magn. 6). 

1 3. fls fiaprvptov o>] Comp. Philad. 
6 Kal Tracri de, ev ols 
Iva fJLT] fls fjiaprvpiov avro 
The fv should probably be retained, 
in which case yptyas will stand by 
itself, 'by my writing.' The inter- 
polator has omitted the preposition 
in conformity with the very common 
idiom fls p-aprvpcov TIVI, Matt. viii. 4, 
x. 18, xxiv. 14, Mark i. 44, vi. n, 




ets TO KaTa 


[eV] vfAlv rypd-^sas. KCCI Trepl efuiov Se 

XprjfyvTOs ev TW e\eei TOV Qeov, 
\vdi jue TOV K\ripov ovwep eytceifjiai 

uos evpedcu. 

XIII. 'AcTTra^eTai vjmds r\ dyaTrrj C/ULVpvciia)v Kai 5 
'G(f>e(ria)v. fuivrj/uLoveveTe ev TCUS Trpoarev^cu^ V/ULWV Trjs 
ev Cvpia KK\riorias' odev [KCLI] OVK a^ios eifuu XeyecrOai, 


tv] GL; om. Ag. 3 otiirep tyKeiftai einrvx^v] Bunsen; ov 

Gg: qua conor potiri L; accipere (series) ad quas vocatus sum A. 
rats Trpotrei/xars] GLA ; om. g. vfj.<Sv\ GL [g*]; om. A. 

G; om. LAg. 8 e/cetVa'] GL; rQv e/cetg; al. A. fv 'I^crou 

GL ; & /tup/y tT/o-oO XP' " 7 "^ g (MSS, but m christo jesu 1) A. 

6 kv 

9 ws 

i.e. the glory of mar- 
Rom. i eZ? TO TOV 

3. KdTat-KaQrjvai] See the note on 
Ephes. 20. 


tyrdom, as in 
K\fjp6v p.ov av 
Philad. 5 7 
fie anapTicrfi, Iva ev 
c7T4rvx<i). The word is used in the 
same connexion elsewhere ; Mart. 
Polyc, 6 Iva eKclvos TOV to'iov K\rjpov 
airapTio-y, Ep. Vienn. et Lugd. 3 
(in Euseb. H. E. v. i) dvf\rj(p6rj xal 
avrbs els TOV K\fjpov TO>V /xaprvpcoi/. 

ovTrep ey< /c.r.X.] ' which I am 
eager to attain? I know no better 
emendation of the obviously corrupt 
ov rrfpiKcip,ai than this conjecture of 
Bunsen's (Br. p. 141), corresponding 
to the Latin qua conor potiri; but I 
am not quite satisfied with it. I do 
not know whether eyKtio-Qai elsewhere 
takes an infinitive ; its common con- 
struction is with a dative of the 
thing or person. The common text 
might mean ' to obtain the lot with 
which I am invested' (ov by attrac- 
tion for 5v), but this is hardly sense. 

4. Iva P.TI o5oK4/ioy K.r.X.] Suggested 
by i Cor. ix. 27. The idea of a race 
seems to be present here (e.g. in 

u'), as in S. Paul. 
XIII. ' The Smyrnseans and Ephe- 
sians salute you. Pray for the Church 
in Syria, of which I am an unworthy 
member. Farewell in Christ. Be 
obedient to your bishop and pres- 
byters, and love one another. My 
spirit is devoted to you, not now 
only, but when I shall find God. 
At present I am still exposed to 
dangers ; but the Father is faithful 
to fulfil your prayers and mine in 
Christ Jesus, in whom may we be 
found blameless.' 

5. r) dyairri K.r.X.] Comp. Rom. 9, 
Philad. 11, Smyrn. 12. This is not 
a mere complimentary title, as Pear- 
son and others would take it ; see 
note on 3 TTJS dycaufs vfjitiv. 

6. 'E<po-ia>v] Though the repre- 
sentatives of other churches were pre- 
sent with him at Smyrna, the Ephe- 
sians are singled out, as the more 
numerous body of delegates and as 
attending more continuously on him ; 
comp. Magn. 15, Rom. 10. Seethe 
notes on Ephes. i, 2. Ephesus and 
Smyrna were regarded as the 'two 
eyes' of Asia; Plin. N. H. v. 31 
'Ephesum alterum lumen Asiae' (in 



I8 1 

eKeivtov. eppa)(r6e ev 'Irjcrov Xpia-Tw, VTTO- 

Ta(T(rdu.evoi TW eTTKTKOTra) ws Trj eVroAw, ouo/ws Kai 
i t f p* 

o TW TrpevfivTepia)' Kai ol KCIT avSpa d\\rj\0vs dyaTrctTe 
ev ajmepicTTco KapSia. dyvi^erat V/ULO)V TO e/mov Trvev/ma, 
ov fjiovov vvv d\\a Kai oTav Oeov eTTiTv^a). eri yap 
VTTO KivSvvov elfULL' d\\d TrKTTOs 6 TraT^p ev 'Irjcrov 

rfj evro\rj] G; om. g; add dei LA. 10 r irpefffivreplqi] GL* ; TO?J 

Trpeo-jSur^ots Kal TO?S 5ta/c6votj g ; sacerdotibus A (see above on 7). n ayvL- 

ferat u/ut,uv] ayvifrre u/xcDv GL ; affirdfeTai u/iaj g (MSS, but castificet vos 1) ; 
desiderat erga vos A. 13 UTTO KlvSvvov] GL; etrii(ivdvi>oi> g (MSS, but see Appx) ; 

in sollicitudine A. v 'Ir)<rov Xpurrf] GL* (but Lj in christo iesu) ; 

; domini nostrijesu christi [A]. 

reference to Smyrna mentioned pre- 

TTJS ev Svpia eKK\rj(rias] This request 
appears in all the letters written from 
Smyrna; see the note on Ephes. 21. 

7. SQev K.r.A.] Comp. Magn. 14 

06 fv OVK ai6s fifii KaXfladai. 

8. co v eo-^aroy K.T.X.] Comp. "- 
phes. 21 f&xaTos &v raav irurTotv 
(with the note). 

eppcoo-^e] See the note on Ephes. 


g. aJy T;; eWoXr/] So too Smyrn. 8 
rovy didKovovs tvrptlFtirfa coy Geoi) 

vro\^v: comp. also Magn. 2 r<S 
7rpe(r/3irrfpi'a> eos 1 v6fj.Q> Irjcrov Xpicrrov 
(with the note). In our passage ij 
evro\T) is used absolutely, as in Rom. 
vii. 8 dcpopfu]!/ Xa/3ou<ra ) a/xapria fiia 
T?5? evTo\f)s /c.r.X., I Tim. vi. 14 TT;- 
pfj&ai (rt TTJV evToXr/v a.(nri\ov K.T.\. 
Not satisfied with this, the translators 
have added 'Dei.' This absolute 
use is not consistent with Pearson's 
interpretation of Smyrn. 1. c. ' tam- 
quain Dei praecepto institutes] i.e. 
'as being God's ordinance' (where 
he refers to this passage). The Tral- 
lians are told to obey the bishop's 
orders, as they would obey God's 

orders. The sense of fVroXi) here is 
active, not passive; 'the voice or- 
dering,' not 'the thing ordered.' 

o/ioiW ical] See the note on Ephes. 

10. ot KCLT av8pa] 'each individu- 
ally* ; see the note on Ephes. 4. 

11. a/ieptoro) Kapdia] So again 
Philad. 6. Thus also didvotav d8td- 
Kpirov I, a7repi<T7raoT<j> dtavoia Ephes. 

ayvi^crai v/ndJi'] i.e. ayi/tcr^a yiyverai 
vfjicov, where dyvia-fta, 'a piacular offer- 
ing,' like 7Tfpi^Tjfj.a, ircpiKaOapua, etc., 
denotes entire devotion to and self- 
sacrifice for another : comp. Ephes. 8 

(with the note). 

12. orav Qcov eTTtru^co] i.e. f by my 
martyrdom'; see above 12. 

13. TUTTO Kiv8wov] Comp. Ephes. 12 
eyo> VTTO KiVSufoi/, vp-fls (0"rr]piyp.(voi 
(with the note). There is still the risk 
that either by his own weakness or 
by the interposition of others he may 
be robbed of the martyr's crown. 

TTKTTOS o TraTTjp] Compare S. Paul's 
TTioroy 6 Qeos and similar expressions ; 
i Cor. i. 9, x. 13, 2 Cor. i. 18, 1 Thess. 
v. 24, 2 Thess. iii. 3. 


Xpicrrw 7T\rip(joorai JULOV rrjv airricriv KCCI vfjiwv* ev w 

Ag; evpedeLijre GL. A single letter might make the difference 
-HM6 for -HTG. &/j.(t)/j.oi\ GL; add. gratia vobiscum omnibus, amen A; 

add. 6va.lp.iriv v/j.wv ev Kvplq> g. 

There is no subscription to GLA. For g see the Appx. 

i. 7r\r)pai<rai] An infinitive after avro> K.r.A. ; comp. Ephes. n 

TTHTTOS, as in Neh. xiii. 13. ev Xpto-rw 'l^o-ov evpedrjvai, and see 

ev w] i.e. 'Irjorov Xptorw, as in Phil. also 2 of this epistle. 
iii. 9 iva Xpurrov Kep8rj<ra> nal evpedco ev 




ECE the three preceding letters, the Epistle to the Romans was 
written and despatched from Smyrna. The Ephesian delegates, 
who were still with him, acted as amanuenses ; and, as the name of 
Crocus is singled out for mention, we may suppose that he was the chief 
penman on the occasion. This is the only letter which bears a date. 
It was written on August 23rd ( 10). 

Ignatius had been preceded by certain members of the Syrian 
Church, who however are not mentioned by name. He assumes that 
they will have arrived in Rome before the letter : he bespeaks for them 
a kindly welcome ; and he wishes them to be informed of his speedy 
arrival. Of these persons nothing is said elsewhere. Probably they 
had been despatched from Antioch direct to Rome, immediately after 
the condemnation of the saint, with the news of his impending visit. 
The letter throughout assumes that the Roman Christians are informed 
of his fate, and will act upon the information. 

But, though the letter was despatched from the same place and 
probably about the same time with the Epistles to the Ephesians, 
Magnesians, and Trallians, though it closely resembles them in style 
and expression, yet the main topics are wholly different. The subject 
matter is changed with the change in the relations between the writer 
and the readers. There is no direct allusion to the Judaeo- Gnostic 
heresy, which occupies so large a place in his letters to the Asiatic 
Churches. The Roman Church is complimented in the opening as 
'filtered clear from every foreign colouring,' and from first to last the 
epistle contains no reference to false doctrine of any kind. On the 


correlative topic also, the duty of obedience to the bishop and other 
officers of the Church, which shares with the denunciation of heresy 
the principal place in the other letters, he is equally silent here. Indeed 
we might read the epistle from beginning to end without a suspicion 
that the episcopal office existed in Rome at this time, if we had no 
other grounds for the belief. On the relation of this phenomenon to 
other early documents bearing on the Roman Church I have spoken 
elsewhere (S. Clement of Rome I. p. 68 ; comp, Philippians p. 217 sq). 

On the other hand the letter is almost wholly taken up with one 
single topic, which appears only casually in the other epistles his 
coming martyrdom. We have seen how the news of his conviction 
had preceded him to Rome. He was alarmed at its possible effects. 
Perhaps he had good reason to fear the too officious zeal of his friends 
from Syria. At all events there were Christians holding influential 
positions in Rome at this time, more especially about the court (see 
the note on i <o/?ofyu K.T.X.). What, if they should attempt to 
obtain a reversal or a commutation of his sentence? Their inop- 
portune kindness would be his ruin ( 4). The whole letter is a 
passionate cry for martyrdom, an eager deprecation of pardon. The 
altar is ready. Will they then withhold the libation ( 2) ? Will they 
refuse the sacrifice ( 4) ? It will be an act of jealousy ( 5 ^AwVat), 
a display of envy ( 3 e'/fao-KaVare, 7 /3ao-Kai/ia), an infliction of wrong 
( i aSi/o^cn?), an outbreak of hatred ( 8 e/xKnyVare), an abetting of 
Satan ( 7 /Soryflemo aura)), to rob him of his crown. Even though 
he himself on his arrival in Rome should crave their intercession, 
which now he deprecates, he intreats them not to listen to him ( 7). 
Martyrdom is the new birth, is the true life, is the pure light ( 6). 
Martyrdom is the complete discipleship, the final enfranchisement ( 4). 
The martyr's crown is better than all the kingdoms of the earth ( 6). 
Only then, when he sets to the world, will he rise to God ( 2). The 
teeth of the wild beasts are the mill which grinds the fine flour for the 
sacrificial bread. Therefore he will entice them, will provoke them, 
to mangle, to crush, to pulverize his limbs for the altar of God ( 4, 5). 
Crowned by martyrdom, his life becomes an utterance of God ; robbed 
of martyrdom, it is a vague unmeaning cry ( 2). 

The Epistle to the Romans had a wider popularity than the other 
letters of Ignatius both early and late. It appears to have been circu- 
lated apart from them, sometimes alone, sometimes attached to the 
story of the martyrdom. Thus it seems to have become in some sense 
a vade mecum of martyrs in the subsequent ages. At all events we find 


it quoted before any of the other epistles (Iren. v. 28. 4 ; see 4, p. 207 
below) ; and its influence on the earliest genuine Acts of Martyrdom 
extant those of Polycarp, and those of Perpetua and Felicitas seems 
to be clearly discernible (see the notes on 6 TrpoorySiao-o/xcu, 5 'Orat/up/ 
K.T.A. ; comp. also the note on 4'0epos /c.r.X.). Moreover in the 
Mensea for Dec. 20, the day assigned to S. Ignatius in the later Greek 
Calendar, we meet again and again with expressions taken from it, 
whereas there is no very distinct coincidence with the other epistles. 
On the other hand, where the interest was doctrinal and not practical, 
as for instance in the Monophysite controversy, the other letters are 
prominent and the Epistle to the Romans recedes into the background. 
Owing to these circumstances, the history and the phenomena of the 
text are different in several respects from those of the other epistles 
(see above, p. 5 sq). 

The following is an analysis of the epistle. 

' IGNATIUS to the CHURCH OF ROME, preeminent in position as in 
love, worthy of all good things and filtered clear from all defilement, 
abundant greeting in Christ.' 

4 My prayer has been more than granted ; for I shall see you in 
my bonds. Only do not interpose, that so my course, which has begun 
well, may also end well ( i). The opportunity is great ; do not mar it. 
If you keep silence, God will speak through me. The altar is ready 
for sacrifice; chant ye the hymn of praise round the victim ( 2). 
Teach me my duty, as you have taught others. Pray that I may have 
strength to do, as well as to say. I shall be seen most plainly then, when 
I have ceased to be seen. Christianity is not talk, but might ( 3). 
I tell all the churches that I die freely. Leave me to the wild beasts. 
I am the fine meal ground in the mill for sacrifice. Stir up the wild 
beasts to devour me wholly. I cannot command you as Peter and 
Paul did; for I am only a criminal and a slave ( 4). I am fighting 
with wild beasts the whole way from Syria to Rome. Yet the cruelty 
of my guards is a wholesome discipline to me. I trust and pray that 
the beasts will devour me at once; that they will be eager, as I am 
eager. Let no power in heaven or on earth envy me my crown. I am 
ready for any torture ( 5). All the kingdoms of the earth are nothing 
to me. I desire Christ; I desire light and life. Let me imitate the 
passion of my God ( 6). Satan would seize on me as his prey ; do 
not abet him. Obey me in these words which I write now. My 
earthly passions are crucified. I desire not the food of corruption. 


I crave the bread and the cup of God ( 7). Once again ; do not 
thwart me. I write briefly, but Christ will interpret. It is God's own 
will that I declare ( 8).' 

' Pray for the Syrian Church, which has no bishop now but God, and 
of which I am an unworthy member. The churches which have re- 
ceived and escorted me join in my salutation ( 9). I write this from 
Smyrna, with the assistance of the Ephesians, especially Crocus. Tell 
the Syrians who have preceded me, that I shall arrive shortly. Written 
on ix Kal. Sept. Farewell, be patient to the end ( 10).' 


'IFNATIOC, 6 Kal Oeo<f>opos, rfj ri\er]fjievri ev /meya- 
\eioTrjTi TraTpos V^ICTTOV Kal 'Irjcrov Xptcrrov TOV JJLOVOV 
vlov avTOv, KK\ricria ^yaTT^/uLevrj Kal Tre^amayze^ ev 
6e\rj/uLaTL TOV 6e\ri(ravTOs TO. TTCLVTU a ea'Ttv, /caret 

TTpOC pCOMAIOyc] TOV avrov mffTO\ri irpos pat/jLalovs g* ; ignatii epistola ad 
romanos L*; epistola tertia (eiusdem sancti ignatii} 2*; ad romam urbem A. There 
is no title in GA m S m M. 

r d Kal] M ; qui est A m ; om. S m . For the other authorities see the note on 
Ephes. inscr. i Trarpds v \f/laTov] GL2 A A m M ; excelsi (om. iraTpbs) S m ; 

v\[/lffTov 6eov traTpbs g. Kal] GLA m S m [M] g (but omitted in 1); om. A; def. 

2. 3 Tjya.TT'rjfj.ti'ri] GLA m S m M : rryia.ffiJ.tvr) [g*] ; sancti A (translating it as if it 

had read the sentence viov TOV riyia<rjjivov Kal 0WT^oiros) ; def. 2. 4 TOV fleXiy- 

GLAA m M ; TOU Troi^o-avros [g] ; ejus qui ligat et tenet omnia S m ; def. 2. 

ii. 1 1 ra /ueyaXeta TOV Qfov). It OC- 
curs in other connexions, Jer. xxxiii 
(xl). 9, 3 Esdr. i. 4, Acts xix. 27. 

3. TJyajrr)fj.(vy] So to be read, as in 
Trail, inscr. Though jj-yiao-/^^ has 
very high support, yet it ought pro- 
bably to be rejected, as a likely word 
(comp. i Cor. i. 2) to be substituted 
in this connexion by a scribe. This 
very substitution has been made in 
many MSS of Jude I rots eV GeoJ Trarpt 
ijyuHTfjievoiS) where r/yaTr^/icvoty is the 
correct reading. 

4. roO feXrjo-avros fc.r.X.] 'of Him 
that willed all things which exist'', 
comp. Magn. 3 fts T^JL^V eiceivov TOV 
6e\rjo-avros v^as. I have punctuated 
after eo-Tiv and accentuated it paroxy- 
tone, as the sense requires. 

Kara -rriaTiv KOI ayatr'nv K.r.X.] t zn 
faith and love toward Jesus Christ! 

ROME, that hath found mercy and 
enlightenment in Jesus Christ, that 
is foremost in rank as in love, worthy 
in all respects, attached with Christ's 
commands, full of grace, and filtered 
clear of all defilement; a hearty 
greeting in Christ.' 

i. TJJ r}\fr/iJ.(VT) K.r.A.] ' ' which has 
found mercy in the mightiness of the 
Father Most High] i.e. 'on which 
He in His compassion has conferred 
gifts such as His mightiness alone 
can bestow'; comp. Smyrn. inscr. 
T^Xe^/xeVj; ev iravri. ^aptV/xart. For 
see also Philad. inscr. For 
' mightiness,' ' magnifi- 
cence,' applied to God, comp. Luke 
ix. 43, 2 Pet. i. 16, Clem. Rom. 24, in 
all which passages it refers to muni- 
ficent exhibitions of His power (Acts 


TT'ICTTIV Kai dyaTrrjv ' Irjcrov XpicrTOv TOV Oeov 

/cat] gAA m ; om. GLSmM ; def. S. 2 rbir^ \uplov\ GSAAmMg ; 

loco chori L ; regione S m - dt;io6eos...d!;iayvos] txt GLA (with variations 

explicable through the medium of the Syriac ; see the next note) A m S m g ; digna deo 
(a'i60eos) et digna vita (d%toTrpeirr)s, for KT! vita is doubtless a corruption of 

The genitive case is objective and 
probably refers to both the preceding 
substantives, as in Ephes. 20 eV TTJ 
avTov TriVrei Kai eV TTJ avTov dydrrT) ; 
comp. ib. 14 edv reXeicoy ety 'l^o-oCi/ 
Xpioroz' ey^Te r//* TTIO~TIV Kai rr]V aya- 
TTTJV. See also .E>fe, i with the note. 
The preposition Kara gives the rule 
or standard after which their con- 
duct is fashioned. 

1. TOV Qfov rjpav] See the note 
on Ephes. inscr. 

2. TrpoKa&jrat] l has the chief seat, 
presides ', takes the precedence? The 
word is used of preeminence or supe- 
riority generally in writers of about 
this time; e.g. Dion Chrysost. Or. 
xxxv (p. 68) ri;y re Qpvyias 7ipoKd0T)- 
vBf KOI Avdiay K.r.X. (of the town of 
Celaense), Galen xix. p. 22 (Kiihn) 

rjia)0~dv Tivfs T&v did\6yo)V laTp&v Iv 
TrpoeSpfia Ka$eojuei/oi K.r.X., Greg. 
Naz. Or. xliii. 14 (i. p. 780) ro Bu- 

dvTtOV, TTjV 7TpOKa6(ofJifVT)V TTJS f(OttS 

TroXii/. Schol. to Soph. Electr. 234 
MuKT^vai jj 7rpoKa$ebfieV/7 rou *Apyov$. 
See the inscription in Bull, de Cor- 
resp. Helttn. VII. p. 283 Tapo-oy...r<3i/ 
y eVap^eiftii/, [KiXiKtayj/Itravptay, AiKao- 
via[s, TTpo]Ka6fofjievT), with the refer- 
ence (ib. p. 285) to Basil of Seleucia 
Op. p. 275 (Paris, 1622) 
TrpoeSpeuovcra Kai 7rpOKa$e 
'loravpi'8oy TroXeeoy. Pearson quotes 
an edict ascribed to the Dictator 
Csesar in loann. Malal. Chron. ix. p. 
216 (ed. Bonn.) 'Ei/ 'Ai/rio^em TTJ prj- 
rpOTroXei, iepa Kai dcrvXa) Kai avTOvona 
KOI apyovo-r? Kai irpoKaOnnevri rrjy dvaro- 

\fjs, 'louXtos Fa'toy Kaio-ap K.r.X. Leo 
the Great thus apostrophizes Rome 
herself at a later date (Serm. 82, Op. 

i. p. 322, Venet. 1753), 'civitas sacer- 
dotalis et regia, per sacram beati 
Petri sedem caput orbis effecta, latius 
praesideres religione divina quam 
dominatione terrena.' 

ev TOTTO) K.r.X.] These words pro- 
bably describe the limits over which 
the supremacy or jurisdiction ex- 
tends; comp. Tert. de Praescr. 36 
'percurre ecclesias apostolicas apud 
quas ipsae adhuc cathedrae apostolo- 
rum suis locis praesident? In this 
case it might be thought that there 
was a reference more especially to 
the presidency of the Roman see 
over the suburbicarian bishops, who 
formed a sort of college under the 
bishop of Rome as their head a con- 
stitution out of which the later college 
of Cardinals grew. But, not to men- 
tion that the presidency is here as- 
signed not to the Roman bishop but 
to the Roman Church, such a refer- 
ence would probably be a great ana- 
chronism. Though some have seen 
distinct traces of this relation between 
the bishop of Rome and the subur- 
bicarian sees at least as early as the 
beginning of the third century (Bun- 
sen Hippolytus I. p. 422 sq, ed. 2; 
Milman Lat. Christ. I. p. 41 ; comp. 
Ruggieri de Port. HippoL Sed. ii. 8 
in Lumper Hist. Sanct. Pair. vill. 
p. 518 sq), yet there is really no evi- 
dence of such a constitution till a 
very much later date, while many 
facts point in the opposite direction ; 
see Dollinger Hippolytus u. Kallistus 
p. 108 Sq. The roTroy ^copiov 'PtB/iatcoi/ 
therefore will have a looser significa- 
tion, denoting generally ' the country 
or district of the Romans' (comp. 


Kat TTpOKadrirai ev TOTTW 

' Pw/uLaitov, a 

decorum, as Cureton and Petermann suggest) et beatitiidine (a^iofiaKdpiaros) et laude 
iivos) et memoria (perhaps alayvos, WOn memoria being a corruption of 
purificatio} et digna prosperitate (d^eTrrrewcTos) S; om. M. 

quoted by Pearson and others as a 
parallel to the expression here, we 
ought probably to read x>pi v - The 
explanation of Bunsen, who governs 
X<*piov by TrpoKddrjrai and interprets Iv 
roTTQ) in dignitate, in officio suo (Br. 
p. 114), appears to me quite unten- 
able. Nor again does it seem possi- 
ble to accept Zahn's solution (/. v. A. 
p. 3 1 1 sq, and ad loc.}, who takes the 
same construction but substitutes 
rvTro) for roTTo), making cv TVTTO) signify 
'as an example,' i.e. to the other 
churches. We should expect els 
TVTTOV or to? TVTTOS in this case; and 
indeed the extreme awkwardness of 
the whole expression condemns it. 

Xupt'ov] ''region? The words x&p * 
('place'), x<*P a ('country'), and X M ~ 
piov ('district'), may be distinguished 
as implying locality, extension, and 
limitation, respectively. The last 
word commonly denotes either 'an 
estate, a farm,' or 'a fastness, a 
stronghold,' or (as a mathematical 
term) 'an area.' Here, as not un- 
frequently in later writers, it is 'a 
region,' 'a district' ; but the same fun- 
damental idea is preserved. The 
relation of x">P s to X<*p' LOV * s t ^ ie 
same as that of apyupos, xpuo-os, to 
dpyvpiov, xpvo-iov, the former being 
the metals themselves, the latter the 
metals worked up into bullion or 
coins or plate or trinkets or images, 
e.g. Macar. Magn. Apocr. iii. 42 (p. 
147) TOUT K xpvcrov KOI apyvpov KO.I 
XaXitov Koi (riftrjpov TrXarro/zei/a /iopcpoa- 
uara dpyvptov KOI ^pufrtoi/. 

di60eos K.T.X.] On the frequency 
of these compounds of aios in Igna- 
tius see the note on Ephes. 4 aio- 
v6p.a<TTov. In this passage, though 
symmetrical in composition, they are 

Macar. Magn. Apocr. iii. 38, p. 135, 
eV (TKT/TTTpo) Kcti X^P9 Pf&pcuwv avaira- 
T<5iO ; and' the Church of Rome itself 
is so entitled, as the principal church 
in this region, just as the Church of 
Jerusalem might be said TrpoKaOfjcrOai 
(V TOTTO) %a>piov 'lovSaiooi/. 

On the otherhand it might be urged 
that eV TOTTG) K.r.X. describes not the 
range of the supremacy, but the 
locality of the supreme power itself. 
In this case TrpoKadrjrai would be used 
absolutely of a certain precedence 
assigned to the Church of Rome, as 
situated in the metropolis of the em- 
pire and the world, over the other 
churches of Christendom. The ex- 
pression would then be allied to the 
'potentior principalitas,' which Ire- 
naeus (iii. 3. 2) assigns to the Roman 
Church ; though not so strong in 
itself. But, if this were the meaning, 
it is difficult to see why Ignatius 
should write ev TOTT<B ^coptou 'Peo/xmW 
in place of cv 'Po/x^, which alone 
would be natural to describe merely 
the locality. The idea of the ' cathedra 
Petri' therefore has no place here. 

For the pleonastic TOTTOJ comp. 
Clem. Horn. i. 14 TTO&W eVi rav rrjs 
'lovSaias yevfcrOai. TOTTOV, Letter of 
Abgar in Euseb. H. E. i. 13 a-cor^pi 
dya$a> dvafpavevri eV TOTTCO 'lepotroAv/xcoi/ 
(comp. Doctrine of Addai p. 4, ed. 
Phillips). It may perhaps be regard- 
ed as a Syriasm, since the Syrians 
constantly insert the corresponding 
word NiriN in translating from the 
Greek, where it has no place in the 
original; e.g. Acts ii. 9, 10, iv. 36, 
xi. 19, xiv. 24, xvi. 7, 8, xviii. 2, xx. 2, 
etc., in the Peshito. In Origen in 
loann. ii. 12 (iv. p. 172) TreTroirjKfv 

(Kfl TOV T07TOU ^COptOU TTapaK\lj(TCti>S, 



y dj~ie 


d^iayvos, KCU 7rpOKa6r]jUL6vr] Ttjs dyaTrtjs, 

rjv KCLI a<T9rab/jai ev ovopaTt 

g* (but 1 has fide dignae} G (written d&oeiriTevKTos) "2 (see the 
last note) A m S m ; digne ordinata L ; digna predbus A : see the lower note. 
2 xP ta " r< ^ J ' A los ] g* (though the common text has x/ HO " ro ^ /u A to s) '> christi habens 

hardly so in meaning, but take their 
complexion from the other compo- 
nent element, ' worthy of praise,' 
'worthy in purity,' etc. For the word 
di66eos itself see Trail, inscr. (note). 
i. a^ifTTLTevKTos] The meaning of 
the word may be doubtful. Accord- 
ing as an active or a passive sense is 
assigned to -eniTevKTos, it will signify 
'worthy of success' or 'worthy of 
associating with.' Jacobson indeed 
says of this latter sense, 'mire Vede- 
lius dignissima quae invisatur? But 
it is suggested by the passive form ; 
it is supported by such analogies as 

and especially dgioKoivwvrjTos (Plat. 
Resp. p. 371 E) ; and it would harmo- 
nize with Ignatius' expressed desire 
to see the Romans ( i ). On the other 
hand dvfTrirevKTos, eiWiYfUKroy, both 
of them late and rare words, are used 
in the sense 'unsuccessful,' 'fortu- 
nate,' respectively. All those versions 
also, which had the worduncorrupted, 
agree in so rendering it ; dignaprospe- 
ritate 2 ; digna assecutione (desideri- 
oruni] A m ; digna Us quae petiit S m : 
and this fact may perhaps be allowed 
to decide the meaning. Of the others, 
digne ordinata in L represents aie- 
TriTCLKTos, and fide digna in 1 dto- 
iria-TcvTos, while digna predbus in 
A is due to a corruption in the 
Syriac text /CV*\ ^x&precatione for 

prosperitate] which the 

Armenian translator had before 
him, as Petermann has pointed out. 
Yet ftvacTTtTfvKTos seems to have a 

passive sense ' difficult of attainment' 
(unless indeed its meaning is 'diffi- 
cult of success ') in Diod. Sic. xvii. 93 
6pa>v Svo-eTrircvKTov rrjv eVi rovs Tav- 
dapidas crrpareLav ovaav, ib. xxxii. exc. 


ecr^e ras irpdeis, and SO certainly 
Methodius Conv. i. i (p. ii,ed. Jahn) 
(nrdviov irdw KOI Svo-fTTtreu/croz/ dv6p<a- 
TTOIS dyveia; while Hesych. uses it in 
a somewhat different sense, but still 
passive, 'difficult of access, unsoci- 
able,' when he writes 
pos' dvcTKoXwTepo 
As regards the form of the word, 
dgieniTevKTos is more in accordance 
with analogy (e. g. d^cenaivos just a- 
bove, d&cvTpfirTos Clem. Alex. Proph. 
Ed. 28, p. 997). 

2. diayvos] ' worthily pure? Bun- 
sen (Br. p. 115) conjectures dgiaivos, 
supposing that the previous diTraivof 
is a transcriber's gloss to explain the 
unusual word dgiaivos. But the con- 
vergence of so many and various 
authorities in favour of the reading 
in the text forbids such a violent 

7rpoKa6rjHvrj rrjs dya7rr)s\ Comp. 
Clem. Horn. Ep. Clem. 2, 17, where 
TrpoKaOe^fo-dai dXrjdelas is said of Cle- 
ment as the successor of S. Peter. 
There is doubtless here a reference 
back to the foregoing irpoKadrj^evrj eV 
TOTTO) K.r.X. The Church of Rome, as 
it is first in rank, is first also in love. 
A noble testimony is borne to the 
spirit which distinguished the early 
Roman Church by Dionysius of 
Corinth, who writes as follows to the 



Xpio-rov vlov Trarpos* KO.TCL crdpKa Kcti 7rvev/ma 
5 Trdcrrj evTO\rj CLVTOV, TreTrXripw/uievois %dpiTOs Oeov doia- 
Kai a7ro$iv\i<rfjLevois CITTO TTCIVTOS d\\OTpiov 

legem L; in lege christi [S] S m ; kge christi A ; X/>WTWJ'V,UOS G ; def. M. A m gives 
both readings, christi-habens-legem (aut', christi-habens-nomeri). In the passage 
which follows, S is greatly abridged. 

Christians in Rome (c. A.D. 170), e 
dpxf}S e6os eori TOVTO, rravras d8e\(f>ovs TTOtKiXcoy evepyeTelv, IK- 
K\r]o-iais TC TroXXats Tals KOTO iraaav 
(o8e p,ev TTJV TV 

See the note 


8eop.eva>v Treviav 
Xotv Se aSfX^ot? VTrdp^ovo'iv 
yovvras- di a>v jrefj-neTf apxyOfv c(po- 
di(ov TT arpOTrapaSorov edos 'Pa>- 
/iat'etfi/ 'Pa)/xaiot ^vXarroires 1 , and he 
adds that Soter, their present bishop, 
had more than sustained the tradi- 
tional reputation of his church for 
deeds of charity ; Euseb. H. E. iv. 
23. The Epistle of Clement itself is 
a happy illustration of this spirit. 

Xpia-Tovofjios] 'observing the law 
of Christ': comp. I Cor. ix. 21 Zwo- 
pos Xpto-roC, and see also Gal. vi. 2 

dva.TT\T)p(0<rT TOV VOfJLOV TOV XptO-TOU, 
Mdgn. 2 (OS VOfJiW Irj(TOV XptOTOV. 

Considering the great preponder- 
ance of the best authorities in favour 
of xpioroi/o/ios, and the likelihood of 
alteration into xpioreoi/u/uoy for the 
sake of conformity with the following 
word, there can be no doubt about 
the reading. 

3. TrarpoW/ioy] SeeEphes. iii. 14, 15, 
Trpos TOV Trarepa e' ov Traara Trarpia 
tv ovpavols Kai eVi yrjs ovopa^erai. 
The lexicons give no other example 
of this word, though the derivatives 
Trarpeoi'Vju.iKos, Trarpooi/u^uKcos", are not 
uncommon in later writers, and ira- 
occurs even in vEschylus 
151 TO 7raTp<i)vvp.iov yevos r)/iere- 
pov (where Blomfield would read TO 
ira.Tpwwp.ov u>v K.T.X.). This same play 
also offers a good analogy to the pre- 
ceding word in Tlcpo-ovopos ver. 916. 


4. apKa <a 
on Ephes. 10. 

jji/fo/nevoiy] l united to\ and so ' act- 
ing in unison wittf ; comp. Magn. 6, 
Smyrn. 3. 

5. dStaKpLTcos] not ' 'inseparably'' ', 
but '"without wavering, with undi- 
vided allegiance, with singleness of 
hear? ; comp. Philad. inscr. dya\~ 

ev T<5 -rrddei TOV Kvpiov r)/icoi/ 

See the note on ddidicpi- 
TOV, Ephes. 3. Comp. also such ex- 
pressions as d/uepi'oTO) Kap8ia Trail. 
13, aTTfpto-Trao-Tw Stai/oia Ephes. 2O. 

6. dnodiv\i(rpevois] i strained clear\ 
' filtered^ ; comp. Philad. 3 ovx OTI trap p.pio~fj.ov cvpov aXX' a7roSivXto~/iOJ/. 
The single compound 8tv\ifiv occurs 
literally in Amos vi. 6, Matt, xxiii. 24 
(comp. Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 20, p. 
489), and metaphorically in Clem. 
Alex. Proph. Eel. 7 (p. 991) TO <a\ 
TTVfvp.aTa dicddapTa o~vp.nc7rXeyp.eva TTJ 
Jfvxfj SivXi&o-dai K.T.X. For the sub- 
stantive see Iren. i. 14. 8 ev TC novots 
Kai TaXairrapiais ^ux 7 ) yfvop.evr] (Is 
8iv\io~p.ov avTrjs (explaining the Va- 
lentinian teaching), Clem. Alex. Paed. 
i. 6 (p. 117) 01 8iv\io-p.ov p.ev TOV irvev- 
P.UTOS TTJV p.vrjp.T]V TCOJ/ KpeiTTov<ov civai 
(pao-iv' 8iv\io~pbv de voovo~t TOV dno 
njs VTrop-vrjo-ftoS TO>V dp.eiv6vav TCOJ/ x ft ~ 
povav xtop-vp-w (speaking of certain 
Gnostics)... TOV avTov ovv Tporrov Kai 

yp,fls...8lV\l6p.eVOl jSaTTTtV/iaTi K.T.X. 

For another compound see Clem. 
Alex. Exc. Theod. 41 (p. 979) iv w 
KOTO. 8vvap.iv Kai TO. o"7rep- 
o-vvc\6ovTa auVco els TO 7r\rjp(op.a. 
For coincidences with the Valenti- 
nian phraseology in Ignatius see the 



7r\ei(rTa ev 'Irj&ov XpicrTto TW Qew Y\ 

I. 'Gjrei ev^djuievos Oew eirervxcv iSeiv VJULWV TO. 

i 'I. X. T$ 0e$ V^] GLA m S m ; 'I. X. r$ 6e$ (om. T)/J.UV) M; 'I. X. 
(om. r< dey TJIJ.CJV) A ; 0e$ Kal Trarpl Kal Kvpty THJL&V 'I. X. g ; om. S (see the last 
note). 3 'E?rel e^a/xe^oj] GAA m Mg* (but 1 has deprecans); deprecans 

(e7reua/iej>os) L. The following are doubtful; jampridem deum oravi ^lt dignus 
fierem.,.minc autem ligattis etc S; oravi et datum est mihi ut viderem etc S m ; but 
they seem to be attempts to mend the anacoluthon of ^?rei ev^d/jievos K.T.\. See the 
lower note. e v] GM; r$ 6e$ g. 4 dt60ea] GSS m .g; 

dio0^ara M (but v. 1. dio0ea); dignas visione L (but this does not necessarily imply 
aio0eaTa, since at60ea might have been so interpreted, though wrongly; see the 
lower note) ; vestras dignas visione fades (aut, vestras deo dignas fades) A m (this 
might imply merely alternative renderings of dt60ea, but probably intends alterna- 
tive readings, oi60ea and a^to^ara); om. A. ws] GL; oOs g* (MSS, but 1 has 

sicuti}\ qitod (or quern, or quos) A; id quod S m (but this does not imply any other 

notes on Ephes. inscr., Magn. 8, 
Trail, i. The construction and meta- 
phor here are well illustrated by a 
fragment attributed to Archytas in 
Stobasus Flor. i. 73 Qcos...fl\iKpivTJ 
Kal divXio-fj-evav e\fi Tav dperav OTTO 
TTCLVTOS TO* Qvarat iraBfos- The ^p<5/Ma 
refers to the colouring matter which 
pollutes the purity of the water. 

i. Tr\f^(TTa...xaipiv] See the note 
on Ephes. inscr. 

ro> 0e<a jJ/Aeoi/] See the note on 
Ephes. inscr. 

ttyUBfta)?] On this word in the open- 
ing salutations of the Ignatian Epis- 
tles see the note Ephes. inscr. 

I. 'My petition has been more 
than answered, when I prayed that I 
might see your faces : for I hope at 
length to salute you as a prisoner of 
Jesus Christ, if it be God's will that 
I complete my course. The begin- 
ning indeed is well ordered, if only I 
am successful to the end, so that no 
one interposes to rob me of my por- 
tion. I say this, because I am ap- 
prehensive of your love. It is easy 
for you to do as you will; but it is 
difficult for me to find God, unless 
you stay your hands'. 

3. 'ETm evgdpevos K.r.X.] 'Seeing 
that in answer to my prayer s\ The 
sentence is an anacoluthon ; depen- 
dent clauses crowd upon each other 
in succession ; and the thread of the 
grammar is lost. For similar instances 
in the openings of these epistles 
see Ephes. i 'A7roSea/Afi'o? (with the 
note). The anacoluthon here has a 
close parallel also in Magn. 2 'Eircl 
ovv jgiaOrjv K.r.X. (see the note). The 
subject on which he here 'flies off at 
a tangent' is his fear lest the Roman 
Christians should interpose and rob 
him of his martyr's triumph. Here, 
as in similar cases, the transcribers 
and critics have attempted to mend 
the syntax. Such an attempt, for 
instance, is the substitution of 'ETTCV- 
f-dpevos for 'Erret evd/j.vos (Vedelius, 
Ussher, Pearson, etc, with the Latin 
Versions and some MSS of the Meta- 
phrast), or the reading IlaAcu eVeva- 
fj-fvos (Bunsen after the Syriac), or 
the omission of yap after SeSe/zeW 
(the editors commonly after the Me- 
dicean MS). 

eVeVv^of] '/ have been successful', 
1 it has been granted me* ; not mean- 
ing that he had already seen them, 




di66ea TrpocrtoTra, ws Kai TrXeov r) Y\TO\)^Y]V Xafielv SeSe- 

5 jjievos yap ev XpLcrrco 'Irjcrov e\7rifa vjiids dcnrdcracrBai, 

edvTrep BeXrjjma r\ TOV d^iwOrjvai JJL ei? TeXos 


reading than u>s) ; def. SM. For A m see the next note. TrX^oi' -J) -^ 

see below; ir\toi> rjroij/j.rji' GLAg; ex multo tempore petebam S m (perhaps a bad 
rendering of ir\ov rather than a v. 1. iraXai); def. SM. A m has qiianturn petii, plus 
etiam accept, which gives the same sense as my conjectural reading. 5 yap] 

gl, A m ; nunc atitem [S] (see a previous note); et nunc A; om. GM; al. S m (but 
the existing text seems to have been corrupted from one which had yap; see 
Moesinger p. 25). Xpicrry 'I^croO] GLA m S m Mg; 1-rjffov xP ia " r <t > 2A. 

aa-rrdcraa6ai~] GLAA m Mg; venire et salutare S m ; accipere et salutare S (where 
accipere seems to represent Xa/3etj>, which has been preserved from the omitted 
context). 6 dt\r)/j.a] gLSSmj add. rov deov GAM; add. domini A m : see 

the lower note. elvai] GLg ; OVTCOS elvai M ; pervenire A m ; sustinere 

haec S m ; om. SA. The variations of the Oriental Versions seem to be mere 
expedients of translators, and not to imply any v. 1. in the Greek. 

but that circumstances were such as 
to have already insured the fulfilment 
of his prayer. 

4. aio#ea] See the note on Trail. 
inscr. The authorities for ato#eara 
are too slight to justify its adoption, 
though plausible in itself. I cannot 
find that dgioQeos (or indeed any com- 
pound in -foot) is ever derived from 
0ea, and therefore equivalent to a'io- 
QCUTOS (as maintained by Zahn /. v. 
A. p. 558, though ad loc. he is dis- 
posed to retract this opinion). In 
C. /. G. 4943 di6eovs in ver. 3 has 
not the same meaning as di6e<t>pov 
in ver. 4 but refers to the 'shrines' 
which are mentioned in the same 
line. Alciphron Ep. iii. 55 is quoted 
in the lexicons for this sense, but the 
reading is probably d^to^pea, not ai- 

cos Kai K.T.A.] l so that / have re- 
ceived even more than / asked for\ 
He had prayed that he might see the 
Romans; he was permitted to visit 
them, decorated with a prisoner's 
fetters and (so he ventured to hope) 
crowned with a martyr's chaplet. 
For the ideas associated with fieoyztof 
in the mind of Ignatius see the notes 

on Ephes. 3, n, Magn. I. For coy 
with the infinitive, expressing the 
consequence, see e.g. Actsxx. 24 (v. 1.), 
Clcni. Horn. i. 2O o>? eWAayeVru /xe 
6avpd(iv, 3 Mace. i. 2 cos/Aovor Kriivai 
avrov. It is not very uncommon in 
classical authors, e.g. ^sch. Ettm. 36, 
Xen. Anab. i. 5. 10, i. 8. 10, iii. 4. 25, 
iv. 3. 29 (with Kiihner's notes), and 
fairly common in later writers. The 
reading of the MSS here seems quite 
unintelligible, though the editors have 
hitherto acquiesced in it. I have 
remedied the fault by the repetition 
of a single letter, n\eov 77 grwfujv for 
rr\fov yroviJirjv (comp. e.g. the vv. 11. in 
Gal. v. i, Clem. Rom. 35, ii. 8). For 
the construction comp. Aristid. Op. I. 
p. 48 (TKeTrrjs edei TrXeiovos rj (frepeiv 
dwaifjirjv. Another simple emenda- 
tion would be TrXfov coV for irXeov, as 
the coz/ might easily have been omit- 
ted owing to homceoteleuton ; comp. 
Polyc. i aiTov avvf(TLv TrXfiova ys %x fls ) 
ib. 3 TrXe'ov (TTTOvdaios yivov ov et. 

6. eai>7rep Btkrjpa 77] 'if it should 
be willed\ For this absolute use of 
$e'X?7/ia, referring to the Divine will, 
see the note on Ephes. 20. Here, as 
in most other passages where it oc- 




v yap dp%ri euoiKOVojuirjTOS e&Tiv, eav Treparos TTL- 
TV^CO ek TO TOV K\rjpov JJLOV ai/e/z7ro/<TTtos a.7ro\afieiv. 
(f>o/3ovjULaL yap TY\V VJULCOV dyaTrrjv, JJLYI avTr\ jue dSiKqarri' 

VfJUV ydp 6l)^|05 eCTTLV, O 66\6T 9 7TOtfj<TCU' ejJLOl $6 

i av TrtpaTos ^7riTi5x w ] si finem etiam inveniam A; si dignus-fiam perduci ad 
finem S ; eavtrep x<fy>tTOS CTTITIJX^ GL ; tdvirep TTJS x&P iT s ^T"i5x w M. Hitherto we 
have had two separate words x a P iTO * and Trfyaroj. In the authorities which follow 
they are combined; ut usque ad finem assequar hanc gratiam S m ; si finem etiam 
gratiae assequar A m ; and so too the presence of both words is betokened in the 
adaptation of g, edv-rrep x&P LTO * ^<-r6x<a ds r6 rbv K\rjp6v ftov els irtpas dvefj-iro- 
dtffTM &iro\afieiv. See the lower note. 2 airo\a.fielv\ The addition of S 

patienter is a mere gloss unsupported by any other authority. 3 yap] 

GLSM g; sed AA m S m . rrjv u/xwi' dya-jnfjv] GM; rty dyaTnjv vfiwv g. 

curs, the transcribers have added 
explanatory words. See the critical 

els re\os fivai] 'to arrive at the 
end'\ comp. Luke xi. 7, and see A. 
Buttmann p. 286. See also the note 
on 2 fvpeQrivai els 8v<riv. For similar 
uses in classical writers (e.g. Herod. 
i. 21 es TTIV MiXrjTov TJV) see Kiihner n. 
p. 471 ; comp. Polyc. Phil. 9. It is 
unnecessary to read icvat with 

I. fvoiKovonqTos] So too dvcroiKovo- 
/jLrjTos, e.g. Artem. Oneir. ii. 58. The 
words more often have the meaning 
'digestible', 'indigestible', e.g. Di- 
philus of Siphnus in Athen. ii. p. 54, 
where both occur. They are rare in 
any sense. 

Treparos] l the termination , goal\ 
as e.g. Lucian Harmon. 2 eVi TO nepas 
d(pigr) rrjs fvxr)s. This reading, which 
I have restored, seems to follow from 
a comparison of the authorities as 
given above. We can there trace the 
genesis of the variations. The ori- 
ginal reading would be emended thus 

lav Treparos, whence would arise two 
variations ; ( I ) edvTrcp ^aptro? , the read- 
ing of GL ; (2) eav Treparos x ( *P lTOS > 
the reading of A m , which is also the 
foundation of S m g. 

2. TOV K\fjp6v fj.ov] See the note 
on Trail. 12 for this use of icXfjpos, 
referring to his martyrdom. In aVo- 
Xa/3eli/, 'to secure', the preposition 
probably denotes that it was his 
proper, destined lot: comp. [Clem. 
Rom.] ii. 8, and see the notes on Ga- 
latians iv. 5. 

3. (popovpai K.T.A.] For the con- 
struction see Winer Ixvi. p. 782. 

The persecutions in the reign of 
Domitian show that Christianity had 
already forced its way upwards to the 
highest ranks of society in Rome 
(see Clement of Rome I. p. 29 sq). 
Although Ignatius had been con- 
demned to death, yet the inter- 
cession of powerful friends in the 
metropolis, whether open Christians 
or secret sympathisers, might have 
procured, if not a pardon, at least a 
commutation of his sentence. An 
instance of such interposition with 
the emperor on behalf of Christian 
convicts at a later date is given by 
Hippol. Haer. ix. 12. The strenuous 
efforts of the Christians under like 
circumstances are described in Lu- 
cian Peregr. 12 eWi 5' ovv c'&fcro, ot 
avfifpopav TroiovfjLfvot TO 
iravTa CKIVOVV cgapTrdcrai TreipaJ- 
fiei/ot avTov. Ignatius appears to have 
heard that such efforts were contem- 


5 Sv(TKO\6v <TTIV TOV QeOV & 


II. Ov yap 6e\w v/ULas dv6pa)7rapea'Krja'ai d\\d 
Oew dpea-ai, uxrirep KCLI dpecnceTe. oi/Ve yap eyw Trore 
efc) Kaipov TOLOVTOV Qeov eiriTV^eiv oifre i)juels, eav 

4 yap] GLA m M g; atitein S; scio enim quod S m ; om. A. 5 /t^] 

LSA g* (but with a v. 1.); om. GS m A m (substituting nunc] M. 7 70/3] 

after otf GLM; after 0Aw g; om. AA m ; al. S m ; def. S. tf/wis] gM, and 

app. L ; u/xtj' G. aXXa 0e apt (rat] GLA m M g ; sed deo A (a translator's 

abridgment); om. S m ; def. S. 8 dpeo-Kere] a^cr/cerat G. of/re] 

gL S m (?); 06 GMS(?) A(?) A m (?). TTOTC ^w /ccupH Gg* (but with a v. 1. 

w Trore Kaipbv] ; ^fw Katpbv TTOTC M ; habebo aliquando tempus L. 9 rot- 

oCrov] G ; TOLOVTOV wore g. It is omitted altogether in M. 

See the note 

plated on his behalf. 

5. Qeov eVtTv^eTv] 
on Magn. i. 

/LIJ) (j)ei(rrj(rde /xov] t if you should 
not spare me\ i.e. 'should inter- 
pose to rob me of my desire.' To 
Ignatius martyrdom is life: comp. 
6/177 e'/iiTroSi'o-Tjre' p.oi (not Qavflv, as 
we might have expected, but) tfo-ai. 
Whosoever stands between him and 
this his true life, does him a wrong 
(ddiKrivT) just above). Such a person 
grudges him a blessing ( 3 ovdeirore 
cftao-KavaTf ovdcvi, 7 fta.O'K.avia ev 
M KaroiKei'ro)). Hence in his no- 
menclature the meaning of words is 
reversed. To 'spare' means to deliver 
to death, because death is life. From 
not understanding this, transcribers 
here have omitted the negative. Simi- 
larly /LIT) was omitted in some texts 
in 6 /MJ) 6(\j(Tr)T6 fie airoOavfiv (see 

the note there). 

II. 'I would not have you please 
men but God, as indeed you are 
doing. For me this is the great op- 
portunity of finding God, while for 
you it will be the noblest achieve- 
ment to hold your peace. If you are 
silent and leave me to my fate, I 
shall become an utterance of God ; 
if you are solicitous for my life in 

the flesh, I shall be reduced again to 
an inarticulate cry. Permit me I 
ask nothing more to pour out my 
blood as a libation to God, while 
there is still an altar ready. Encircle 
this altar as a chorus, and sing your 
hymn of thanksgiving to God in 
Christ for summoning the bishop of 
Syria from the rising to the setting 
of the sun. Yes, it is good for me to 
set from the world, that I may rise 
unto God.' 

7. dv6pQ>Trap<rKri<rai K.r.A.] For 
the opposition see Gal. i. 10, i Thess. 
ii. 4. The adjective dvQpocnrdpea-Kos is 
a Pauline word, Eph. vi. 6, Col. iii. 
22, and it occurs also in Ps. Hi. 7; 
comp. [Clem. Rom.] ii. 13. The 
verb is not found either in the LXX 
or in the N. T. Justin (Apol. i. 2) 
uses dv6p(07rapecrKia. This family of 
words seems to be confined to bibli- 
cal and ecclesiastical Greek. On 
these forms see Lobeck Phryn. p. 621. 
By 'pleasing men' he means abetting 
those friends who desired to save 
him, or gratifying the merely human 
cravings of his own nature : comp. 
eav tpatrffijfl T?JS trap/cos pov just be- 

9. KaipOV TOIOVTOV K.T.A.] ' dU 

opportunity like the present'. For 



KpeirrovL epyw e^ere 67riypa<pfjvai. eav 

2 yap] GLAA m S m ; om. S Joann-Mon (twice), M (but with a v. 1. otiv}; re 
yap g. yw] txt L; add. yevr)<ro/ GMg. Other authorities supply different 

words ; sum A m ; sum mihi S m Joann-Mon (once); ero S Joann-Mon (once); fiam A.', 
but there is no reason to think that any corresponding word stood in their Greek text. 
There is no sufficient authority for the omission of eyu (with Zahn): it appears di- 
rectly in GLAA m Mg Joann-Mon (once), and is represented, though less emphatically, 
in the sum mihi of S m Joann-Mon (once). Xoyos deov] L*ZS m Joann-Mon (twice); 
6eov (om. \6yos) GMg; ego verbum sum (aut ; ego del sum} A m (where both readings 
are recognised, but the first imperfectly, for there is no other evidence for eyu> Xoyos 
without 0eoC). A has si siletis a me verbo ego pars del fiam. This departure from 

the infinitive after Kcupov roiovrov 
comp. e.g. Horn. Od. vii. 309 o\> pot 
TOIOVTOV eVi trn^dtotn (ptXov Krjp p-atyi- 
6\W K(xoh(ii>o-6ai, and see Kiihner II. 
pp. 580, ion. 

1. KpciTTovi K.T.X.] l have your 
name attached to, have ascribed to 
you, win the credit of, any nobler 
achievement ' : as e.g. Plut. Mor. p. 

326 F rr)V rvxnv TOIS KaTop6a>pa(Tiv 
eavrrjv (7riypd(pov<Tav, Dionys. A. R. 
vii. 50 rols cKftaivovvi Trapa ras vpere- 
pas (rvvd^Kas ov rrjv Tv%r)v aXXa TTJV 
v/ncrepai/ eViypa^ct biavoiav, yElian 
H. A. viii. 2 rots ciXXorpiois eavrov 
TTOVOIS OVK eTTiypdcpwv. Sometimes the 
dative is omitted, and eTnypdfaiv nva 
signifies 'to give the credit to a per- 
son', e.g. Clem. Horn. ix. 16, 17, 18, 
xii. n, while <fViypa0eo-0ai is 'to have 
the credit', ib. xi. 9. So in Latin Se- 
neca de Brev. Vit. 16 'quid aliud est 
vitia nostra incendere, quam auctores 
illis inset ibere decs'. The metaphor 
is taken from a public tablet, where 
the name of the person is added to 
the mention of the achievement. 

2. crio)7rr]a'T)T OTT' e'/ioCJ With refer- 
ence to what follows, ' Silence in you 
is speech in me'. The twice repeat- 
ed eai> (TKOTnja-rjrf shows the nature of 
the efforts which Ignatius feared from 
his Roman friends. They might 
plead for his life. The words 'be 
silent from me' are a condensed ex- 
pression for 'be silent and leave me 


\6yos GeoC K.T.X.] 'a word of God\ 
The saint's career, if it is left to work 
out its course and ends in martyr- 
dom, will be a word of God; it will 
be an expressive testimony to the 
Gospel, a manifestation of the Divine 
purpose : but, if interfered with, it 
will be reduced to a mere inarticulate 
meaningless cry. The point of this 
sentence depends on a recognised 
distinction between \6yos and (pavr/, 
as denoting respectively 'an intelli- 
gible utterance' and an 'irrational 
cry'; comp. Arist. Probl. xi. 55 (p. 
905) Xoyou KOivuvel povov (avOpatros), 
TO. de aXXa (pcovijs, de Interpr. 4 (p. 16) 
Xoyos Se eori <pa>vr) arjp.avTLK^ K.T.X. 
It was a Stoic definition also that 
Xoyos aei (rrj^avTiKos eVri (Diog. Laert. 
vii. 57). See Lersch Sprachphilos. d. 
Alien iii. p. 32 sq, 42 sq. Thus (pa>vtj, 
as Aristotle says elsewhere (de Gen. 
An. v. 7, p. 786), is merely the v\rj 
of Xoyos. It has in it the making 
of Xoyor. The three words Xoyo?, 
(pavrj, v^d0os > , are in a descending 
scale, and denote respectively ; (i) 
the utterance of a rational being; 
(2) the cry of an animate creature, 
whether articulate or not ; (3) a mere 
confused indistinguishable sound ; 
comp. Arist. de An. ii. 8 (p. 420) T; 
(poivr) \l/o(j)os ris ecrnv ep-^v^ov. They 
are respectively 'an utterance', 'a cry', 
and 'a noise'. It will be seen from 


air ifJiov, 70) Xoyos Qeov* iav Se epacr- 


the Syriac may be explained in several ways; (i) A may have read 
uerbo for r^oXJL?3 verbum, and pars dei may represent 0eou ; (2) There may 
have been in the Syriac text of the translator a corruption r^OVl79 portio for 
r<o\jJ5fl verbum > and a subsequent correction, so that both words were retained ; 
(3) The mixed result may be due to a confusion of the two Greek readings 
eycb \6yos 0eou and eycb yevij< deov, the Armenian text having been clumsily 
and imperfectly corrected by a Greek MS which had the latter. The substitution 
of currens in the next clause from such a Greek MS favours this last explanation. 

this distinction, why Ignatius uses 
<o>i/>7 rather than \//-o$os ; for $O>I/T;, as 
such, though it does not imply reason, 
yet expresses animal emotion, Arist. 
Pol. i. 2 (p. 1253) 77 fj.ev ovv (pavri TOV 
\V7Trjpov Kal rjfieos eorl o^/ieloi/, dio 
Kal Tols aXXois vTrapxfi C&>ois . . .6 fie 
Xoyos eVi TO) 8r)\ovv eori TO o~vp.(pfpov 
Kal TO /3Xa/3fpoi>, cocrre KCU TO diKatov Kal 
TO adiKov' TOVTO yap irpos raXXa a> 
Tols ilvdpwTrois iStoy, TO [j.6vov dyaOov 
Kal xaKOv Kal diKaiov Kal adi.Kov Kal TO>V 
aXXeoi/ a?o~dr](riv fx tv - Hence (frwr) 
stands to Xoyos in the same relation 
as the -^VXIKOS ai>0pa>nof to the nvfv- 
fiaTiKos. So again Plut. Mor. p. 1026 
A o>j de <f)a>VTJ rts eVrtj/ a\oyos Kal do~ij- 
liavros, Xoyos de Xc^ts eV (fxovrj o-rjuav- 
TKTJ diavoias ; comp. Plato Theaet. p. 
203 B ev ( \eyf.o~6ai avTa oXoya, u>v 
ye ra eVapy6orara...0a)W7J/ p6vov e^ 61 ) 
Xoyoz/ fie ou6 oi^rtz/ovj/. 

This distinction of Xoyos and ^owr) 
was at once pressed into the service 
of Christian theology. Melito (Fragm. 
xv, ed. Otto : see Cureton Spicil. Syr. 

pp. .a\, 53) speaks of our Lord as 

' among angels the Archangel, among 
voices the Word', where the editors 
(Renan, Cureton, Sachau) all have 
the singular 'in voce', 'in the voice', 
but where we ought certainly to read 

the plural rtljJi= with ribui. So 
again Heracleon the Valentinian saw 
this distinction in John i. i, 14, where 
our Lord is called o Xoyos, as con- 

trasted with i. 23, where the Baptist 
styles himself $0)1/17 /3oo>i>ros, adding 
that the prophets were TJ^OS and 
arguing TTJV (pavr/v olKftOTfpav ovaav 
ro> Xoycp Xoyof yivccrdai (Orig. \nloann. 
vi 12, IV. p. 121). And Origen 
himself, though rejecting the com- 
ments of Heracleon, assumes the dis- 
tinction of Xoyos and (pavr/ as under- 
lying the language of S. John, and 
argues at length from it, the ^x^vrj 
being the minister and forerunner of 
the Xoyos (ib. ii 26, p. 85 ; vi 10, p. 
iiSsq; comp. c. Cels. vi. 9). The 
Docetae too in Hippolytus (Haer. viii. 
9) base some of their speculations on 
this distinction. See also Clem. 
Alex. Protr. I (p. 8) Trp68pofj.os 'lomi/- 
viys, Kal ) (pa)vr) TTpodpofMos TOV Xoyou 
K.r.X. : comp. Strom, viii. 2, p. 914 sq. 
From Origen more especially the 
distinction would find its way into 
later fathers ; comp. Meletius in 
Epiph. Haer. Ixxiii. 30 (p. 878), Ephr. 
Syr. Evang. Cone. Exp. 3 sq, 39 
(ed. Mcesinger). 

The passage of Ignatius is ex- 
plained accordingly by John the Monk 
in the latter part of the fourth cen- 
tury (see Quotations and References 
no. 21), who writes, 'The Word is 
not of the flesh but of the Spirit, 
whereas the Voice is not of the Spirit 
but of the flesh. ..for every beast and 
bird together with cattle and creep- 
ing thing of the earth utter the voice 
only ; but because man has in him a 



rfjs crapKos JULOV, TraXiv e&ojULai (ptovrj. 7r\eov [Se] 

JJLOL /zfj 7rapda"^rjcr6 TOV Gr7rov$i(r6fjvai 0ew, ok en 6v- 

t $wri\ L*SS m Joann-Mon 206 sq (several times) ; rpfywv GAMg. As before, 
Am recognises both readings, iterum ero mera vox (aut, iterum ero current). It 
should be noticed that in G the words irdXtv &ro^cu rp^wv are omitted in the text 
and added in the margin, though apparently by the same hand. The alterations 
in this context, (i) the insertion of yevr}<ro}Mi, (2) the omission of \6yos, (3) the 
substitution of rptx<v for 0wj/^, all hang together; see the lower note. The 
departure of A here from the original text of the Syriac Version, as shown by 
readings of 2 Joann-Mon, must be explained as the alteration of some later 
scribe who substituted in a familiar quotation the form with which he was ac- 
quainted. TT\{OV] GM; TrXetov g. 5<f] MLg;yawA m ; i'gtturS m ', 

om. GSA. 2 /x?)] GLSAA m S m ; om. g* (the existing authorities) 

M. Trapdcrxwtfe] G ; 7rap^x e<r ^ e g > 7ra/>d<rxe<r#e M ; tribuetis L (the 

MSS, but we should probably read tribuatis). (nrovdiffdTJvat] gM ; <nrovdia<r- 

soul and is not like the rest of the 
other bodies, he uses the Word and 
the Voice etc.', with much more to the 
same effect, and he refers in the con- 
text to the contrast between the 
Word and the Voice in John i. i, 14, 
23. This is doubtless substantially 
the meaning of Ignatius. His mar- 
tyrdom alone would make his life an 
intelligible utterance; otherwise it 
was no better than the passionate cry 
of some irrational creature to whom 
life is pleasure or pain, and nothing 
more. In the highest sense of all 
One only is the Ao-yor, the Word of 
God; but all His saints, made perfect 
in knowledge, are utterances, words, 
of God, as fragments of the One 

Partly because he did not under- 
stand this distinction of \6yos and 
$0)1/77, and partly (we may suppose) 
because he shrank from applying 
the term \6yos ecu to any one but 
Christ, the interpolator has altered 
the passage after his wont, substi- 
tuting cyco yevrja-ofj-ai 6eoC for e'yco 
\6yos Qeov and rpe^wi/ for (puvrj. 
Wordsworth (Church History I. p. 
143) translates naXiv rpcxvv l rene- 
gade, backslider^ referring to his 

note on TraXii/Spofieli/, S. Hippolytus 
p. 124 (ed. 2) ; but the interpolator 
probably meant that Ignatius, in- 
stead of receiving the crown of 
victory, would be put back again to 
run the race (comp. Macar. Magn. 
iii. 40, p. 138? KK\icrTai TQ>V TTOVWV KOI 
TWV dp6p,Q)V TO (TTa.diov...Kai (ru TraXiv 
dvoiycis /cat rpe^etz/ eVtrarrets K.r.X. : 
and for the metaphor see also Polyc. 
I Trpoadelvai ro> dpop-co crov ; SO too rpe- 
Xfw in i Cor. ix. 24, 26, Gal. ii. 2, v. 
7, Phil. ii. 1 6, etc., and dpopos Acts 
xx. 24, 2 Tim. iv. 7). But he has 
spoiled the antithesis. From the 
interpolator it has got into the 
Greek MS of Ignatius. Cureton sug- 
gested T^eo for Tpex<av on account 
of the similarity of the letters, and 
this not very happy conjecture is 
adopted by Bunsen p. 96, by Lipsius 
S.T. pp. 75, 196, and by Zahn, though 
Cureton himself (C. L p. 292) retract- 
ed it in favour of qtawy. But obviously 
the case here is not one of a clerical 
error, but of a deliberate alteration. 
Moreover (pcovrj is required as well 
by the common antithesis of \6yos 
and <pa>vrj, as also by the render- 
ings of the versions; e.g. the Latin 
\ which is not an equivalent to 



(TiaarTrjpiov eTOifJtov COTTIV' iva. ev ayawrf XP^ 7 I/O " 
aa-rjre TW warpi ev 'Irjcrov XpKTTip, bri TOV eV/- 

dfjvai G. 3 tW...$(T?7re] GLA m Mg ; ut in amore sitis in uno consensu 

et glorificetis S (probably only a loose paraphrase) ; tantum (cum) amore state et 
una-voce gloriosumfacite A ; sed in coetu amoris estate mihi cantatores et glorificate S m . 
4 T Trarpi] GLAA m S m Mg (but deo patri 1) ; deo patri S. kv 'Irjcrov 

Xpiory] L ; per iesum christum AmS m ; in iesu christo domino nostro S ; iv xp iffT V 
tyvov GMg; domini nostri iesu christi A. 6Vi.../ieTa7re/^(,uej'os] txt 

GLA Mg (with the variations in GM noted below); quod episcopum (syriae) 
dignificavit ut sit dei, quum vocaverit eum ab oriente in occidentem S (where [TOV] 
0eou is perhaps read for o 6e6s, and where ut sit represents evpedfyai; see however 
the lower note for another possible explanation) ; qui episcopum syriae dignatus 
est vocare ab oriente in occidentem A (not reading 6s for on, but so translating the 
ambiguous Syriae *1) ; quod dignificavit episcopum syriae ut in confessione dei inve- 
niretur in accident 'e missus in mnculis ex oriente S m . 

Again, in the first clause the edi- 
tors read y<u yevr/arofJiai \6yos GeoO 
(Cureton, Bunsen), or c-yco 
GeoO Xoyoy (Lipsius), or \6yos 
crofjiai eeoO (Zahn) : but the Latin 
version, which is almost always 
literal, shows that the terse and 
characteristic eyo> Xoyos 0foO is 

1. TrAe'of K.T.A.] l give me nothing 
more on your part\ 'I ask no favour 
of you beyond this.' On Trape'^eo-tfai 
see the note Colossians iv. i. 

2. roO a-Trovdia-dffvai] ' to be poured 
out as a libation 1 . The idea is taken 
from S. Paul, Phil. ii. 17 6i na\ <nrev- 
8o/xcu 67ri TTJ 6v(ria K.r.X., 2 Tim. iv. 6, 
e'yoo yap qdrj (mfvdo^ai. In both 
these passages it occurs in immediate 
connexion with the metaphor of the 
stadium, and this may possibly have 
suggested rpe^coj/ to the interpolator. 
The word occurs also in Joann. 
Damasc. Ep. ad Theoph. 18 (i. p. 
639) VTTO roG p-adrj/JiaTiKov 'E/3pcuou ro> 
5ta/3oAo> o-7roi>io)U6i/os. The lexicons 
give the meaning 'to be reconciled' 
( = (TTreVSofiat) in both passages. This 
meaning might be possible in John 
Damascene, as the word might there 
be middle, but in Ignatius neither 

the voice nor the sense of the context 
will admit it. 

as fn 0vo-iao-Tt]piov /t.r.A.] ' 'while 
yet there is an altar ready \ i.e. pre- 
pared for the sacrifice. The altar 
intended is, we may suppose, the 
Flavian amphitheatre, the scene of 
his approaching martyrdom. 

3- XP y ] Tb- e Roman Christians 
are asked to form into a chorus and 
sing the sacrificial hymn round the 
altar ; comp. Ephes. 4 ai ot *ar' av- 
dpa Se xP* yivea-df. The metaphor 
is taken from a heathen sacrificial 
rite; see K. F. Hermann Gottes- 
dienstl. Alterth. ii. 29. For a 
similar figure borrowed from a 
heathen religious procession see 
Ephes. 9 core ovv ACCU avvodoi K.T.\. 

4. TOV firio-KOTrov Supi'as] ' the bishop 
belonging to Syria\ i.e. 'from the dis- 
tant east'; the genitive denoting, not 
the extent of his jurisdiction, but the 
place of his abode. On the supposition 
that episcopal jurisdiction is implied, 
objection has been taken to Svpias 
(which is wanting in one copy of the 
Curetonian Syriae) as an anachronism 
in the time of Ignatius, and there- 
fore as an indication of the spurious- 
ness of the Greek Epistles (Bunsen 



OLTTO dvaToXiis 

Geoi/, '/i/a ek 

6 0eos evpeOfjvcu ek 

KaXov TO Svvai aVo 

i Su/w'as] GLS 3 AA m S m Mg (comp. Mart-Rom ib) ; om. S 2 . 
o 0e6s] gLA m ; c5 0e6j /car^axrcj/ GM; al. 2AS m (see the previous note, p. 201). 
2] txt GL[g] ; pnef. TOVTOV M. /caXop] txt GLS 2 A m Mg* 

Sev-Syr 4a; add. wz-fo' AS 3 Joann-Mon ; add. autem S m . For the complications 
in the authorities for g see the Appendix. 5vi>ai] GL2S m M Joann-Mon 

Sev-Syr; intrare A. m ; congregari A; TO $iaXu0?7z/cu g*. 3 7rp6s 0e6i'] GLS 

AA m S m Mg; om. Sev-Syr (but he quotes the passage loosely from memory bonum 
est 'occidere a mundo et oriri in christo). d^are/Aw] GLSAg Joann-Mon; 

Br. p. 117). But the anachronism 
would be as great in the third or 
fourth century, as in the second ; see 
Zahn /. v. A. p. 308. Moreover the 
other MS of the Syriac version con- 
tains the word, and therefore its 
omission in this one copy must be 
due, not to the text which was 
before the original translator, but to 
an excision practised by a later 

I. cvpeQrivai els Svviv] Comp. Esther 
i. 5 rols eBvevi TO"LS evpedelo~iv els T^V 
TToXii/, Acts viii. 40 QiXiTTTTos 8e fvpeGrj 
fls*Aa>Tov. So too (pavfjvai ety, e.g. 

2 Mace. i. 33. See also the note on 
i els re'Xos flvai. The rendering of 
the Curetonian Syriac may perhaps 
be explained by an accidental repeti- 
tion of the first syllable of fvpeQfjvai, 
which would easily be read 6Yeyp- 

S. Chrysostom obviously alludes 
to this passage in his oration on 
Ignatius, Op. II. p. 598 (ed Bened.) 
KadaTTtp rj\ios TIS e' dvaTO\fjs avic 
K.a.1 Trpbs TTJV 8v(riv rpexe0i> 
p.v els TO. rrjs dixrecos drriMV fJ-epr) 
Terai KOI VVKTO. evQeus eVayet, OVTOS 
Se els TO. rrjs dvcrcas a7re\0<av p-epr) 
<f)ai$porepoi> Kel6ev dvereiXe. So too 
the Mencea Dec. 20 rols dpopois rfjs 
cos 77X10$, rr/i/ yrjv yevvaitos 
OTT' axpcoj/ ovpavov, KOL ftvvas 
d8vT(os dno yijs els Xpiaroi/ TO (pa>s 
(rvva.(rTpa7rTeis aural rrjs d(p6ap(rias, 


besides several other allusions to this 
passage more or less direct. See 
also Ephrem Syrus Op. Grace. III. 
p. 261 eSvo-aj/ aTro KOCT/AOV /cat npos 
Xptcrroj/ ai/e'reiXaf, quoted by Zahn. 

2. Ka\ov TO 8vvai K.r.X.] He was 
following the course of the sun ; his 
life would set to the world in the far 
west ; but as the sun rises, so it also 
would rise again to God. For this 
expressive intermingling of the actual 
and the metaphorical, see KctTaicpiro? 
4. There is a somewhat similar 
turn in 2 Tim. ii. 9 ev <u 
/xf^pt defTfjuaV) (os KdKovpyos, 
\6yos TOV Qeov ov Se'Serat. 

III. 'You have never yet grudged 
any one his triumph: you have 
always hitherto been the instructors 
of others. It is my wish now that 
the lessons which you have taught 
should stand fast. One service you 
can do me. Pray that strength may 
be given me within and without, so 
that I may not only say, but will ; may 
not be called, but be found a Christian. 
The name will follow in due course. 
My faithfulness will then be manifest, 
when I am no more seen by the 
world. Nothing visible is of any 
worth. Our God Jesus Christ Him- 
self is the more clearly seen, since 
He has returned to the Father. The 
work of the Gospel is not a matter 
of persuasive rhetoric : Christianity 




III. OuSeTTore /3cuncdvaT6 ovSevi' ci\\ovs 
5 Sd^aTe. eyd) $6 6e\a) iva KaKeiva /3e/3aia r\ a 

Mr oriar (ant, Jiani oriens) A m (which seems to offer an alternative 
reading avaroXr) cJ for dvareLXu); tandem (ad fine in} oriar S m ; al. Sev-Syr. After 
avareiKw 2A Joann-Mon have in vita, which must he regarded as a mere gloss 
of the Syriac translator. 4 e/foo-raraTe] Gg; e/focr/CT^are M. ovdevi] 

gM ; ovdtva G; ovd A m (non unquatn invidistis nobis, et non alias etc). As the 
case affects the meaning, the testimony of the versions is important ; invidistis 
in aliquo L; invidistis cuiquam 2AS m ; fascinastis aliquem 1 (which requires 
ovdfra, not ovdevl as in g): see the lower note. 5 eytb 

GLA m S m Mg; om. 2 A. 

is a thing of energy and power, when 
it is hated by the world.' 

4. cftamtfoart ovftevi] ''grudged any 
one\ i.e. the triumph of martyrdom : 
COmp. 7 ftfMTKavia eV pr) KUTOI- 
Kfiro), where he is speaking of the 
same thing. ' Do not', writes Ignatius, 
' depart from your true character ; 
you have hitherto sped the martyrs 
forward to victory, do not now inter- 
pose and enviously rob me of my 
crown.' For the form and meaning 
of eftao-icdvaTe see Galatians iii. i. 
The dative is required here : for /3cur- 
Kaiveiv Tiva is either 'to bewitch' or 
'to calumniate', while Pao-Kaivciv rtvl 
is 'to envy'; see Lobeck Phryn. 

P. 463- 

aXXoi;y e'6t6aare] * you instructed 
others' 1 , i.e. in the training of the 
Christian athlete ; comp. Ephes. 3 

6f<ria, vnopovf}, jj.aKpo6viJ.ia. (with the 
note). Rome had hitherto been the 
chief arena of martyrdom; the Roman 
brethren had cheered on many a 
Christian hero in this glorious con- 
test during the persecutions of Nero 
and Domitian. The expression might 
therefore refer to the Roman martyrs 
themselves, in which case aXXovs 
would be 'others besides myself. 
Perhaps however aXXovs here means 
'others besides yourselves*. In this 
case Ignatius would refer to the 
exhortations of the Romans, whether 

by letter or by delegates, to foreign 
churches. More especially we may 
suppose that he had in his mind 
the Epistle of Clement, which con- 
tains several references to confessors 
and martyrs, with exhortations to pa- 
tient endurance founded on these ex- 
amples ; e.g. 7 ravra, ayaTT^roi, ov /iovov 
vfj,as vovdfTovvrcs e7Ti(rreAXo/iei> /c.r.X., 
46 TOIOVTOLS ovv V7ro8eiyfj.acriv KO\\T]- 
Br\vai KU\ ijfjLas del Ac.r.X., 55 " iva ^ 
*al VTroSei'y/xara f6va>v eVeyKco/nez/ K.r.X. 
There are other slight indications 
also in Ignatius that he was ac- 
quainted with the Epistle of Clement ; 
and the fact of his mentioning S. 
Peter and S. Paul in connexion a 
little below ( 4), just as they are 
mentioned in Clement ( 5), makes 
this inference very probable. Zahn (/. 
v. A. p. 313) supposes that Ignatius 
alludes also to the Shepherd of 
Hennas, which is directed to be sent 
cis ras eo> TroXeis (Vis. ii. 4); but this 
assumes the early date of Hernias, 
which is at least doubtful. 

5. e'yco 8e &fXo> /c.r.X.] 'For my- 
self, I only desire that you should be 
consistent, so that the lessons, which 
you thus give to your disciples, may 
not fail when it comes to a practical 
issue in my own case.' Ignatius al- 
ways uses paQrjTfveiv as a transitive 
verb ; comp. 5 below, and Ephes. 
3, 10. So too Matt. xiii. 52, xxviii. 19, 
Actsxiv. 21, and probably also Matt. 




eVreAXecr^e. {JLOVOV (JLOL SvvafULiv alre'ia'de ecr(x)6ev 
re Kai ej^coGev, \va jmr] JULOVOV Xeyco d\\d Kai 6e\w iva 
HYI fjiovov XeyoojULai XpKTTiavos d\\d Kai evpeOco. eat/ 
yap evpeBw, Kai \eyea-6ai Svvajjiai, Kai roVe THO-TOS 

jurj (paii^wjULai. oi/Set/ (paivomevov 5 

eivai, OTav KOCTJULO) 

I /AOL 86vafji.iv alreiffOe] GL ; /J.OL S6vafj.iv alryffaade [M]; Svva/jiiv aireiffdt 
POL g. 2 iVa M sec.] GM; OTTWS ^77 g (comp. Smyrn. u, where there is 

the same substitution, and Polyc. 2, where there is the converse); ut non S m ; 
non ut L; et non ut S; et non AA m . 3 t&v ydp] gLSA m ; tav 

yap Kai G; al. AS m ; def. M. 4 Kai rbre iriffrbs clvat] GLMg; et tune 

fiddis possum fieri A m ; et tune sim fidelis A; tune sum fidelis S Joann-Mon; 
et fidelis (creditus] ero [S m ] (rore being transferred to the former clause). 
5 orav] GL; ore g (MSS) M. <J>aivb)/] Gg* (with a v. 1.); <f> 

M (with a v. 1.); appareo L. o^v] txt GLAA m g (but 1 add. enim) [Tim- 

Syr i]; add. ydp 2S m M. 6 KaX6/] bonum LAA m ; pulchrum (T'S^) 

SS m ; decens (NX^) Tim-Syr; aidviov GMg. Doubtless alwviov is wrong; and I 
have chosen Ka\6v rather than ayadov (Petermann, Zahn), as it is suggested by the 

xxvii. 57, where however there is a v. 1. 

f^aBrjTfVfffv for cp.a6r)Tvdr) : but in 

classical writers (e.g. Plut. Mor. p. 
837 c) it is perhaps more commonly 
intransitive, 'to be a disciple'. He 
here claims the Romans for his 
teachers, as elsewhere he regards the 
Ephesians in the same light, Ephes. 
3 (quoted above). 

1. /i6i/oi/] i.e. 'This is the only 
interposition on your part, which I 

eo-(06ev re K.r.X.] i. e. ' with moral 
courage and with physical endur- 
ance'. It is nearly equivalent to the 
common antithesis in Ignatius a-ap- 
K.L re Kai Tn/eu/zari. 

2. Iva fj.rj [I.OVQV Xeyw K.r.A.] Comp. 
Ephes. 1 5 apeivov K.T.\. with the note. 

3. [j.r] fjiovov Xeyco/iat] Clem. Horn. 
iii. 37 fiovos yap OVTOS KOI Xe'yerai Kai 


eav yap K.r.X.] ' If I am proved a 
Christian by my martyrdom, then 
I shall certainly be recognised as 
one ; and my position as a true be- 
liever will be only the more manifest, 

when I myself am withdrawn from 
the sight of the world' ; comp. 4 
Tore f<ropai p.a6rjTr)s aXrjdois 'l^troG 
XpioroG, ore ovde TO crw^ia. pov 6 Kooyzos 
6'^erai. His martyrdom alone will 
make him truly Tricrro'r, 'a believer', 
as it alone will make him truly paOij- 

5. ovdev (paivopevov K.r.X.] ' no- 
thing visible', i.e. external and ma- 
terial, * is good* \ comp. 2 Cor. iv. 18 
fi?) O-KOTTOVVTGOV jfjLav TO. /SXeTrofiez/a aXXa 
ra /ir/ (SXcTro/Jicva ra yap (BXenopfva 
K.r.X., of which passage the latter 
part has been foisted into the text of 
Ignatius in many copies here. S. 
Chrysostom in his panegyric of Igna- 
tius says (Op. II. p. 598) TTfiGav Kara- 
(ppovflv rrjs 7rapovo"r)s atf)$ Kai (AT) to if 
ra (9XWO/uiVd Kai r5j/ 
epav K.r.X., probably having 
this passage more especially in his 
mind. Zahn (Add. et Corr. p. 404) 
has pointed out that this expression 
is quoted by Origen de Orat. 20 (i. 
p. 229) ovSev (fiaivofjifvov Ka\6v fVni>, 
oioi/ei doKrjaei ov Kai OUK a 

m] TO THE ROMANS. 205 

KaXov. 6 yap 0eo? rf/ULwv 'Iqcrovs XpL&Tos, ev TrctTpi 
wV, [Jia\\ov (paiveTai. ov TreKr/movfe TO epyov d\\d 

iarriif 6 xpicrTiavicriuios, OTCLV 



Syriac renderings (see e.g. KO\OV in 6). [The above note was written before I 
noticed Zahn's Add. et Corr. He there quotes Origen ovStv (j)cuv6[j.evot> Ka\6v etrnv 
K.T.\. (see the lower note), and is disposed to adopt Ka\6i>, pointing out 'vocem 
dyados omnino Ignatianam non esse'.] After ai&viov Gg add rd yap p\eir6[j.eva. 
Trpoo-Kaipa, rd 5 fj.rj /SXeTroyueva at'c&'ia (from i Cor. iv. 18), and similarly M; om. 
LSAA m Sm Tim-Syr. 6 ydp...<j>ali>Tai] GLAA m S m Tim-Syr; om. Sg; 

def. M. 7 7ret<r/io'^s] gLSA m Tim-Syr; desiderii S m ; vanitatis A; 

o-twTnJs fwvov G; def. M. tpyov] tpywv G. 8 xpt<rTiai>t<r/jas~\ 

GSAAmg* (as appears from 1, but the MSS xP lffTlav *) > christianus LS m (but here 
it is doubtless due to a corrupt reading in the former part of the sentence, fc$"OH 
vir for &O3y opus, thus rendering christianus necessary) Tim-Syr; def. M. 
orav [uo-frrai viro /crfoy-tov] g*LA m Tim-Syr; quando odit eum mundus SA; 
quando mundum odit S m (but this inversion of subject and object is explained by 
a superfluous letter in the Syriac) ; om. G ; def. M. 

6. 6 yap Geoff jj/i3i>] See the 
note on Ephes. inscr. 

cv Trarpt mv K.r.X.] i.e. 'is more 
clearly seen, now that He has as- 
cended to His Father'. During His 
earthly ministry He was misunder- 
stood and traduced ; but now His 
power is manifested and acknow- 
ledged in the working of His Church. 
As soon as He ceased /c6o-/io> (/miWtr- 
6ai, He /zaXXoi/ ctyatWo. The sen- 
tence is thrown into the form of a 
paradox; 'Christ Himself is more 
clearly seen, now that He is no more 

7. ov irfiorp.ovT]s K.r.X.] ' The 
Work is not of persuasive rhetoric '; 
comp. I Cor. ii. 4 o \6yos p-ov /eat TO 
Kijpvynd p.ov OVK fv TreiQols <ro(pias 
Xoyois dXX' ev aTToSet^et Trvevp-aros Koi 

uS) I Thess. i. 5 T fvayyeXiov 
OVK. eyfvrjflr) els fv Xoya) 
povov aXXa KOI fv dvvdpci K.T.\. For 
irfto-fjLovr) comp. Gal. v. 8 with the 
note. On TO epyov 'the Work', as a 
synonyme for the Gospel, see the 

note on the closely parallel passage 
Ephes. 14 ov yap iwv eirayycXtas TO 
fpyov, aXX' fv 7rio-T6<ay K.r.X. 
Ignatius here returns to the idea ex- 
pressed a few sentences above in the 

words Iva p.rf JJLOVOV Xeyo> dXXa KOL 
6e\a. Men must not talk fluently, 
but act mightily, when persecution 
is abroad. I do not understand how 
Renan (Les Evangiles p. 490 sq) 
can defend the reading crianrfjs \iovov. 
The external evidence is decisive 
against it : nor does it suit the con- 
text, which depreciates talk as con- 
trasted with work. 

8. fifyedovs] Involving the idea of 
'power, efficiency,' as e.g. Mart. Polyc. 
17 TO peycOos avTov TTJS papTVpias '. 
comp. Ephes. inscr., Smyrn. 1 1. 

6 xptoriai'io'/Aos'] See the note on 
Magn. 10. 

Hio-rJTai vrro ACOO-/IOV] Comp. John 
vii. 7, xv. 18, 19, xvii. 14, i Joh. iii. 13. 
This last clause has dropped out of 
the Greek MS. There is a similar 
omission in 6 /zj/Se v\rj Ko\aKfvo-r)Tf. 




IV. '&y co ypdcJHx) 7rd(rais TCUS eKK\t](riais, 
T\\ojuLai Tra&iv OTL [670;] eKtov vTrep Qeov d 
iavTrep v/ULels fmr] KtoXvcr^Te. 7rapaKa\oi) t//xa, /u.rj e f- 

i TraVais] g S 2 S 3 SAA m Tim-Syr; om. GLS m M. 
AA m S m M Tim-Syr; eireXoD^at g* (MSS but mando 1). i eyb] GM; om. g. 

It is not expressed in LAA m S m Tim-Syr, and doubtfully in SS 2 S 3 . 3 ei/Voia 

d/ccupos ytvyade] GMg; concordia (<riWoia?) intempestiva (nom. or abl.) fiatis L; sitis 
in amore intempestivo 2 (evvoig. a/ca/py, unless it is a loose paraphrase); faciatis 
amorem...intempestive A; inutiliter (aut; incongrue) curas ostendere A m (this is per- 
haps an alternative translation, not an alternative reading); compatiamini inaniter, 
sitis amatores inanes S m (a double translation): see the lower note. 4 drjplwv 

clvat] S 2 S 3 2S m ; add. jSoppav G; add. (3opdv M; add. /SpuJ/iag; add. cibum LA; 
a bestiis devorari A m . 5 tvzaTiv] GM (with a v. 1.); tarw g; est 

IV. 'I write and tell all the 
churches that I die gladly for Christ, 
unless you hinder me. I beseech 
you, be not inopportune in your kind- 
ness. Give me to the wild beasts, that 
so I may be given to God. I am the 
wheat of God, and am ground by 
their teeth, that I may be made pure 
bread for a sacrificial offering. Lure 
the wild beasts that they may devour 
me wholly and leave no part of my 
body to be a trouble to any. So 
shall I be truly a disciple, when the 
world sees me no more. Pray God, 
that I may be found a fit sacrifice to 
Him. I do not command you, as if 
I were Peter or Paul. I am only a 
convict, not an apostle ; only a slave, 
not a free man. Yet, if I suffer, I 
shall be liberated by Christ, and be 
free in the resurrection. At present 
I am learning from my bonds to 
crush all my desires'. 

I. 7rd(rais rals c<K\r)o-iais] So Lucian 
relates of Peregrinus (41) 

avrov K.r.A. Ig- 
natius was afterwards prevented by 
circumstances from entirely fulfilling 
this intention: Polyc. 8 eWi 

K.T.\. It may have been the apparent 
contradiction between these two pas- 
sages which led to the omission of 
Trdo-ais in some texts of Ignatius 

3. fvvoia anaipos] They were kind- 
ness itself to him, but this kindness 
was inopportune. An easy alteration 
would be evvoiq aKaipoi, but the text 
is probably correct as it stands. It 
seems to be a reference to the proverb 
anaipos evvot ovdev e^pas SicKpepei 
(Zenob. Paroem. i. 50) ; comp. 8 

4. fypiw] The opposition between 
6r)pi(i>v and 6eoC is studied. He must 
first be the wild-beasts', that in the 
end he may be God's ; comp. Smyrn. 
4 p,Tav drjpicov, /uerau Qeov. The 
insertion of ftopav or /Spw/^a in the 
existing Greek texts entirely mars 
the antithesis. 

5. 0eo> eiriTvxe'iv] See the note on 
Magn. i. 

6. dX^o/iat] '/ am ground" 1 ; the 
present indicative being used, as in 
uTTodvijo-KO) above. The correction 
dX?7$0>/Licu is unnecessary and weakens 
the sense. As regards the form, 
aXelv is considered by some more Attic 
than aXq'&u'; see Lobeck Phryn. 




N I A 

ryevtjcrBe JULOI. a(pTe /me Oripitov eivai, 
5 Si tov [_v-~\(TTiv Oeov eTTLTV^elv. cnro? CLJULL Qeov, Kal 
Si' O^OVTCOV Orjpiwv dXi/^O/im, iva Ka6apos apros evpeBto 

LA m ; possum S m ; al. A. crtroj K.T.X.] This saying is quoted several times 

in the Menaa in different forms, but the license taken in this book deprives the 
quotations of any value. I shall not therefore give its readings as a rule. GeoO] 
GM Theod-Stud; TOV Geou g Mart-Rom 10; dd LS. 2 S 3 SAA m S m Beda Comm. in 
Apoc. xviii; christi Iren. v. 28. 4 (Lat., but quoted deov in Euseb. H. E. iii. 36) 
Beda Martyr, viii Kal. Dec. 6 d\7?0o/Acu] Mg (but 1 has molar) Iren Mart- 

Rom (but Copt, has molar) Theod-Stud ; aXtf O/ACU G ; molar S 2 S 3 SAA m Sm ; molar 
L ( = aX^0a>/Acu, if indeed it is not intended for a future; comp. Hieron Catal. 16, 
and see Zahn I. v. A. p. 339): see the lower note. evpeOw] GLS etc; 

yfrwfjt.a.1 (v. 1. ytvufj-at) Mart-Rom. 

p. 151. The latter form occurs in 
other dialects, and even in Phere- 
crates (quoted by Suidas s.v.) dvrjp 
(5e) yepcoi/ dvoduvros dXijdci, which 
illustrates the expression as well as 
the form here. Meineke however 
(Fragm. Com. II. pp. 285, 292) gives 
reasons for questioning the reading. 
From aXfiv comes the substantive 
d\earp,6s, which is better supported 
than 0X7707x05 below, in 5. 

KaOapos apros] l 'a pure^ clean loaf ; 
comp. Jos. Ant. iii. 10. 5 naBapas 
irpos d\f(rra>v (v. 1. aXeo-/ioj/) ray 
Kpidas notr]<ravT(s r<a /3a)/i<5 da-crapcova 
irpoo-dyovari rw 0eai. The epithet 

is especially applied to apros ; e. g. 
Alexis (Fragm. Com. III. p. 483, 
Meineke) apros Kaflapos fis e/<arepo>, 
TroTTjpiov vSaToy, of the Pythagoreans ; 
Hermeias (Athen. iv. p. 149 E) fneira 
fAcaoro) 7rapari$erai aproy Kadap6y } of a 
sacred banquet ; Lamprid. Vit. Alex. 
Sev. 37 'panis mundus', opposed 
to 'panis sequens' (i.e. 'seconds'). 
The purest bread (o Ka6apa>Taros ap- 
TOS), according to Galen, was called 
in Latin a-tXiyvirrjs (i.e. 'siliginea'), 
the next quality in point of pureness 
being o-f/ztSaXm/s (Op. VI. p. 483, 
Kiihn.). As symbolical of purity, 
Kadapol were offered in sacrifice ; 

e.g. Herod, ii. 40. See also the 
passage of Josephus quoted above. 
This is doubtless the quaint but 
beautiful thought of Ignatius here. 
He was the grain of God; by the 
teeth of the wild beasts he would be 
ground into fine flour ; thus he would 
become a pure sacrificial loaf fit for 
the altar of God. See 0eoC Qvo-ia 
below, and comp. <nrov8icr0r)vai 2. 
See the Mencea (Dec. 20) o-?ros- 0eoO 

KaOapos etfit, eXey*?, Kai 6Y O&OITCOI/ 
0r)pia>v d\rj6op.a^ Iva apros 1 ye'i/eojuai 
lfpore\oiip,evos r&) epaor^ Kal 0ec5 <e- 

So far the metaphor is clear. But 
we may perhaps go a step further 
and see a reference to the offering 
of the Pentecostal loaves. These 
were ordered to be made of fine 
flour (Lev. xxiii. 17); it was sifted 
twelve times to insure the greatest 
purity (Mishna Menachoth vi. 7); 
the loaves were eaten the same night, 
and no fragment was allowed to 
remain till the morning (Jos. Ant. iii. 
10. 6). The language of Josephus, 
describing this last regulation, closely 
resembles the context of Ignatius 
here; Trpoa-dyovo-i ro> 0eo> aprov . . ./cat 
/taraXiTreli' ovdev eariv e avreov is 




[TOV Xpi(TTOv~\. juia\\ov KO\aK6v<raT TO. Brjpia, 'iva 
/ULOL Tfi<po$ ryevwvTcu, Kai /uLrjBev Kara\i7rco(nv TWV TOV 
JULOV, iva JJLYI KoijULrjBek /3apvs Tim 

TOTC (ro/ULai fjLar]Tns rjco^ 'Irjaov XpurTOv, ore ovSe 
JJLOV 6 KCHTfJiOs o^jsercu. XiravevcraTe TOV 5 


i TOV XpiffTov] GLS m M ; 0eou (before evpeQtS) g ; dei S 2 S 3 SAA m Iren-Lat Beda 
Martyr.; om. Iren-Gr (Euseb) Mart-Rom Hieron Catal. 16 Beda Comm. in 
Apoc. It seems probable from a comparison of these authorities that the genitive 
should be omitted altogether. If indeed 8eov (contracted 6v) had stood in the 
original text before evpedu, as in g, its omission through carelessness might easily 
have been explained by the recurrence of similar letters (see the notes on 6eov 0v<rLa 
just below, and on 2 evpedyvou ds S6<nv above); but with deov, or rou 6eov, in the 
preceding clause, its appearance again here would be very awkward, though it has 
far better support than TOV XpioTou. /j.a\\ov] GLAMg; om. A m . It is ap- 

parently intended to be expressed by the strong forms, provocando provocate, adu- 
lando adttlamini, in S 2 S 3 2S m . i ^dev} ^dkv (sic) G; wdto M. The MSS 

of g vary. KaToXlTruffiv] /cardX/Trwcri (sic) G; KaTaXelTrwo-iv (or -cri) gM (the 

latter with a v. 1.). TI> TOV <r<bfj,a.T6s /uov] g ; eorum quae corporis met L ; e 

1. paXXov] Referring to the clause 

/XT) evvoia ctKcupoy yfvrjo'Oe /iot. 

*coXaKvo-are] ' coax:, humour, en- 
tice\ a somewhat favourite word in 
Ignatius : see the note on Polyc. 2. 

2. Ta(f)os yiv<t>vTai\ So in the Me- 
ncea (Dec. 20) it is said of Ignatius 
o-TrXa-y^j/a Orjpicov voi TcKpos ycyovao-iv. 
Gorgias spoke of vultures as c^vxoi 
ra0oi (Longin. de Subl. iii. 2). Our 
own Spenser has the expression 'to 
be entombed in the raven or the 
kight ', Fairy Queen ii . 8. 1 6. The last 
two passages, with others from Latin 
writers, are given by Munro on Lu- 
cret. v. 993 'Viva videns vivo sepe- 
liri viscera busto'. Compare Suicer 
Thes. s.v. ra^op for other illustra- 
tions. See also Soph. EL 1487 /cra- 
vwv 7rp66fs Tafavcnv, atv TOV& CIKOS 
ecTTi Tvy%dveiv, ano-nrov ?)/i(BJ', Eur. Ion 
933 fypob ^>iXov rv/i/3evfia; and a- 
mong Christian fathers, Athenag. 
Suppl. 36 TIS av <o5' avaa-raffiv 

p. 1096) 

rafyovs rpe- 

fj.r)6ev AcaraXiTroxrii/] In one Martyr- 
ology, the Antiochene ( 6), it is re- 
lated that the saint's wish was almost 
literally fulfilled, Iva prjfavl T&V ciSeX- 
<pcoi/ cTraxdqs Sid rfjs (rv\\oyijs TOV 
\et\lsdvov yevrjTat, Ka6a>s f.v 
Tr\v Idiav 

Trapacr^oi rd(j)ov ; Amphiloch. 
Iamb. adSel. 148 (Greg. Naz. Op, II. 

p,va yap ra rpa^urepa TO>V 
irfpif\i(j)dr], aTiva fls ri]v 
dTTKop.i(T6r) K.r.X. In the other, the 
Roman, this wish is entirely ignored, 
( 10) ol \fovrcs. . .7vpo<nr(rQVTfs drre- 
TTVi^av [CLVTOV] povov, OVK ediyov de 
avTOv TG>V crapK&v, Iva TO \etyavov 
avTOV fir} (pvXaKTrjpiov TTJ PufUUttV 

TroXei /c.r.X., though in this latter 
document the passage has been al- 
tered in one copy to conform it to 
the other account (see the note 
on the passage). In either legend 
the narrative has been framed to 
meet the claims of certain cities to 
the possession of the saint's reliques. 
It may safely be said that the saint 
had no thought of the preservation 




Kvpiov VTrep efjiov, 'iva Sid TWV dpydvw TOVTWV Qeov 
Bvcria evpe6co. Ou% cos HeTpos Kat HavXos Stardoro'o- 
eKelvoi cMTOtrroAoi, eyco KaraKpiros' 

d\\' edv 

corporibus mcis A m (probably the plur. is intended to represent the ruv) ; rou 
o-^waros /J.QU (om. rail/) GM ; <? corpore meo S 2 S 3 S A (but in such a matter the Oriental 
Versions do not count for much). 3] GSM ; sim S m ; evpe6-r] 

g* ; inveniar L ; appaream A m ; def. A. 4 r6re] GLSA m S m M ; rore 5 g ; 

et tune A. dAi^cDs] GL*A m ; inveritate^L', oXijd^ gAS m M. 'lyvov Xpta-rov] 
LZA m g; ToO X/HCTTOU GAS m M. 5 rov Kvpiov] S 3 SAA m g; rbv xpivrbv 

GLS m ; ry x/ 010 " 1 "'? M. 6 Geoi;] g* (but om. deov 1 ; and some Gk MSS 

read 0e<) ; dei'L; deo or del (probably the latter) AA m ; deo S 3 2S m ; om. GLM 
(which last reads dvaia Kadapd) : see the lower note. 8 eyw] GLS 3 M ; ^70) 

5^ [g] (altering the context freely) 2S m Sev-Syr 8; et ego AA m . 9 ^70? 5^] 

GS 3 SM[g]; et ego AA m ; eyt> (om. 5^) LS m . There can be little doubt that o 
should be admitted here, but rejected in the previous clause. The testimony of 
some authorities however (gSAA m ) is weakened here by their insertion of a con- 
necting particle in the former case. 

that this phenomenon appears in the 
earliest document emanating from, as 
well as in the earliest document ad- 
dressed to, the Roman Church, after 
the death of the two Apostles. 

8. eKflvoi aTTooroXoi K.T.A.] ' They 
visited you, as Apostles, as accre- 
dited delegates of God : I only as 
a convict, as one despatched to 
Rome to receive his punishment'. 

For CKflvOl aTTOOToXot . . . CKflvOl \fV- 

Bepoi comp. I Cor. ix. I OVK ei/xt 
e\fv6epos ; OVK eijui diroo-ToXos ', 

KaraKpiros] 'a convict! His ju- 
dicial condemnation by the Roman 
power was a type of his unworthi- 
ness, his conviction, in the sight of 
God ; his 6\/caiWis was yet to come 
( 5 ^ Trapa TOVTO dfo~iKai(i) For 
this intermingling of the symbol and 
the thing symbolized see the note on 
2 Ka\bv TO dvvac K.r.X. For the whole 
sentence comp. Trail, 3 iva v KCLTCI- 
Kpiros <u? aTTotrroXoy V/JLLV Siaracrcrco/zai, 

s. 12 e'yeo Kara/cpiroy, i5/*els T/Xe^- 

(with the notes). 

9. /Ae'x/> 1 vvv SoiJXos] It has been 


of his reliques in the words 
TIVI yeVcoftcu, but referred only to the 
difficulties of sepulture in a strange 
city and at a season of trouble. 

4. fjLadqTTjs] On this favourite 
idea of Ignatius see the note Ephcs. i. 

6. T<OV opyavwv TO\ITO>V\ l these in~ 
strumentsQi my purification', i.e. the 
wild beasts. 

Qeov 6v<rid\ The omission of Qeov 
in some texts must be explained by 
the similar letters eyeyciA. For 
this reason Qeov is to be preferred to 
6f<u. See however the v. 1. in Clem. 
Rom. IO Bvvlav [ro> Gew]. 

7' cop HfTpos KOI TlavXos] S. Peter 
and S. Paul are especially mentioned, 
because they had been at Rome and 
had given commandments (Sifru- 
ai/ro) to the Roman Church ; see 
the note on Ephes. 12 Uav\ov crv/z- 
fjiva-rai. For the combined mention 
of these two Apostles in connexion 
with the Roman Church in early 
writers see the note on Clem. Rom. 
5, where also their names appear in 
conjunction. It is worth observing 





d7T6\ev6epo$ 'Irjcrov XpicTTOv, Kal aVctcrrj/cro/zat eV 
e\ev6epos. vvv 

GM ; add. yevriffo/Acu g. The versions naturally supply various 
words ; fiam L ; fio A ; invcniar A m ; ego sum S 3 S ; sum mihi S m : see the lower 
note. Xpia-rov] LS 3 SAA m S m Mg ; om. G. ev O.VT$] GS 3 SS m Mg ; 

cum eo A m ; om. LA. i vvv\ GA m Mg ; et nunc LS A ; nunc autem S m . 

fjiavdAvw] txt GLSAA m S m M ; add. h aflr g* (MSS, but om. 1). 
txt LSAAmSm ; add. KO(TIUKOV TJ [tdraiov GMg. 3 yrjs Kal 

GLA m S m [M]g Euseb Mart-Rom i ; tfccXdcro-Tjs Kal yrjs SA Euseb-Syr Hieron. 

inferred from this (Bunsen Ign. p. 
58, Ritschl Altkath. Kirche p. 412), 
that Ignatius was, or had been, ac- 
tually a slave. This inference is at all 
events supported by the analogy of 
KaraKpiTos, which describes an actual 
fact, though taken as the symbol of 
a spiritual state. Some external fact 
indeed seems to be required ; but 
probably Ignatius means nothing 
more than that, as a prisoner, he 
was subject to the despotic will of 
others ; see Zahn /. v. A. p. 410 sq. 
I. d7T(\v6fpos K.r.X.] ( a freed- 
man\ the idea being taken from 
I Cor. vii. 22 o yap tv Kupi'w K\Tjde\s 
8ov\os a.7re\v0fpos Kupt'ou etrriV : 
comp. Mart. Justin, et Soc. 4 Eu- 
(\7THTTOS dov\os Kaurapoff 
Kayci XpiaTiavus ei/ii, 
VTTO Xpia-Tov, Cyprian Epist. 76 (p. 
829, Hartel) l O pedes in saeculo ad 
praesens ligati, ut sint semper apud 
Deum liberi,' Act. SS. Did. ct Thcod. 
I 'Judex dixit Ingenua es, an an- 
cilla ? Theodora respondit Jam tibi 
dixi, Christiana sum; Christus autem 
adveniens me liberamt" 1 (Ruinarty^^. 
Mart. Sine. p. 428, Ratisbon. 1859). 
Similarly Epictetus Diss. iii. 24. 68 

K.T.X., iv. 7 I? fafvOfpCOfJiai V7TO TOV 

Geov, eyvcoKa avrov ray eVroXa?, OVKCTI 
ovdfls SovXaycoy^o-at /ze dvvarai (comp. 
iv. i. 35). For the form of the sen- 
tence (with the omission of the sub- 

stantive verb) comp. Ephes. 8 
\lsr)iJ.a. Vjucoi' /tat ayvi^opai v/j.u>if. 

2. vvv navQava Ac.r.X.] ' At pre- 
sent I am only a learner; my bonds 
are teaching me to abandon all 
worldly desires': comp. 5 p.d\\ov /m- 

and 7 o ^os epcas cVravpeorai 

V. ' From Syria to Rome, by land 
and by sea, night and day, I am fight- 
ing with wild beasts. I mean these 
soldiers to whom I am bound, for 
they are like ten leopards. Kindness 
only makes them worse. Yet their 
wrong-doing is my discipline. How- 
beit I am not thereby justified. 
Gladly shall I welcome the wild- 
beasts that are prepared for me, and 
I trust they will do their work 
quickly. I will lure them on to 
devour me. Even if they are un- 
willing, I will force them to it. 
Pardon me, I know what is good 
for me. I would not have anything 
visible or invisible stand between 
me and God. Fire and cross, wild- 
beasts, the most horrible manglings 
and tortures which the devil can 
devise let all these overtake me, if 
only I may find Christ.' 

3. 'ATTO 2uptas K.r.X.] 'Shall I 
encounter wild-beasts only then at 
length, when I arrive in Rome ? Nay, 
I am assailed by them every hour 
throughout my journey. This man- 
iple of soldiers is to me now what 
the lions of the Flavian amphi- 




V. 'ATTO Cvpias 

6r]piojULa^co 9 Sid 


In the passage which follows I have not generally recorded the vv. 11. of 
Jerome and of Gildas (de Exc. Brit. iii. 7) as having no independent value, since 
the former merely repeats Euseb, and the latter borrows from Rufinus' translation 
of the same historian. Nor again are all the vv. 11. of Mart- Rom recorded here ; 
they will be found in their proper place. 4 tvdfde/jifros] g Euseb 

Mart-Rom ; vinctus inter 2A ; vinctus aim A m S m Euseb-Syr ; dedeptvos GM ; 
vinctus (with dat.) L. 

theatre will be to me then.' The 
metaphor of d^pto/ia^a is suggested 
by I Cor. xv. 32 cl Kara avdpconov 
fdrjptofjidxija-a ev 'EqkfVw, but it has 
reference to the literal 6j]pio^axia 
which awaits him. See the saying 
of Pompeius in Appian Bell. Civ. ii. 
6l oiots flrjpLois p-a^o/j-eda, and Lucian 
Pise. 17 ov yap rots rvxovai Bqpiois 
TrpoarTroXffjLrjcrai dfijad JJLOI, d\\' dXao- 
(nv dvdpwnois KOI oWeXeyfcroiy, quoted 
in Wetstein on I Cor. /. c. For OTTO 
Svpi'ay K.r.X. comp. C. I. G. 3425 
CTT(pavQ)6evra iepovs dyaivas TOVS dno 
rfjf oiKovfJLfvrjs Trdvras OTTO KaTrtrco- 
\fi(ov eeos- 'Avrto^fi'as TTJS Svpias. 

8ta yfjs KOI ^aXaVoT/f] This ex- 
pression has been thought to militate 
against the statement in Mart. Ign. 
Ant. 3 KaT\da>v OTTO 'Ai/no^ftas els 
rfjv SoXevKeiai/, fKtWev e^ero roO TrXoos 

KO.I irpOO")(G )V /AfTOt TToXui/ KCtjlCLTOV TTJ 

^p.vpvaia)v TroXei K.r.X., as the few 
miles from Antioch to its port Se- 
leucia would hardly justify the &a 
yrjs. The difficulty however is not 
serious. Ignatius is referring to the 
whole journey, not yet completed, 
so that not only the stay at Smyrna, 
but the way across the continent 
from Neapolis and Philippi to Dyr- 
rhachium will be included. On the 
other hand Eusebius speaks of it as 
a land journey through Asia Minor, 
H' iii. 3^ T *l v ^'' 'AITMM dva<ofjLi8^v } 
and this is required by another ex- 
pression in this epistle, 9 r&v 

napodevovra" Kal yap at /LIT) 7rpo(riJK.ov- 
aai not TTJ o3o) K.r.X. In this case the 
difficulty is to explain dia. #0X00-0-775 ; 
but the answer is the same. It is 
far from improbable indeed that (as 
Zahn suggests, /. v. A. p. 253) they 
should have taken ship from Se- 
leucia to some Cilician or Pamphy- 
lian harbour, in order to shorten the 
route ; but, even without this, the 
saint is contemplating the voyages 
from Smyrna to Troas, from Troas 
to Neapolis, and from Dyrrhachium 
to Puteoli or Ostia or Portus, which 
are yet to come. 

4. c'l/dfdc/AeW] This reading is 
better supported and more appro- 
priate than oV&e/zevos 1 . The saint was 
attended by a company of ten 
soldiers, who relieved guard in turn, 
so that he was always bound night 
and day to one of them by a aXva-is 
or 'coupling-chain.' On this ' cttsto- 
dia mililaris^ see Philippians p. 
8 sq. It is probable that the soldiers 
were in charge of other prisoners 
also, though these are not mentioned 
by Ignatius. We might have con- 
jectured that among these were 
Zosimus and Rufus who are men- 
tioned by Polycarp (Phil. 9) together 
with Ignatius, as visiting Philippi 
(apparently) on their way to mar- 
tyrdom. But if his fellow-prisoners 
had been Christians, he would pro- 
bably have alluded to them. 




/ v 

Trapcois, o ecmv <TTpaTio)TiKov ray/net, 01 Kai evepye- 

i 8 t(mv] GLMg Euseb (Gk MSS, Hieron Rufin) ; olnvh dci Mart-Rom 
(v. 1.); ii qui sunt S m ; qui sunt 2AA m Euseb- Syr. o-rpartwrt/foi'] gM 

Euseb Mart-Rom ; militaris L ; arpaTuarw G ; militum 2AA m S m Euseb-Syr 

I. XeoTropSots] This is the earliest 
occurrence of the word in any extant 
writing. Thirty or forty years before 
however Pliny (N. H. viii. 17) speaks 
of ' leones quos pardi generavere,' so 
that the word was then on the point 
of formation, if not already formed. 
And about fifty years later than 
Ignatius, we find it in Galen (Op. v. 
p. 134) Kiihn) ri Xfovrav /eat Xecui/coi/ 
/cat TrapddXcuv re /eat XeoTrapSeoi/, apKrwv 
T Kal \VKcav, ot ras (rdpKas avrwv 
ydeas l<r6ioiTS dcpio-TavTai TOV (nrhrj- 
vbs coy d/fycoYov, where it is used as 
a familiar word. The work quoted, 
de Atra Bile, appears to have been 
one of Galen's earliest treatises ; see 
Op. I. p. Ixxviii. Again in a rescript 
of Marcus and Commodus (i.e. be- 
tween A.D. 177180), quoted by 
Marcianus in Dig. xxxix. 4. 16, men- 
tion is made of * leones, leaenae, pardi, 
leopardi, pantherae,' among commo- 
dities liable to customs' duty. Again 
in the contemporary Acts of Per- 
petua and Felicitas, who were sa- 
crificed to grace a birthday of Geta 
about A.D. 202, this word occurs 
several times; 19 'leopardum ex- 
perti,' ib. ' ab uno morsu leopardi,' 
21 'ab uno morsu leopardi' (again), 
ib. 'leopardo objectus.' Of this 
Geta too it is related (Spartian. 
Vit. Get. 5) that he used to ask ques- 
tions about the cries of different 
criminals, as 'leones rugiunt, leo- 
pardi rictant, elefanti barriunt.' 
Again of Heliogabalus we are told 
(Lamprid. Vit. Hel. 21) that he *ha- 
buit leones et leopardos exarma- 
tos in deliciis,' and again (id. 25) 
that he l subito nocte leones et 
leopardos et ursos exarmatos inmit- 
tebat,' among his drunken friends, 

1 ita ut expergefacti in cubiculo eodem 
leones ursos pardos...invenirent,' so 
that Lampridius appears to use 'leo- 
pardus' and 'pardus' as synonymes. 
Under the younger Gordian again 
mention is made, among other foreign 
animals exhibited at Rome, of * leo- 
pardi mansueti triginta,' Capitol. 
Vit. Gord. 33. Of Probus too it is 
related (Vopisc. Vit. Prob. 19) that 
'editi deinde centum leopardi Li- 
byci, centum deinde Syriaci.' This 
last word explains why leopards 
should occur to Ignatius as naturally 
as lions or tigers. In the edict of 
Diocletian also leopards are men- 
tioned, Corp. Inscr. Lat. in. p. 832 
depict XeoTraprov afpyov, dpycKrufvov, 
'pellis leopardina infecta, eadem 
confecta.' The word occurs also in 
one text of the Acta Philippi 36, 
but this work is of uncertain date 
and cannot be very early. In Cant, 
iv. 8 'pardorum' is quoted 'leopar- 
dorum' by Jerome adv. Jovin. i. 30 
(II. p. 286). 

Bochart (Hierozoicon Pars I. Lib. 
iii. c. 8) alleged the word as a proof 
of the late date of the epistles, as- 
serting that it was not used till the 
age of Constantine. He attempted 
to set aside some of the passages 
from the Augustan Historians on 
the ground that they represented the 
language of the narrators, and not 
of the times to which the events 
belong. Pearson (V. /. p. 456 sq), 
and Cotelier (ad loc.\ besides other 
considerations, referred to the Acts 
of Perpetua and Felicitas in reply. 
But they overlooked the earlier pas- 
sages from Galen and the Digests, 
which, so far as I know, are ad- 
duced here for the first time ; and 







(the Greek word crrpctTiwrrjs being transliterated in 2S m Euseb-Syr) : comp. Ps-Ign. 
ad Mar. 4 T\ (rrpariwrt/cT; (fipovpd. The Syriac Versions are of no account here, 
as they could hardly have translated otherwise. 

the Edict of Diocletian was yet un- 
discovered. Bochart's objection was 
revived by Baur ( Ursprung des Epis- 
copats p. 156). 

The form of the word seems to 
show that it was of Roman and not 
Greek origin. The more natural 
Greek would be \covT07rapSa\ts, like 
KafjLrjXondpftaXis. Theognostus how- 
ever (Bekker A need. p. 1394) treats 
it as Greek, and justifies it by the 
analogy of yfpoKop.os (from yepav), 
'ATroXXoyei'Tjs', 'ATroXXo^mi/T/s 1 (from 'A- 
7roXXa>i/). In Athanas. Vit. Anton. 9 
(l. p. 640), where Xfondpdav occurs, 
there is a v. 1. XeorrapSaAtoi/ (see Fes- 
tus quoted below). The name ori- 
ginated in the mistaken belief that 
the animal was a hybrid; see (be- 
sides Pliny /. c.} Festus (p. 33, ed. 
Mueller) * Bigenera dicuntur ani- 
malia ex diverse genere nata, ut 
leopardalis ex leone et panthera' 
(where for leopardalis inferior MSS 
have leopardus\ Philostr. Vit. Apoll. 
ii. 14 (p. 30) Xt'yfrai de KOI nfpl rail/ 
Xeaii'coi' Xoyoy, ws epao-ras p.i> TrotoGi/rnt 

TOVS TrapSaXety K.r.X ori/era yap TIK- 

Tov<Tiv. On the animals intended by 
the ancients under the several names 
TTCU/%), TrapSnXi?, pardus, etc., see 
Wiegemann in Oken's fsts 1831, p. 
287 sq. 

o eoTiv K.r.X.] This looks like a 
gloss at first sight, but it is found 
in all the copies. It is added some- 
what awkwardly in explanation by 
Ignatius, as his obscure metaphor 
might otherwise have been misun- 

orparicoriKoi' ray/za] l a company of 
soldiers? The word ray/za here might 
be rendered in Latin by 'manipulus,' 
if the disposition of the legion, which 

Vegetius describes (ii. 13), already 
prevailed when Ignatius wrote ; 
'Centuriae in contubernia divisae 
sunt, ut decent militibus sub uno 
papilione degentibus unus quasi prae- 
esset decanus, qui caput contubernii 
nominatur ; contubernium autem ma- 
nipulus vocabatur etc.' ; comp. Spar- 
tian. Vit. Pesc. Nig. 10 'decem com- 
manipulones.' This is a great de- 
parture from the earlier sense of 
'manipulus,' which was equivalent 
to 'centuria,' and contained 100 or 
120 men ; see Marquardt Rom. 
Alterth. iii. 2, p. 458 sq (comp. ib. 
p. 253 sq). The Greek ray/ua is 
used widely, to denote any body of 
soldiers, whether maniple or cohort 
or legion. The very expression which 
we have here, crrpaTiomKof ray^a, 
occurs in Dion. Halic. A. R. vi. 42 
of a legion ; comp. Dion Cass. Ixxi. 
9 KoXova-i df TO Tayp.a ol 'PvfUUtH 
\eycwva ; but more properly it de- 
noted an 'ordo' or maniple, as in 
Polyb. vi. 24. 5. For orpariomKoj/ 
ray/ia see Euseb. Quaest. ad Marin. 
(Op. IV. p. 984) TJ yap Kouoroofii'a orpa- 
TIWTIKOV e'cTTi ray/ia, Vit. Const, iii. 44> 
47, iv. 56, 68, 70, 71. For the number 
ten comp. Joseph. B. J. iii. 6. 2 
TOVTOIS a<p' faaoTtyf e'/caroi^rap^ias T/KO- 
\ov6ovv Ka K.r.X., and see esp. Leo 
Tacticus iv. 2 (quoted by Marquardt 
Rom. Staatsvcrw. II. p. 580 sq). 

fvpyeTovp.ei>oi K.r.X.] i.e. 'the more 
they receive in gratuities, the harsher 
and more extortionate they become' ; 
as rightly explained by Pearson ( V. 
I. p. 511) who, to illustrate this mode 
of procuring comforts for Christian 
confessors and martyrs, cites Lucian 
Peregr. 12 <rvvfKad(v8ov evdov' 
avrov 8ia(f>6eipovTfs TOVS Setr/no- 





' A A A' of nAp<\ TOYTO AGAIKAI CO- 


a Kcti v^ofj.aL crvvTOfjid JJLOL evpedtjvat' a Kal KO\aKevcra) 
ie KaTa(>ayelv 9 ov% co&Trep TIVWV 

2 TUV ffJiol rjTOiiu.a<T/j,ei>uv] GMg (comp. ad Mar. i ova.liJ.-r}v TU>V deiviov TUV e/j.ol 
jj.^v(t}v} ; rdv e/jLol fToi/jiwv Euseb; mihi esse paratis L* ; quae mihi paratae 
sunt (manent A m ) 2AA m S m Euseb-Syr. 3 a] g Euseb AA m ; om. GLM. It 

is omitted also in 2S m Euseb-Syr, but the Syriac idiom would suggest the omission. 

ffijvTOfjLa] g Euseb ; tempore stio S m ; confestim S (the same word which 
renders owrd^ws just below) A (the following ffwrb^ws is not represented) ; prompts 
A m (the following avvTonus is omitted) ; 2roi}j.a GM ; promptas L. Those texts, 
which omit crwro'/uws below, favour avvro^a. here; for the omission is then ex- 
plained by the desire of avoiding an awkward repetition. 4 TLV&V] 

GLAA m Mg Euseb ; ab aliis hominibus S (but TLV&V of g is translated in aliis 
by 1 ; while Jerome freely renders Euseb here sicitt aliorum martyrum, and the 
Syriac version of this same historian has ab aliis) ; a multis S m . 8et\a.iv6~ 

pfva oi>x tyavTo] GLA m SmMg Euseb (but with a v. 1. ^aro). 2 Euseb-Syr 
have metuens ab aliis (add. hominibus 2) et non appropinquans Us, as if they had 
read SetXai^o^evos ovx TJ^OLTO. 5 CKOVTOL /J.TJ 0t\r)] g ; volentem non velirit 

negative, or with an interrogation 
which is equivalent to a negative. 
This however is not always the case; 
see e.g. the references in Kiihner u. 
p. 444 } sq. 

2. 'Ovai/j.r]v K.T.A.] So Act. Perp. 
et Fel. 14 'ut bestias lucraretur'. 
Pearson has given a wrong turn to 
the expression, when he writes l po- 
tiar fen's; potius feris quam his 
leopardis\ For ovai[jLrjv see the note 
on Ephes. 2. 

3. o-vvTop-a] l prompt\ ' expedi- 
tious* ) as frequently. The emenda- 
tion (rivrova suggested by Voss is 
not an improvement. 

4. dci\aivtp,eva] See for examples 
Euseb. H. E. viii. 7 (quoted in a 
subsequent note), Act. SS. Tarach. 
Prob. etc. 10 (in Ruinart Act. Mart. 
Sine. p. 473). So too of Blandina, Ep. 
Vienn. in Euseb. v. I 

(Ira Sflnva TrotKiXa 
/zt'^Vro K.r.X., Apost. Const, v. I ei 
TIS XpLO-Ttavbs... KaraKpidrj VTTO daeftaiv 
els \oi>8ov TI Or/pia rj /neraXAoi/. . . 
TTf/i^arf aura) et? dia.Tpo(j)r]V avrou KOI 
eiff lAicrOaTroftoariav T&V (rrparta)- 
rto^, Iva \a(ppvvdjj KOI eTrt/LteAetay 
TI'^T/, Iva ocrov TO (p* Vfjiiv p.rj 6\l(3r]Tai 

paKapios d8f\(pbs v/ztoz/, Act. Pcrp. 
et Pel. 3 'Tertius et Pomponius, be- 
nedicti diaconi, qui nobis ministra- 
bant, constitucrunt praemio ut paucis 
horis emissi in meliorem locum 
carceris refrigeraremus,' with other 

i. pad^TfvofjLai] See the note on 


ov Trapa roOro K.r.A.] Taken from 

1 Cor. iv. 4 V K * v TOVTO) df8iKaia)fJiai. 
For Trapa TOVTO 'on this account', 
where Trapa 'along of denotes causa- 
tion, comp. Trail. 5 Trapa TOVTO tfSrj 
Kal fj.adr)Trjs et/u. So too I Cor. xii. 
15, 1 6, ov Trapa TOVTO OVK eVrti/ e rou 
o-w/zaroy, Clem. Horn. xv. 10, xviii. 1 8. 
In all these passages it is with a 

vov rore rtoi/ rjpiGW avTr/s. 

5. Kav avTa 8e Ac.r.A.] The autho- 
rities point to eKovra as the original 
reading; and, if so, it is perhaps 



5 ov% ri^savTO* Kav avTa Se eKOVTa jmrj 6e\tj, eyo!) irpocr- 
/3id(TOjULaL. (jvyyvwfjiriv JULOL e^ere* T'L JULOL (TUjuxpepei e 
yivoocrKW vvv apftOjUiai juLadrjrris eivar /mridev /me 


L; axovra p/ri 6e\ri Euseb; OMOVTO. pr) 6e\^ffrj G; aKovra fir] 0e\rj<reiev M; non 
velint A m S m ; non vclint appropinquare mihi SA Euseb-Syr. This last seems to 
represent a reading e/coj/ra JIT] Z\8r], the confusion of eA0H and 0eAH being easy. 
Possibly however appropinquate is supplied after 6^\y from the previous TJif/avro, which 
is translated 'approach' in all the three. 6 iyw...tvai\ GLS 2 AA m S m Mg 

Euseb Euseb-Syr ; om. 2. A line seems to have dropped out in the copy from 
which this abridgement was made. 7 /tTj^] G ; wdtv or fj-ydtv g; wStv 

Euseb ; def. M. ftyXwo-cu] 77X0x7011 g (accentuated as infin. fT/Xwo-cu in 

the MSS) Euseb (Jerome treats it as an infin.; Rufinus and the Syriac as an 
optat.) ; ^Xwo-at (for it is treated as an infin.) LAA m ; invideat (f-rj\u><Tai or $rj\u)vrj) 
S 2 S Joann-Mon ; 77X^0-77 G. The original reading therefore was doubtless ^Xajcrcu 
(not ^tyXuVy), and the sense requires ftyXtocrcu rather than ^Xwaat : see the 
lower note. 8 TUV dopdruv] gS 2 Euseb-Syr (the two latter repeating 

ex Us quae) ; dopdruv (om. r-2v) G Euseb ; dub. LS (which repeats qnae only) 
AA m ; al. S m ; def. M. 

best taken as the accusative with the 
Latin Version, i.e. Kav aura p.f) 6t\rj 
\jta.Ta<i)ayelv e'/ze] <6vra, 'to devour 
me, though I am ready'. 

7rpo(r/3iao-o/zat] So Afart. Polyc. 

(of the martyr Germanicus) e'au- 
T<U e7TecT7ra(raro TO drjpiov Trpoafiiacra- 
f, Euseb. Mart. Pal. 6 (of Aga- 
pus) $po[j.aios avriKpvs airo\v6fi(rrj 
KCLT avrov apKTto VTravTidcras, TO.VTTJ 
re eavruv da/uci/t'orara eTrtSffico/ccoy (Is 
/3opuj/, Act. SS. Tarach. Prob. etc. 10 
'sanctus vero Andronicus posuit 
caput suum super ursum et insti- 
gabat eum ut irasceretur etc.' This 
provocatio was not purely volun- 
tary in some cases ; Euseb. H. E. 
viii. 7 TO>V a.v6pu>Troft6pG)v eVi n:\flova 
\povov fir} Trpoa"\lsaviv 
eiv roiy reoi/ faotyiXv 
roXjucoi/rcoi/ ... p.6vov de TO>V iepwv 
yvpvtov eorcorcaj/ Kal rats 
i Karacreiovrcov C'TTI re o~(f)as av- 
TOVS eTTio-Trco/^ei/toi/, rovro yap avrois 
tKeXevero TrpdrTfiv, fjujd* o\a>s f^airro- 
p.fva>v, which passage also illustrates 

the preceding 8fi\aivufj.fva. 

7. vvv ap^o/iai K.r.X.] The com- 
mencement of his sufferings is the 
inauguration of his discipleship (see 
Ephcs. i, 3, notes). This disciple- 
ship will only then be complete, 
when his sufferings are crowned by 
his passion; comp. 4 rore ecro/icu 
^adrjrrjs d\T)0tos K.r.X. 

^Xco'o-ai] Not ^Xcoo-at. The opta- 
tive is wanted rather than the infini- 
tive. The word here seems to have 
its common meaning 'envy'; comp. 
3 e'/Sao-Kavare, 7 fiao-Kavia, with the 
notes. Zahn however gives it a dif- 
ferent sense ; ' ftXovv rivd, i. e. studi- 
ose gratiam alicuius quaerere omni- 
busque artificiis aliquem cafitare\ as 
in Gal. iv. 17, 2 Cor. xi. 2. The 
expression 'ITIO-OU Xptorou eVtrv^cii/ 
is equivalent to /na^-n}? elvat in the 
language of Ignatius. Both will at 
length be realised in his martyr- 

8. oparcoj/ . . . doparwz/] See Trail. 
5 (note). 



Trup Kai (TTctvpos 6rjpio)v T6 CTfCTTacreis, [aVa- 
sJ, o-KOpTncr/uLoi ocrTetov, (ruyKOTrat jue- 

, d\(TfJiol O\OV TOV (TW/ZaTOS, KCtKai KO\d(TlS TOV 

i <7i;<rraa-as] GLA m Mg ; ffvffTatris Euseh (Laemmer, but v. 1. <ru(TTd<reis) S m 
Euseb-Syr (the two latter owing to absence of ribui}. S 2 2A have bestiae quae. 
paratae sunt (mi hi). dvaro^at, 5tcup^<ms] GA m [S m ]Mg ; Siaip&Tety (or rather 

oialpeais, omitting avaro/mai) S 2 A; om. altogether, LS Euseb Euseb-Syr. 2 <TKO/>- 

7rt0>iol.../AeXa'] GLS 2 AA m S m Mg Euseb Euseb-Syr (the minor variations in these 
authorities are given below) ; et abscissio membrorum et dispersio ossium S 
(transposing the two clauses ; comp. Rom. inscr., Ephes. 19). aKop- 

TTio-jtiot] GLMg Euseb Mart-Rom 5 (v. 1.) ; dispersio SAA m S m Euseb-Syr (but 
the sing, in SAS m Euseb-Syr is explained by the absence of ribui , and A m 
renders diatptaeis, avaro/Actl, <r/co/37rt(r/xof, a\(r/j.ol, also by singulars). 
uffrtw G <rvyKoirai] g Euseb Euseb-Syr [Mart-Rom] ; 

GLS 2 SAA m S m M ; but the Oriental Versions are of no account here (see the 
last note). yueXwi'] /ieXXcoj/ G. 3 dXeoyiol] gM Euseb (but 

v. 1. a\7](rfjt.oi) Mart-Rom ; d\TjfffMol G. There is no authority for aXvoyiof, unless 
it be Am which has contritio (ant, contritio et dissolutio), where the words in 
brackets perhaps mean a v. 1. giving both words, dXeo-yuoi /cat a.\v<rp.oi. /ca\-al] 

1. a-va-raa-fis] ' conflicts, grap- 
plings with '. As o-vo-Tadrjv /za^fo-^ai is 
a common phrase for 'comminus pug- 
nare', so a-iio-ravis denotes 'a hand 
to hand engagement', e.g. Plut. 
Vit. Pomp. 70 rfjs a-akiriyyos 
p.fvr)s eyK\ev(r6ai Trpos TTJV 

Vit. Demetr. 16 orav ^aXto-ra O-VCTTCKTIV 
6 aya>v exj) (i.e. comes to close quar- 
ters). It is indirectly defined in Plat. 
Legg- viii. p. 833 A r\ tv rais <rv/i- 
TrXoKaTs- fJ-a^rj KOI (rvo-rao-is. The word 
occurs in a different sense, Trail. 5. 

2. o-Kopma-fjiol oVreW] Ps. xxi 
(xxii). 15 difcrKopTTLO-Or] ndvTa TCI ocrra 
nov ; comp. Ps. lii (liii). 7, cxl (cxli). 8. 
The word cn<op7rifiv is an illustration 
of the exceptional character of the 
Attic dialect. It appears in Heca- 
taeus, and reappears in writers, sacred 
and profane, of the post-classical 
ages ; it is called by some an Ionic, 
by others a Macedonian word; but 
in Attic it seems not to occur. See 
Lobeck Phryn. p. 218, and comp. 

Pathol. p. 295. For similar instances 
see Galatians vi. 6, and p. 92 ; Phi- 
Hppians i. 28, ii. 14. 

3. dXfo-^iot] For this form see 
the note on dX^o/xeu 4. The read- 
ing dXvcr/Lun, 'restlessnesses', 'dis- 
tractions', has no authority (see the 
upper note) and is inappropriate. It 
was first introduced into the inter- 
polator's text by the editor Morel, 
who prints dXuoyioi, and is not found 
(as Smith states) in the Cod. August, 
of the interpolator's text. 

KciKal KoXaa-fis K.r.X.] Pearson quotes 
Justin Dial. 131 (p. 360 C) KoXdo-ei? 
viro ra>v batfjtovietv KOL rfjs 
TOV 6"ia/3oXou, Celsus in Orig. 
c. Cels. vi. 42 (i. p. 663) o rov GeoO 
TraTy apa ryrrarat into Sta/3dXov, /cat 
Ko\a6p,fvos vif O.VTOV diddaKei /cat 



4. fj.6vov iva] For the ellipsis 
with fj.6vov see the note on Ephes. u. 

VI. 'The kingdoms of this world 


$ia/3o\ov eTr' e/me epveffdcocrav JJLOVOV \vct ' Irjcrov 

VI. OuSev /me co(pe\r]creL TO. TrepaTa TOV 
vSe al /SacriXelai TOV alwvos TOVTOV KaXov JJLOL CLTTO- 

GL; et malae S. 2 A (the conjunction is of no account); durac 2; ct omnes A m S m ; 
KO.I gM Euseb-Syr; om. altogether, Euseb. Nothing can be inferred from the 
loose quotation of Sev-Syr 216 ignis et bestiae et mille species tormentortim veniant 
super me. /coXdtrets] GLS 2 2AA m S m (?)M Euseb; /c6Aa<m g (reading also 

tpxtedu for epxe<r0u<rav) Euseb-Syr. 4 phvov iVa] GLA m Mg Euseb ; 

solum A Sev-Syr; et solum S 2 2S m Euseb-Syr. 'Irjvov] GLSS AS m Mg 

Euseb Euseb-Syr Sev-Syr; om. A m . 5 eVin^x^] 2 breaks off here and 

(with the exception of the words 6 ro/cero's fj.ot tirlKeirat 6) contains nothing till 
7 6 ^u6s fyuj K.T.A. 6 /*e] gM ; /JLOI G. Tr^para] gLS. 2 A m S m 

(written however TTHDJ? opera for WHy termini}^ thesaurus A; r^p-rrva GM. 
7 TOU aluvos TOIJTOV] GLA m S m Mg; ejus S 2 ; hujus A. The Syriac had already 
exhausted the proper equivalent to aluv, ND7JJ, in translating KOO-/XOS. KaXov] 

gM; bonum LS 2 A Tim-Syr r; pnlcJiruni S m ; /JLO.\\OV G; melius (?) A m . 
fj,oi] GM ; faol g. 

will profit me nothing. It is better 
to die for Christ than to reign over 
the whole earth. I long for Him 
who died and rose for me. The 
labour-pangs of a new birth are upon 
me. Do not prevent me from living ; 
do not desire me to die. I would 
fain belong to God; do not bestow 
me on the 'world. Let me see the 
pure light. When I am come thither, 
I shall be truly a man. Permit me 
to imitate the passion of my God. 
Let all who have Him in their 
hearts feel and sympathize with my 
desire, for they know what constrain- 
eth me'. 

6. PC w'^eXjfo-ei] With an accusa- 
tive, as Mark viii. 36, i Cor. xiv. 6, 
Heb. iv. 2. This is the common con- 
struction ; but it sometimes takes a 
dative, more especially in poetry. 
See Kiihner n. pp. 251, 252. 

TO Trepara TOV K.T.A.] ''the boun- 
daries of the earth\ i.e. 'the whole 
earth from one end to the other.' 
In the LXX ra TTfpara rffs yfjs (rfjs 

s a common expresson : 
see esp. Ps. ii. 8 dwaco . . . TTJV Kara- 
tr^fo-tV ao v TO. IT (para rrjs yr}s, which 
well illustrates the meaning of Ig- 
natius here. See also the note on 
Ephes. 3. The other reading ra 
Ttpirva is discredited by the deficiency 
of authority. 

7- at /3ao-iXfu K.r.X.] This was 
the temptation offered to Christ 
Himself; see Matt. iv. 8, Luke iv. 5. 

Ka\6v K.r.X.] Suggested by i Cor. 
ix. 15 KaXov yap fjLOt fj.a\\ov a-nodavelv 
T) TO Kai>xr)p.d fj.ov K.r.X. For *aX6i/ . . . ^ 
(without prAXof) comp. Matt, xviii. 8, 
9, Mark ix. 43, 45; and see Winer 
xxxv. p. 301 sq for this construc- 
tion, which is common in the LXX. 
If the alternative reading paXXov 
were accepted, we must understand 
eo^eXr/eret ; but it is condemned by 
the great preponderance of authori- 
ties. It was perhaps originally written 
above the line to supply the defective 
construction KaXoj/ . . . 77, and after- 
wards displaced *aXdi/. 



Gaveiv Sid 'Irjcrovv XpicrTov, / fiacnXeveiv TWV 
7/75. eiteivov (^/rw, TOV VTrep q/ucov 

6e\o), TOV [&' ^as] dvatTTavTa. 6 TO/ceros JULOI 

i Sia] g (but 1 translates in) L Tim-Syr; iv M; eis G; z'w S 2 AA m (they may 
have read either iv or els) ; cum S m . 'I?;<roC^ Xptaroi'] LS 2 Ag 

Tim-Syr; xP lffTOV iyo-ovv (or xP lcrT V lf]ffov) GA m S m M. ruv irepa.Twv'] 

GLAmSmMg Tim-Syr; super omncs terminos S 2 A. i 7775] txt 

LS 2 AA m S m Tim-Syr; add. ri yap w^eXelrai dvOpufros tav Kepr]<rri TOV 
6\ov (TOV KOfffJ-ov 6\ov Kepdrfarj g) TTJV 5 ^v^fv avTov fr/uudidy (r. 5 i 
dTroX^crT? g, Kal f. r. ^. avTov M) GMg from Matt. xvi. 26: comp. Mart-Rom 2. 
3 &' tyuas] GLA m [Sm] Tim-Syr; om. S 2 A[g] Mart-Rom; def. M. 6 TOK- 

eros] [S]A m S m ; 6 5 ro/ieroj GL* (reading however 6'oe for 6 5^, and mis- 
translating ro/ceros hicrum} Tim-Syr; et dolores mortis S 2 (reading r^^>O,5?3.'l 
mortis for r^3aQ2fl.l partus; see above p. 78 sq); dolores mortis (om. Se) A; 
def. Mg. A m has parttts meus (aut; fcnus ct lucrum meum), where the words 
in brackets may imply another reading TOKOS or another interpretation of TOKCTO'S. 
juot] GLSAS m Tim-Syr; /w>uA m ; om. S 2 ; def. Mg. 4 avyyvuTe] GM; 

<rvyyvwfj.oi>eiTe g: see the converse change in Trail. 5. 5 fj,rj ^eX^o-^re] 

GLSoASm g Tim-Syr; /ATJO^ ^eX^o-T/re M; velitis (secundum alios; ne velitis) A m . 
There is no other trace of this v. 1. Oe\^a"rjTe for /-o) Oe\r]<rr)Te. The omission of the 
negative has an exact parallel in i [jn}] faiffrjede, the motive being the same. ytie] 
gM and perhaps L (velitis me) ; /J.QI G. The rest are doubtful. TOV TOV 

0eou dtXovTa] G S m Tim-Syr; TOV 6eov BtXovTa. fj.e gA m (?); dei volentem . . .me L; 

3. 6 TOKCTOS K.T.X.] ' My birth- 
fiangs are at hand\ The image re- 
fers not only to the birth of the child, 
but to the pangs of the mother also. 
Ignatius stood in the position of both 
the one and the other. His martyr- 
dom represented the pains of labour. 
They were suffered by the earthly 
Ignatius; they resulted in the birth 
of the heavenly. The endives TOV 
Savarov (Acts ii. 24) were with him 
the 'natalicia' of his higher life. 
For the metaphor, as regards the 
mother, comp. Gal. iv. 19 re/ma /*ov, 
ovs TraXtv todiva K.r.X. ; and as re- 
gards the child, e.g. August. Serin. 
381 de Natali Apost. (v. p. 1481) 
' Natalicio ergo Petri passus est 
Paulus, non quo ex utero matris in 
numerum fusus est hominum, sed 
quo ex vinculo carnis in lucem natus 

est angelorum', a passage which has 
more than one resemblance to the 
language and thoughts of Ignatius 
here. As this interpretation was 
written down some years before 
Zahn's book appeared, I am con- 
firmed in its correctness by finding 
that he had expressed independently 
and in other language the same view 
respecting the double reference in 
TOKTOS (/. v. A. p. 561 sq). The 
word takes a genitive either of the 
mother (Ephes. 19, Job xxxix. i, 2) 
or of the child (Ecclus. xxiii. 14). 

On the other hand the Latin Ver- 
sion renders it * lucrum\ and the 
Armenian Martyrology gives as an 
alternative translation l femis et lu- 
crum? So also some modern critics, 
e.g. Smith p. 99, Denzinger p. 62, 
who compare Phil. i. 21 TO a 




67riKeiTai. (rvyyvtoTe JULOL, d$e\(f>oi' jULtj fMTO$'urtiT JULOL 

5 tya'ai, fjiri 6e\^(TfiT jue aTrodavelv. TOV TOV Ocov 6e- 

\ovTa tivaL KOfffJiw fjiri aicrricrde, fULrjSe v\rj KO\aK6vcrr]T. 

def. M. S 2 A favour Tbv..,Q\ovTa. as against 0^\ovrd /xe, but otherwise they have a 
corrupt text : see the next note. 6 xapbrqo-tfe] gA m S m (which has dcdu- 

ca/tSj a loose rendering) Tim-Syr (for doubtless we should read f^*ga\N^\ for 
r^*\ y ) ; %a/377<T77(r0e G; separetis (xupl<rr)<rde, taken as if x. w pt (r n re ) L; def. M. 
In S 2 the whole sentence is rendered, ilium qui non vult esse in mundo ne honorctis 
me in hoc, and similarly in A qui non volo manere in mundo, ne honoretis sic. 
The explanation of this rendering seems to be this; (i) Some letters dropped out, 
TONfYoYQeJoyGeAONTA, owing to the recurrence of similar letters, so that it was 
read TOV ov deXovra /c.r.X. ; (2) In order to make sense, tcdo-py was attached to the 
preceding words ; (3) x a P^ ffr } ff ^ was inaccurately translated honoretis. At all events 
the coincidence of S 4 A shows that the corruption is not in the Armenian, as Peter- 
mann not unnaturally supposed, but existed already in the Syriac Version. fjirjdt 
ti\rj /coXa/cei;o">7T6] see the lower note; neque per materiam seducatis L; nequc per 
hylen adulemini (blandiawini) me Tim-Syr; neque proT.!ocetis-me-ad-aetnulationem 
per ea quae videntur S 2 ; et nc aenitdatorem faciatis visibilinm A ; neque labefactetis 
me (om. O'X??) S m (but for the verb ^.^t labcfactavit, peccarc fecit, we ought surely 
to substitute A ni- bland it us csf, which is used in Tim-Syr) ; ne ekmentis (mate- 
rialibus) quibusdam scdiccamini A m (reading perhaps Ko\a.Kev9?/Te, but a single 
letter makes the difference between the active and the passive in the Armenian, as 
in the Greek); om. Gg; def. M. 

preferred /coXaxei;o-r?rf, because it ex- 
plains all the versions better than 
f'a7raraTe (el-cnraTijo-rjTe) or jrapa- 
77X0)0-777-6, while moreover irapa- 
r)\a>(rr)T does not give the right 
sense. The verb ^n^, which the 
translator of Timotheus uses here, 
occurs in 2 as the rendering of KO- 
\aKfvfiv in Polyc. 2, and the sub- 
stantive from the same root appears 
in the Peshito of i Thess. ii. 5 for KO- 
Aa/ceta. The word in the Syriac Ver- 
sion S 2 (from which the Armenian 
A is translated), ptD (Aphel, provo- 
care ad zelum, stimulare), though 
neither well suited to the context 
nor a good rendering of KoXaKevetv, 
is closely allied in meaning to i")J 
(excitare] which is used by 2 in Rom. 
4, 5, the only remaining passages 

and similarly Leclerc. This 
arises from a confusion of words. 
While TOKOS frequently bears this 
secondary sense of 'interest', TOK(TOS 
seems never to have it. 

6. JJ.T) vA?7 KO\a.KfV(TT)Tf] Fof 

v\rj 'matter', i.e. 'external things', 
see the note on <j)i\6v\ov 7. The 
words missing in the existing Greek 
text have been supplied ^& Z\y 
e|arrarare by Petennann, ^ff vA?/ 
by Lipsius, and firjde 
by Zahn (/. V. A. 
p. 560, and in loc.} and Funk. They 
have rightly substituted p.^ for 
/Lir/Tf, since there is no reason for 
introducing a connexion ^...^re 
which is only not solcecistic. The 
word v\7) is preserved in the Syriac 
of Timotheus. For the verb I have 



a(p6Te /me xaQapov (pws \afieiv* 6K6i 



HJLOI juLijmrjTrjv evai TOV 

6pco7ros ea-o/mai. 


o 6e\w KCLI a-v/uLTraOeira) JULOL eJo!s ra 

LS m Tim-Syr; homo perfecttis S 3 A; in luce perfedus S 2 (but this 
is clearly a corruption, r^lOOQJLa in luce for r^lX-iTS3 homo, as S 3 shows); 
&v0pwTro$ 0eou GMg. The perfectus of the Syriac and Armenian, and the 6eov of 
the Greek copies, are evident glosses. In A m the sentence I/ret... &TO/MU runs nunc 
homo sum, sed ilhic iens angdus fiam, the seemingly unmeaning avdpwiros being 
displaced by a paraphrase. i eTriTptyart /J.OL] GMg; ^do-are Anast-Sin. 

The singular permitte in Sev-Syr 3 is doubtless an error of transcription, as 
the plural appears in three other places, i (twice), 4 b. fj.i/j.ijTrjv] G 

(written H^^TTJV] LS 3 AA TO S m Mg Anast-Sin Tim-Syr (twice) i, 2, Sev-Syr 

where KoXaKevf iv occurs in Ignatius ; 
and indeed the two roots are con- 
nected together in the Peshito ren- 
dering of 2 Cor. xi. 2 ro V/JLWV f)\os 
ripe6t.(Tfv rovs 7r\fiovas. On the 
other hand in the Latin Version 
blandiri is the consistent rendering 
of KoXaKeveiv in these epistles else- 
where, while seducatis occurs here. 
For the sense of KoXaneveiv comp. 
Clem. Horn. xx. 4 KoXcucevouo-?/ ap-ap- 
T/a, and see the note on Polyc. 2. 

i. avdponTTos] ''(i man' 1 in the 
highest and truest sense, 'a rational, 
immortal being'. In the language 
of Scripture generally, as in other 
writers, av0pa>7ros is a disparaging 
term, suggesting the weakness, the 
sins, the mortality of human nature ; 
see esp. I Cor. iii. 4 OVK avOpwiroi core : 
(where the received reading, oi^i 
o-apKiKoi eo-Tf ; is a mere paraphrase). 
Here however the case is differeni. 
Ignatius speaks of the KUIVUS avdpanos, 
the man regenerate, in whom the 
Divine image (Gen. i. 26) is renewed. 
So used, it is higher than dvyp ; for 
while dvijp implies either maturity 
(opposed to viJTrios, e.g. I Cor. xiii. 1 1 

ore yeyova dvrjp) or courage (opposed 
to yvvj, e.g. Horn. //. vi. 112 dvepes 
fo-re, (piXoi), ai>6pa>nos denotes the ideal 
of humanity. The use of the word 
here is partially illustrated by M. An- 
tonin. iv. 3 eXev$fpo? t<r.o KCU opa TO. 
irpdyiiara, ws dv^p, coy avBpccTros, fos TTO- 
\irrjs, a>s dvrjTov ov, x. 15 laTOprfTOdCTOV 
ol av6p<07roi avQptoTrov d\r)9ivov Kara (pv- 
(riv ^"coj/ra, xi. 1 8 ap^at Trore avOponros 
fffat, eo)? tfs. Thus too Menander 
says (Fragm. Com. iv. pp. 355, 372) 
as xapifv eVr' av0pa>7ros, orav av6pa>- 
TTOS /, quoted by Clem. Alex. (Strom. 
viii. 3, p. 916) whose comment is 
OVTWS avdpatros, 6 ras Koivas (ppevas 
KKrr]p.evos. So again in the well- 
known stoiy of Diogenes the Cynic 
(Diog. Laert. vi. 41) 

and in another story of this same 
philosopher (ib. vi. 60) ewaffft diro 
icov irpos ovv TOV 7rv06p.evov fl 
r\v TroAvy, IIoXvs [lev, eiTrcv, 
o^Xoy, oXryoi de avOparroi. See also 
[Clem. Rom.] Fragm. i (p. 213) 8ia 
TOVTO (TfJi(V avOpwirot KOI <pp6vr)(Tiv 
ex<>nev K.T.X. Scribes and translators, 
not understanding this use, have 

vn] TO THE ROMANS. 221 

VII. 'O apxcov TOV alwvos TOVTOV SiapTrdo'ai jue 
pov\Tai Kat Tr]v 6t? Qeov fJiov yvco/ui.}]!/ SiacbOelpai. ]u.rj- 
ovv TWV TrapovTdov vjULtov /SorjOeiTO) avTip' iua\\ov 

(four times), Anon-Syr 2 Anon-Syr 3 Theod-Stud. In the first passage Severus 
states that ' in other copies which are rather older ' the reading is fj-ad^r^v. No 
other trace of this reading exists. elvai] GLMg; yeveodai Anast-Sin. 

The Oriental Versions determine nothing here. TOV irddovs] GM Anast-Sin ; 

irddovs g. 3 TOV 0eou MOV] GLS 3 AS m Anast-Sin Tim-Syr (twice) Sev- 

Syr (three times) 2, 3 (while elsewhere 4 b he quotes it 'my God' for 'of my 
God,' but probably a letter 1 has dropped out of the existing text) Anon-Syr 2 
Anon-Syr 3 ; xpicrTov TOV 6eov fji.ov g ; TOV xptarou M ; domini mei A m . 4 ei- 

6u>s] GLA m S m Mg Tim-Syr; hoc dico quod scio A, but this is probably a translator's 
insertion to refer e5ws (wrongly) to the ist person. 7 6e6'] GM ; TOV 6e6v g. 

8 TWI> irapdvTuv fy*u>>] Gg; praesmtium de vobis L (which probably is a mis- 
interpretation of the same Greek); e vobis (om. T&V irapovTuv) AA m ; 
(om. vfiCJv] S m M. auT$] There is no v. 1. here. For L see the Appx. 

helped out the meaning in different 
ways, as the critical note shows. 
The reading of the Greek MS avtipw- 
TTOS Qeov was probably suggested to 
the scribe as a scriptural expres- 
sion, e.g. i Tim. vi. u, 2 Tim. iii. 


2. pLfj.T)Tfjv clvai K.r.X.] Comp. 
Ephes. I fjufj.rjTai oi>Tfs 6eoC, ai/o^co- 
TrvprjcravTfs ev cu/xari GfoG (with the 
notes). Anastasius of Sinai (Hodeg. 
i. 12, p. 196 Migne) mentions this as 
one of the passages in earlier writers, 
which the Monophysites quoted in 
support of their doctrine. The quo- 
tations in the extant fragments of 
the Monophysite Severus confirm 
this statement. 

VII. 'The prince of this world 
desires my ruin. Do not ye abet 
him in his purpose; but espouse my 
cause, which is God's cause also. 
Do not talk of Jesus Christ and de- 
sire the world at the same time. 
Let no man grudge me my crown. 
Obey not my prayers, if I should 
entreat you by word of mouth, but 
rather obey my letter, as I now write 
to you. For though living, I write 

to you, desiring to die. All my 
earthly longings have been crucified. 
There is no more any flame of pas- 
sion in me, but living water, which 
speaks and summons me to the 
Father. I have no delight in cor- 
ruptible food or in this life's plea- 
sures. I desire the bread of God, 
which is the flesh of Christ the son 
of David, and His blood, which is 
imperishable love.' 

6. 'O apxav K.T.X.] See the note 
on Ephcs. 17. 

8iapnd<rat] The word used in the 
parable of the strong man's house, 
Matt.xii.29(v. L), Mark iii. 27; which 
passage may have suggested its em- 
ployment here. 

7. rrjv fls QOV K.r.X.J ' 'my mind 
which is to Godward\ 'my heaven- 
ward thoughts'; comp. Philad. i 
rr\v els 0eoi/ crvroG yvwpTjv. See also 
[Clem. Rom.] ii. 3 77 yv&o-is r) Trpcy 

8. TWV TrapovTwv] ' 'who are on 
the spot] i.e. 'who will be witnesses 
of my approaching martyrdom.' It 
corresponds to the following 
'when I am among you.' 




yivecrBe, TOVTecrTiv TOV Oeov. JULTJ \a\clT ' 
KO&jJiov Se 67ri6viuiT. fiaaKavia ev vfjuv 
av eyw Trapwv TrapaKaXw, 

gM ; ^fjiov ylvecrde G; mei fiatis L (which would suit either read- 
ing); ad meum latus estate AA m (where t^oi the possessive pronoun seems to be 
mistaken for the dative of the personal pronoun) ; al. S m - 3 /?S' &v eyw irapuv 

Tra/ra/faAcG u/xas] GM ; p.rj5k av tytij i5/*a$ Trap&v Tra/xx/caXa) g ; neque ^^ti(Jne ego vos 
praesens (v. I. praesens vos} deprccor L. irelodrjTe'] TreiVfletre G. 4 ^oi] 

GLAA m M; //// S m (perhaps a corruption in the Syriac text, ^yci having been 
already dropped, so that a third person takes the place of Trapa/caXw) ; om. g. 

re] gA (prob., for it has credatis here, but obtempcretis (obediatis) for 
above) A m (prob., for it has credite here, but convincamini (conscntiatis) 
above) SmJ Trei(r8r)Te GML* (prob., for it uses the same verb credere in both 
cases). 5 yap] gLM (which has <? wi> yap...tpui)' t om. GAS m ; def. A m : 

see Clem. Rom. 62 (note). 6 ^uos] GLAA m S m M (v. 1. e/^os) g Dion-Areop ^ 

Theod-Stud; et metis [S]; vietis atttem Orig. S resumes here and continues 
(with omissions) to the end of the chapter. 6 laTavpurai] GLSA (see 

below) S m Mg Orig Dion-Areop Theod-Stud ; but A ra has meum desideriiim a patre 
est (secundum alias ; meum desidcrinm vel meus amor crucifixus est), where the 
corrupt reading K ira.Tp6s fort (for IffTavpurou] is partially explained by the 

1. f/xoi ylvf<r6i\ ' ta/ce my side] 
where e'ftol is the nominative of the 
possessive pronoun. Scribes, mis- 
taking it for the dative of the per- 
sonal pronoun, have altered the text 
to produce conformity in the two 
clauses, some reading efioO for e'/ioi, 
Others rw Gcoi for TOV Qfov. 

fjLrj XaXeirf K.r.X.] See the note on 
Ephes. 6. 

2. fSacTKavia] To desire to spare 
his life is to grudge him the glory of 
martyrdom ; comp. 3 oiJScVore t/3a- 
<r/cj/are ovSevi (with the note), 5 

3. TTfiputv TrapaKaXco] i.e. 'if on my 
arrival in Rome I should change my 
mind and ask your intercession to 
save my life.' 

5. a>v yap K.r.X.] i.e. ' In the 
midst of life, with all its attractions, 
I write deliberately and desire death' ; 
where wv is emphatic. 

o tfios epcoy] ' my earthly passion ' ; 
comp. Gal. v. 24 ryv vdpKa ecrrai;- 

paxrav crvv TOLS Tia.Qr]\ia<jiv Kal rais 
tlftOvplUU?, vi. 14 ffJ-oil Kocrpos cVrav- 
porai Aca-yw Kocrp-cp. The word epcoy, 
so frequent in classical Greek, is 
found only twice in the LXX, and in 
both passages it denotes strong sen- 
sual passion, as a term of reproach ; 
Prov. vii. 1 8 devpo Kal cyK.v\icr6u>nev 
epcoTt, XXX. 1 6 adrjs Kal epcoy yvvaiKos 
K.r.X. In the New Testament it 
does not occur at all. Conversely 
the common term for Christian love 
in the New Testament, dycnrrj, is 
almost, if not quite, unknown in 
classical writers (in Plut. Mor. p. 
709 dyaTnjr <lv has been rightly 
corrected into ayaTTT/Vcoi/). Ignatius 
therefore would necessarily use epws 
in a bad sense to denote the passions 
of his former unregenerate life. 
His aycnrrj, we might say, was per- 
fected, when his epco? was crucified. 

His meaning therefore being clear, 
it is strange that Origen should have 
given a wholly different interpreta- 




(rdrjTe fj.oi 9 TOVTOIS Se /zaAAoy TrjcrreiycraTe, ok rypdtya) 
v fjuv. i^aJv \jyap~] ypdfyu), epwv TOV dwoGavelv 6 
e'/xos 6|0ft)5 ecrravpcoTai, Kal OVK ecmi/ ev e/moi Trvp 

usual contractions of irarpos and 0-raiyjos (with its derivatives). The double 
rendering in A amor metis crux est, menm desiderium crucifixion est, is owing 
to the ambiguous N2v^* of the Syriac, which may be either crux or cruel- 
fixus. t<TTit>] 'iarf]v G. Trvp ^tXcJttXoj/, iiotop 8 "u5f Kal XaXoO^] 

G; irvp 0tX6i/Xop, v8wp 8 fj.a\\ov ^v Kal \a\ovv M Theod-Stud (Menaea Dec. 
20); Trvp <f>i\ovv n, vdup d <av o.XXo/.iepoi' g (1 omits Trvp <j)L\ovv n and translates 
the remaining words aqua auteni viva alia manet, i.e. vSup d fav d'XXo JJ.VQV)', 
ignis amans aliquant (leg. aliaml] aquam sed vivens et loquens est (irvp <f>i\ovv n 
vdwp fav o teal \a\ovv) L; ignis in amore alto (v. 1. amoris alius) S (peril, irvp 
(J>i\6a\\ov, a corruption of <pt\6v\ov; the rest of the words are omitted); alius calor 
amoris. aqua bona et vivida...existit (TTI//J <f>i\6a\\ov, vdup KO\OV Kal v) A; ignis 
amandi (alicnum quidquam} aqua vivida et loqtiens est A m (where the words in 
brackets may be merely an explanatory gloss or may betoken a v. 1.) ; ignis attains^ 
diligo enim aquas vividas ct loquentcs S m . The Menaca (Dec. 20) have OVK ^ 
f/)i\6v\ov ev (roi, lyvdrie, vdup d uv yuaXXo^ Kal \a\ov v...v cup TO a\\6f.(.ev 
Thus the authorities exhibit a strange confusion of -v\ov, oXXo, KO\OI>, 
a\\6fj.evov: see the lower note. 

tion to the words ; Prol in Cant. 
III. p. 30 4 Nec puto quod culpari 
possit si quis Deum, sicut loannes 
[i Joh. iv. 8] caritatem [oyaTnyv], ita 
ipse amorem [ep<ura] nominet. De- 
nique memini aliquem sanctorum 
dixisse, Ignatium nomine, de Christo 
Meus autem amor crucifixus est^ nee 
reprehend! eum pro hoc dignum 
judico.' Origen is followed by some 
later writers. Thus the false Diony- 
sius the Areopagite, de Div. Nom. 
iv. 12 (p. 565 ed. Cord.), accounts for 
the expression by saying that it was 
thought by some Beiorepov fivai TO 
TOV eptoros 5vopa TOV rfjs dydrrrjs. So 
also Theodorus Studites, Catcch. 3 
(Grabe Spic. II. p. 229) o epos epa>s 
eo-raupcorai Xptoros (where Xptorro? is 
his own gloss), ib. Jamb. 70 (p. 
1797 Migne) e^ow epwra XpurTov ev 
vy Kapdiq. Hence too in the Menaa 
(Dec. 20) wy rerpw/zeVos eptan d-ydrrrjs 
TOV Kupi'ou o-ov, 'O efjLos epcoy, /3ua$-, 
Xptcrros coravpcorat deXwv, besides se- 
veral other allusions to this saying, 

in all which it is interpreted in the 
same way. In favour of this inter- 
pretation it might be urged that epa;-*, 
(pao-TTJs, are applied in the LXX 
(Prov. iv. 6, Wisd. viii. 2) to the 
pursuit of Divine wisdom; com p. 
Justin Dial. 8 (p. 225 B) e/iot fie ira- 
irvp fit Tff -^vxf} dvrj(pdr) Kal 

ol ei<ri XptoroO (pt'Xot, 
Clem. Al. Coh. II (p. 90) o ye rot 
oi'pai'to? Kal 6cios VVTWS cpcoy, ib. 
Fragm. p. 1019 (3advi> TWO. TOV TOV 

KTIO-TOV TTfpKpepfOfJLfV fpCDTtt. So Cliry- 

sostom says of Ignatius himself (Op. 
II. p. 599) TOIOVTOI yap oi epwvreff' 
oTTfp av itatrx<riv virep TWV epco/u-cVcoi/, 
pfffTJdovrjso-exovTai, though he may not 
have been thinking of this passage. 
But the fatal objection to this inter- 
pretation is that, even if otherwise 
admissible, it would tear the clause 
out of the context. Obviously epeoy 
and jrvp are synonymous here, as 
they are in the passage of Justin. 
Sec the saying ascribed to Buddha, 




tf>i\ov\ov 9 vScop Se ffiv ^Kai AaAcwi/t iv efJLOi, ecrcodev 
IJLOL \eyov Aevpo Trpos TOV TraTepa. ov% riGOfjLcti Tpcxprj 

] GMg; tv8o0ev Theod-Stud. i \tyov] M Theod-Stud; \tywv 

(sic) G ; \tyei g (but 1 dicens}\ dicens Sev-Syr 4 b; dicit L ; et dicit A ; et . . .clamat 
et dicit A m . The two last seem to have had the participle rather than the 
indicative. S m renders the sentence ZawQh /J.QI \tyuv quum sit mihi dominns 

Dhammapada 251 'There is no fire 
like passion' (Buddhaghosha's Pa- 
rables, by Rogers, p. cxxviii). 

I. (pi\6v\ov] ' matter-loving] l sen- 
suous] ' carnal' ; comp. 6 /zr/Se 
vXfl Ko\aKevcrT)T(. On the other hand 
the Holy Spirit is nvp aiJXov ' ignis 
materiae expers ' in the Liturgy of 
S. Cyril (Renaudot Lit. Orient, I. 
p. 38). The word v\rj has here its 
secondary sense 'matter,' as e.g. in 
Wisd. xi. 1 8, xv. 13, Clem. Rom. 38. 
It is too fanciful to see (with Zahn 
p. 563) a reference also to its primary 
sense, as if Ignatius had in view the 
same metaphor as in James iii. 5 
r/XiKOV 7rvp yXiKTjv vXrjv avairTti (comp. 
Is. x. 17, Ecclus. xxviii. 10). There 
seems indeed to be the double re- 
ference in the passage to which he 
refers, Clem. Alex. Paed. ii. i (p. 164) 
iyoiy Kadanep TO Trvp, rfjs \ijs 
(where however we should 
perhaps read e^e^ofiez/oi') ; but it is 
there brought out by the form of the 
sentence. For the compound (j>t\6v\os, 
which is very rare until a later age, 
comp. Orig. Fragm. in Luc. (/>iAovAcoi/ 
Kin (f)i\O(T(i)fjLaT(i)v \6yot iviOavoi (ill. p. 
982, Delarue). For the Gnostic 
(Valentinian) tinge of the sentiment 
see the notes on Ephes. inscr. 

I have adopted <pi\ov\ov here on 
authority which elsewhere would 
not deserve a preference, for several 
reasons, (i) It is so obviously the 
best reading ; (2) It explains the 
other main variations, <j>i\ovv ri and 
(f)i\oi>i> aXXo, which would be substi- 
tuted for (f)t\6v\uv, if either mis- 

written or unintelligible to the scribe; 
(3) Conversely it is not usual for 
a transcriber to show such intelli- 
gence as appears in the substitution 
of an unusual word <j>i\6ij\ov for 
either (friXovv TI or (>i\ovv a'XXo. 

v8o)p Se <3i/j Doubtless a refer- 
ence to John iv. 10, u, as indeed 
the whole passage is inspired by 
the Fourth Gospel. This water at 
once quenches the fires of sensual 
passion and supplies an unfailing 
draught of spiritual strength ; comp. 
Justin, Dial. 114 (342 B) rfjs naXijs 
TTtr pas... v Sap <iiv TCUS Kapdiais TWV di 
avrov ayaTTTjO'avT&v TUV Trarepa TO>V 
oXcoi/ ftpvovcrrjs. 

f/cat AaXoCi't] According to Jor- 
tin (Eccles. Hist. I. p. 356 sq, quoted 
by Jacobson) there is an allusion to 
the heathen superstition that certain 
waters communicated a prophetic 
power to the person drinking them ; 
e.g. Anacreont. n (13) da^?/0d/)oto 
4>ot/3ov XaXov muvres vdap (comp. 
Stat. Sylv. i. 2. 6, v. 5. 2). As there 
was one of these 'speaking' foun- 
tains at Daphne (Sozom. H. E. v. 
19, Evagr. i. 16) the famous suburb of 
Antioch, he supposes that the image 
would readily suggest itself to Igna- 
tius. This reference seems to me 
more than doubtful, even if the text 
were correct. But I am disposed to 
believe that the right reading is 
preserved in the interpolator's text, 
dXXdjuei/oz/ for KOL \a\ovv. The various 
readings show that the text here has 
been much tumbled about in very 
early times; and this being so, Xa- 





as ov 







meus intus dicens mihi, doubtless reading the masculine \tywv (with G) and wishing 
accordingly to give it a personal application. Similarly Severus translates Trpos 
TOV iraT^pa ad patrem meum, thus giving a personal reference to the participle, 
and he too perhaps read \tywv : see the lower note. v ovx i?5o^at] 

G. 3 9eou] GM ; TOV 6eov g. 

between /3ios and farj (in v8a>p &>i/), 
which is brought out more definitely 
in the interpolator's text by the in- 
sertion of aprov fafjs in the next 
sentence. The former denotes the 
lower earthly life, the latter the 
higher divine life. If far/ is some- 
times used of the earthly life, fiios is 
never used of the heavenly. This 
distinction holds in the writings of 
the Apostolic Fathers, not less than 
in the N. T. It is founded on an 
essential difference between the two 
words, recognised by Greek philo- 
sophers ; but to the Christian their 
relative position is exchanged, be- 
cause his point of view is altered. 
As a>j) is the principle of life, vita 
qua vivimus, fiios denotes the pro- 
cess, the circumstances, the accidents 
of life, in its social and physical 
relations, vita qiiam vivimus; comp. 
Athenag. Resurr. 19 17 re3z> dvdpa>7ro>v 
0077 KOL arvfiTras 6 ftios. Hence Aris- 
totle could say ftios eVri X 071*77 0)77 
(Ammonius s. v. /3i'os) ; for with him 
/3ios was the higher term of the two. 
See Trench N. T. Syn. xxvii. p. 86 
sq, and Field in Journal of Philo- 
logy X. p. 178 sq (1882). But in 
Christian philosophy the principle of 
life is not physical, but spiritual ; and 
thus, while fiios remains at its former 
level, <Br) has been translated into a 
higher sphere and takes the prece- 
dence. So too Dion Cass. Ixix. 19 
(Biovs fJiev err) roo~a, ij(ras 5e CTTJ eTrra. 
Accordingly, while ddvaTos is opposed 
to cB?7, it may be identical with 
pios ; [Clem. Rom.] ii. I o pios wav 
o\os aXXo ovdev r\v ei /u,r) ddvaros. Con- 
trast I Joh. iii. 15 <OT)I/ altovtov with 


\ovv might very easily suggest itself 
to a scribe from the following Aeyoi/. 
If aXXo/zei/ov be correct, it is taken 
from John iv. 14 7777717 v8aros aXXo- 
fjievov els forjv alaviov. Combined 
from this and the preceding passage 
(ver. 10, u) in the same Gospel, the 
expression vdap <nv aXXo/xei/oi/ took 
a prominent place in the speculations 
of the second century ; e. g. of the 
Naassenes, Hippol. Haer. v. 9 edaicev 
av (rot TTiflv v8a>p a>v aXkopfVov ', of 
the Sethians, ib. v. 19 aTreXouVaro KCU 
erne TO TroTijpiov <nvros vdaTos aXXo- 
pevov ; of Justin the Gnostic, ib. v. 
27 oVep e'o-rl Xourpoi/ avroTy, toy vopi- 
fovtri, TTT/yr f (Biros vdaTos aXXo/zei/ou. 
This makes the combination the more 
probable here. Heracleon in Orig. 
in loann. xiii. 10 (iv. p. 220), the 
earliest commentator on this Gospel, 
lays great stress on aXXopcvov. 

2. \eyov K.r.X.] Similarly Philad. 7 
TO Se TTJ/eO/ia (Krjpvcrafv, \eyov raSc* 
Xcopis TOV eVio-KOTrou K.r.X. See also 
Dion. Alex, in Euseb. H. E. vii. 7. 
2, 3. I have not ventured to sub- 
stitute the masc. Xtywi/, though the 
evidence is in its favour. This read- 
ing would identify the vdcop a>v 
directly with Christ (see the upper 
note), and thus the reference to John 
iv. 10 sq would be made more dis- 
tinct. For a similar instance of an 
alternative between Xeyov or \4ya>v 
see Philad. 1. c. 

rpofyrj (pdopas] Suggested by 
John vi. 27 f'pyaeo-$e ^77 rr)i/ /3p<3o-tv 

3. rjSoi/als K.r.X.] The phrase ?)So- 
i/oJi/ TOV /3i'ov occurs Luke viii. 14. 
This sentence involves a distinction 



6e\w, o e<TTiv <rap TOV XpicrTOv TOV e'fc 


txt LSAA m S m ; add aprov ovpdvtov, aprov fco^s GMg. o] GLM 

(with a v. 1. 6's) g ; dub. SAA m S m ; vulg. 6's. TOV X/MOTOU] g*S ; iri<rov 

Xptcrrou GLAA m S m M. After xP iffT0 ^ add. TOV vlov TOV deov GMg; om. L[S]AA m S m . 
TOW] txt L (ejus qui ex genere) S m (qui est ex genere} ; add. yevo/j-tvov GAA m Mg 
(but the versions AA m are not of much weight in this matter) ; def. S : see the 
lower note. After TOU [yevopfrov] add. tv ucrr^py GMg ; om. LAA m S m ; def. S. 

ib. ver. 17 TOV ftiov TOV KOO>IOI>, or the 
same Apostle's absolute use of o /3/os 
in i Job. ii. 16 with his absolute use 
of 77 fa} elsewhere, e.g. iii. 14, v. 12. 
Contrast also the expression TOV 
jSi'ov TOVTOV here with rfjs fafjs TCIUTTJ? 
in Acts v. 20. See too Clem. Horn. 
Ep. Clem. I avTos TOV vvv fiiov /3icuW 
TO rjv pfTri\\agev (i.e. 'received true 
life in exchange for this earthly life'), 
ib. xii. 14 OTTWS dfSao-avio-Ttos TOV rjv 
TOV fiiov jLieraXXa^at dvvrjdfis (which 
passage, like the former, seems to 
have been altogether misunderstood 
by the critics), whereas ib. i. 14 we 
have TOV Travra fj.ov TTJS faffs /3i'oi/, but 
there an only half-converted heathen 
is speaking ; Clem. Alex. Paed. ii. i 
(p. l68) 01 Taireivt'xfrpoves, ^afiatyfj/ety, 

TOV (f)r]fJLfpOV dlQJKOVTfS jSlOI/, (OS OV 

fro-oufvoi (comp. ib. p. 163), Orig. 
c. Cels. iii. 16 (i. p. 457) Trepi T^S e^fjs 
r /3t'a> TOVTM fays, Macar. Magn. 
Apocr. iii. 12 (p. 82) apfpirrcp oe j8ta> 
TTJV <*>rjv ep.cya\vvfv, C. I. G. 9474) a 
Christian inscription where o /St'os 
(OVTOS) is contrasted with a>^ ovpdvios 

apTov Qfov] Here again is an ex- 
pression taken from S. John's Gos- 
pel, vi. 33. Indeed the whole con- 
text is suggested by this portion of 
the Evangelist's narrative. The con- 
trast of the perishable and imperish- 
able food the bread and the cup as 
representing the flesh and blood of 
Christ the mystical power emanat- 
ing therefrom are all ideas con- 
tained in the context (vi. 48 59). 
The later interpolator has seen the 

source of Ignatius' inspiration, and 
has introduced expressions freely 
from the Gospel ; ' the heavenly 
bread' (vi. 31, 32, 50, 58), 'the bread 
of life ' (vi. 48), < eternal life ' (fa} 
alvvios, vi. 27, 40, 54). For apTos 
Qeov compare also Ephes. 5 with the 

The reference here is not to the 
eucharist itself but to the union with 
Christ which is symbolized and 
pledged in the eucharist. Obviously 
any limitation to the actual reception 
of the eucharistic elements and the 
blessings attendant on such recep- 
tion would be inadequate ; for Ig- 
natius is contemplating the consum- 
mation of his union with Christ 
through martyrdom. The indirect 
reference to the eucharistic elements 
is analogous to that which our Lord 
makes in John vi. 

I. ToG < o~7rep/Liuroff Aaveid] i.e. 
' who was really and truly incarnate': 
see the note on Ephes. 18. The 
reality of Christ's humanity is neces- 
sary to the full power and significance 
of communion with Him ; because 
only so is our own manhood truly 
united with God. The shadow of Do- 
cetic antagonism, which was rife in 
Asia Minor, rests for a moment even 
on this letter to the Church of Rome, 
though the Romans were aT 
fjievoi OTTO jravros aXXorpiov 
and though there is no direct mention 
of this heresy in it. 

The insertion yevopcvov stands on 
a slightly different footing from the 
other interpolations in this context, 


AaveiS, Kal TTOfJia 6e\w TO al/ma aiiTOV, b ICTTIV 


x-u/r\f~f^j s\rmc* 



i Aaveid] ddS G. After davdd add. Kal d/Spad/A GMg ; om. LAA m S m ; 
def. S. Tro/xa] gLSAA m S m ; add. deov GM. 3 a00apros] txt LSAS m ; 

add. Kal dewaos (d^aws G) fwi? GMg*; comp. Mart-Rom 10 (where this addition 
seems to be recognised). In A m et vita aeterna is added in brackets as a v. 1. 

being somewhat more highly sup- 
ported ; but it ought probably to be 
omitted. There was an obvious mo- 
tive for inserting it, so as not to 
overlook the preexistence and Di- 
vinity of Christ ; comp. Smyrn. 4roC 
rcXeiou dvdpwTTov [yevo/Jievov], where 
the motive for the insertion would 
be the same, and see also the v. 1. 
Ephes. 7 ev vapid yvop.vos. 

2. o f(TTiv dydnr) a(pOapTos] The 
relative refers to TO alpa avVoO. As 
the flesh of Christ represents the 
solid substance of the Christian life, 
so the blood of Christ represents 
the element of love which circulates 
through all its pores and ducts, ani- 
mating and invigorating the whole. 
See especially Trail. 8, where the 
flesh and the blood are separated in 
a similar way, and made to represent 
respectively the faith and the love 
of the Christian ; and compare also 
the passage from Clem. Alex. Paed. 
i. 6 (p. 121) there quoted, in which 
there is an analogous application. Ig- 
natius does not here directly say what 
he means by the flesh, as distinguish- 
ed from the blood ; but we may supply 
the omission from the parallel passage 
in Trail. 8, and say that he refers to 
faith as the substance of man's union 
with Christ. See also for partial 
illustrations of this passage Clem. 
Alex. Paed. ii. 2 (p. 177) TOVT eo-Ti 
TTielv TO alp.a TOV Ir)o~ov ) rfjs KvpiaKrjs 
fjiCTaXaftelv d(pdap(ria$, to-^vs Se roO 
Xoyou TO Tn/eC/xa, o5y alpa o-ap/cos, Qlds 
div. salv. 23 (p. 948) aprov cpavrov 
StSovs, ov yev&apevos ovdfls eri Trelpav 

fvdiBovs dOavao-ias. 'I desire,' Ignatius 
appears to mean, 'that heavenly sus- 
tenance which is derived from union 
with a truly incarnate Christ through 
faith and love.' But it is impossible 
to be confident about the interpreta- 
tion of language so obscure. 

On the other hand Zahn (7. v. A. 
p. 348 sq, and ad loc.) would apply 
the relative clause o ccmv dydnr] 

acpdapros not to TO alpa avTov, but to 

both clauses of the preceding sen- 
tence, i.e. 'which participation in the 
flesh and blood', so that it will no 
longer be parallel to os to-riv <rap 
XptoToO. Accordingly he supposes 
that in dycmr] there is a secondary 
reference to the ' love-feast ' (comp. 
Smyrn. 8) of which the eucharist 
formed a part. This reference to the 
agape is, I think, barely possible ; but 
the grammatical construction thus a- 
dopted seems to me altogether harsh. 
It is true that the parallelism, as I 
take the sentence, is grammatical, 
rather than logical. The logical pa- 
rallelism would have been aprov 6c\(* 
rr/v (rdpica TOV Xpto~Toi) 77 eoriv 7rio~Tis 
aTpeTTTos K.T.X. ; and in a more finished 
and less hurried writing it might have 
been so expressed. But instances of 
parallelism not strictly logical are 
common, and here it is too obtrusive 
to be set aside; while it is further 
confirmed by the very similar pas- 
sage, Trail. 8. 

3. mp&zpTos] The interpolator 
adds Kal devvaos far/, an expression 
occurring in the LXX apparently only 
in 2 Mace. vii. 36, and never in the 
N.T. But it was doubtless suggested 






iva Kai 

VIII. OVK eTi 6e\a) /caret dvdpwTrovs 
Se ea-rai, edv v/meis 0e Affaire. ^eX^cra 
6e\rj6iJTe. $i 6\i<y(x)v ypafjifJiCLTtdv aiTOvjuLai vflas' TTL- 
(TT6V(raTe JULOI. 'Iqcrovs Se XjOtcrros VJULIV rairra <f)ave- 
pcocrei) on d\r]6co$ Xeyw TO d\ls6v$6s (TTOjua, ei/ to 6 5 
Trarrjp 6\d\rjcrev [d\f]6co^]. aiTrjO'aa'Oe irepi ejmov, \va 
[ei/ TrvevfJiCLTi a*y/w], ov Kara crdpica VJMV 

i 0e\ri<rr)Te] GM ; dtXijTe g. The omission of the following words in some 
texts (see the next note) points to a homoeoteleuton, fleX-rJoT/re, deKyQrtre, and 
therefore favours tfeX^o-Tjre. 6\^aa,Te...6e\tj6rjre] GLA m S m M ; om. A [g]. 

With 0e\ri<raTe connecting particles appear in some texts ; autem LS m ; ovv >M ; 
jam A m . 3 deX-rjOrjre] GLMS m ; def. Ag. A m has ut et vos auxilium 

inveniatis (aut ; ut et vos optati fiatis, id est accepti). The alternative auxilium 
inveniatis seems to represent a v. 1. wQeXydrJTe, but there is no trace of it else- 
where. di 6\lyw] GLSmMg; praef. 5 (or a) AA m . 4 8^] 

GLMSm j om. AA m j al. g. vfuv ravra <f>avepc!)(rei] GM ; 0c'epw<rei vfuv 

by ^COT) al&viog which occurs several 
times in John vi. 

VIII. ' I no longer wish to live, 
as men count life. I entreat you to 
fulfil my desire, that God may fulfil 
yours. I have written briefly to this 
effect ; but Christ, the unerringmouth- 
piece of the Father, will show you 
that I speak the truth. Pray for 
me, that I may succeed. I write 
not this after the flesh, but after the 
will of God. If I suffer, it is your 
favour ; if I am rejected as unworthy, 
it is your hatred.' 

i. Kara av6pa)irovs\ i.e. 'accord- 
ing to the common, worldly, concep- 
tion of life'; comp. Trail. 2 <f>aivco-0e 
/AOI ov Kara avdpcofrovs o>i/res (with 
the note). 

roOro] ' this desire of mine to live 
no longer the common life of men'. 

3. 6e\r)Of)Tc] i.e. VTTO rov Qeov 
''may be desired, may be looked upon 
favourably, by God ' ; comp. Clem. 
Hom. xi. 25 ft de xai /xera TO K\T]6fjvat 
ov 6e\is f) ftpadvveis, diKaia Qeov 
r<5 fir 

6e\r)deis, Athan. c. Arian. iii. 66 
(Op. I. p. 487 sq) o vlos TTJ 6e\yo-i 
17 6e\fTat vrapa rov Trarpo? ravrr] <al 
avros ayairq Kai 6e\fi Kal Tt/za TOV 
-rrarepa, Greg. Naz. Orat. xxix. 7 (i. p. 
527) rj TO p.V avTOV 6e\r)cra.v, TO 5e 

deXrjdev. The passive occurs not 
very commonly of things (e.g. Epict. 
Diss. iv. i. 59), and still more rarely 
of persons (e.g. Clem. Horn. xiii. 16 77' 
o~ca(ppo3v els TO 6f\to~&ai 7Tpo<pdo~is ov 
Trape^ei 77 ra> avTijs dvdpi' 77 <ra><ppa>i> 
VTTO ere'pov BeXofievrj XvTreTrai). From 
this passive use comes the Qf\rjTos, 
which has a place among the aeons of 
Valentinian mythology (Iren. i. i. 2). 

6V oXi'ycoi/ ypaji/*ira>i/] ' in a brief 
letter'; comp. Polyc. 7. So &' oXt- 
ya>v, i Pet. v. 12, Ptolem. ad Flor. 4 
in Epiph. Haer. xxxiii. 7 ; diet pa- 
Xea>i/, Heb. xiii. 22. 

5. ev K.r.X.] So He is styled 
TOV Trarpoy r) y vector] in Ephes. 3. 

8. yvcoprjv Qfov] Comp. Ephes. 3, 
Smyrn. 6, Polyc. 8. The expression 
itself does not occur in the N. T. (see 
however Rev. xvii. 17). 


eypa\lsa, d\\d Kara 


Oeov. eav 

>, ri6e\n- 



10 IX. MvyjULOvevere ev Trj Trpocrev^ri VJULCOV 
Cvpia eKK\r]arias, tins dvri efjiov Troi/mevi rto Oeco 
fijiovos avrriv 'Irjcrovs XpKTTOs e7ri(rKO7rri(rei Kai Y\ 
dyaTrrj. eyw Se alcr^vvo/uLai e avT&v \eyecr6ar ov$e 
yap a^tos elfjii^ wv ecr^aro? avTwv Kai eicrpWfJLa' d\\' 

raura g ; vobis manifestabit haec L. 5 dX^^ws] GLA ; om. A m S m ; def. M ; 

al. g. 7 v TTvetfAaTi aytq>}[g\ ; spiritu sancto A ; om. GLA m S m M. 8 Ka- 

ra yvdpiiv] GLSmMg ; spiritu et voluntatc A ; secundum spiritum et secun- 
dum voluntatem A m . t}de\-f)<\ GLAA m S m ; ^>a7r^(rare g; def. 

M. 10 TTpovevxi] GM ; evxy g. The genuine Ignatius does not anywhere 

use the word eu%^. 13 5] GLAA m S m ; 5^ Kai g; def. M. ou5 

yap] G ; 06 yap g ; non enim L ; quia non A ; quoniam non A m ; non S m j 
def. M. 14 oio's elfu] G (but writing T//U for elfu) ; elfj.i atos g; sum 

dignus L ; def. M. 

K.T.X.] In connexion with 
which follows, this pre- 
sents a close parallel to I Pet. ii. 25 
c7re<TTpa(J)r)T vvv cnl TOV 7roi/uei/a Kai 
fTTL(TKO7rov TG&v T\rw)(<av vp.a)v (comp. 
I Pet. v. 2 7roi/iaJ>are...7Tio-K07ro{;i>T6s, 
but firio-KOTrovvres is very doubtful) : 
see also Ezek. xxxiv. 1 1 sq. 

12. eVio-KOTTT/o-et] ' be its bishop'' ': 
comp. Polyc. inscr. /xaXXoj/ fnca-Ko- 
7TT)p.ev(p vnb Geou, and Magn. 3 TO) 
Trarpi 'ir/croi) XpioTou T<B iravTav 
eVio-KOTrw. The office of Jesus Christ 
is here identified with the office of 
God in the pastorate of the Syrian 

7) i5ju<5i/ a-yoTn;] See the note on 
Troll. 3. 

13. ovfte yap at-tos K.r.X.] See the 
note on Ephes. 21 eo-xaros &v ra>j/ 


14. ocrpw/ia] ' an immature birth?. 
The word, occurring in this context, 
is obviously suggested by i Cor. xv. 
8, 9, f(r\aTov de Travrav, aSo-Trepe! ro5 
CKTpd>p,aTi, a)(p6r] KOfloi" fya> yap ei/it 
o eXa^toros TU>V aTrooroXwi/, os OVK 

\ 'Ye have done me the 
favour which I asked'. It is best 
not to understand TO naOflv, but to 
refer T^eA^o-are to the preceding tav 

VfJifls 0\rj(TT]T. 

9. a7roSo/<i/iao-0a>] See Trail. 12 
Iva p.r) ddoKipos cvpedto (with the note). 

IX. 'Pray for the Church of 
Syria whose only pastor now is God. 
Jesus Christ will be its bishop He 
and your love. For myself, I am 
not worthy to belong to them ; but 
God has had mercy on me, if so be 
I shall find Him in the end. Saluta- 
tions from myself and from the bro- 
therhoods which have received me 
as Christ's representative, not as a 
mere passer by ; for even those 
churches which lay out of my path 
went before me from city to city'. 

10. Mvr)p.ovei>Te x.r.X.] For this 
injunction, which occurs in all the 
four letters written from Smyrna, 
see Ephes. 21. 

11. TJTIS] 'seeing that it\ thus 
giving the reason for their prayers : 
see Philippians iv. 3 (note). 


Tis elvai, edv Oeov eVtri/^fo). darlra^erai 
TrvevfJia Kal r\ dyaTrrj TWV eKK\ricricov TCOV 
/ue eis ovofJLa 'lycrou Xpia"rov, ov% w 


i Kal i] aydirij ruv eKK\i)<n&j>] GLSS m (so doubtless originally, but the present 
text has amor et ecclesiae) Mg ; et amor omnium ecclesiarum A m ; ft omnes ecclesiae A. 
3 ets] GL (in nomine, but els is often so translated in L) A m Mg* (but v. 1. ws); 
propter S m (probably representing ets) ; ws S (nDj6*l "pN, not ws els as Petermann 

fl/ju tKavos Ka\i<r0ai ciTrooToXop K.r.X. 
Objection was taken to e'/mrpooo-Kfi?', 
e/crpeo/ia, etc., in this sense, instead of 
the approved words dpflMa-Keiv, ap.- 
/3X<o/*a, etc., by purists (see Lobeck 
Phryn. 208 sq) ; but they occur as 
early as Hippocrates and Herodotus 
(iii. 32) ; and eWpojjua is mentioned by 
Aristotle as a common word, de Gen. 
An. iv. 5 (p. 773) eWiTrrei irapa- 
TrXrjo'ia rols Ka\ovfj,vois e/erpcojuatrti/. 

In the same sense it occurs also in 
the LXX, Num. xii. 12, Job iii. 16, 
Eccles. vi. 3. See also references to 
other writers in Wetstein on i Cor. 
/. c. For the metaphorical use com- 
pare Philo Leg. All. i. 25 (i. p. 59) 
oi3 yap 7Tf(f>vK yovifiov ovftev reXccr(po- 
pelv TI TOV (f)av\ov ^f^J/, a. 8' av 8oKrj 
, dp,j3Xo)^pi8ia evpio'K.eTai Kal 
(referring to Num. xii. 12 

), Clem. Alex. 
Exc. Theod. 68 (p. 985) artXf) K al 
vi]Tria Kal afppova Kal darOfvfj <al a/nop(pa, 
olov e/crpco/^ara irpoa-fvexOevra, Iren. i. 
8. 2, cv efcrpw/xaroy poipa. The idea 
in the metaphor, as used by S. Paul 
and by Ignatius, is twofold: (i) irre- 
gularity of time, referring to an unex- 
pected, abrupt, conversion; and (2) 
imperfection, immaturity, weakness 
of growth. Ignatius, like S. Paul, 
we must suppose, had been sudden- 
ly brought to a knowledge of the 
Gospel. The late story, that he was 
the child whom our Lord took up 
in His arms and blessed, is doubtless 
founded on a misinterpretation of 

Qeocpopos (see the note on Ephes. 
inscr.) and cannot be reconciled with 
his expressions here. It is very pos- 
sible that his early life had been 
stained with the common immorali- 
ties of heathen society ; but at all 
events this expression throws a flood 
of light on his position and explains 
the language of self-depreciation 
which he uses so freely. See on this 
point Zahn /. v. A. p. 403 sq. In the 
letter of the Gallic Churches, Euseb. 
H.E. v. i, the same metaphor is twice 
similarly applied. In 4 it is said 
of some who shrank from martyrdom, 
e(f)aivovTO Se oi dveTOipoi KCU ayv/jivacr- 
roi Kal e'rt d&Qtvfls, dywvos peyaXov 
rovov evfyKelv fir 8vva.[jivoi, utv Kal ee- 
Tpaxrav <os Se'/ta TOV dpid^ov : and in 
12 of others, who had before denied 
their faith but at the last moment 
gave themselves up to die, ei/eyiVero 
TToXX?) X a P a T fl napdeva) p.rjrpl [i.e. rfj 

TOVTOVS a>i>Tas d 

dXX' qXe'q/uu K.r.X.] Again an echo 
of S. Paul, i Tim. i. 13 aXXa ^\^6rjv 
OTI K.r.X., where the words occur in a 
similar connexion ; comp. i Cor. vii. 

25 ^\T)fJ,eVOS V7TO KvplOV 7TKTTOS LVai. 

1. Qeov eVtrv^o)] See the note 
on Magn. i. 

2. TO ffjiov 7rvevfj,d] Comp. Ephes. 
1 8, Trail. 13, Smyrn. 10. This again 
is a Pauline expression, i Cor. v. 4. 

TJ dyaTrrj] See the notes on Trail. 

3i 13- 

T&V dcgafjievav K.r.X.] The Churches 
of the Ephesians and Smyrnceans 



2 3 I 

yap al 

5 Kara TTO\LV 

7rpoa"nK.ov(ra JJLOL TY\ 


gives it, 7 being merely the sign of the accus.) [A]. 4 /ULTI] GLS 3 A A m S m Mg ; om. 

S 2 : see the lower note. TTJ Kara <rdpKa] GLSA m S m M; om. gA. 5 irpo- 

7770?] GM ; Trpo-^yayov g. It is translated by an imperfect in 2, and by an aorist 
or perfect in LAA m S m . At this point S departs from the text of Ignatius : see the 
lower note on I>dc6a> Se, p. 233. 

are meant in the first instance; 
comp. Magn. 15, Trail. 13. He was 
also attended about this time by 
several delegates from the Magne- 
sians (Magn. 2 sq), and by one at 
least from the Trallians (Trail i). 
These churches also would be in- 
cluded. By TWV dfafjLevn>v he intends 
not only those churches which (like 
Philadelphia and Smyrna) he had 
visited in person, but those which 
(like Ephesus and the others) had 
welcomed him through their repre- 

3. fls oi/o/ia] i.e. ''having regard 
to the name\ i.e. 'because I bear 
the authority of, 'because I repre- 
sent Christ': comp. Matt. x. 41, 
42, 6 Se^c/ifi/cy 7rpo<prJTT)v fls ovopa 

... O dfXOfJLfVOS dlKdlOV CIS 

diKaiov: and see Buxtorf Lex. 
Talm. p. 2431 for the correspond- 
ing usage of DtJ^. Ignatius seems 
here to have in his mind the 
context of this same passage of 
S. Matthew, ver. 40 o dcxopevos 

VfMds e'jue Several : COmp. Ephes. 6 
OVTUS del 7//u7s avrbv dfXfcrSdi (as 
dvrov TOV Trepi^ai/ra K.r.A. The read- 
ing fl s must be preferred to coy, be- 
cause (i) It is the more difficult read- 
ing of the two ; (2) The scribes would 
naturally alter fls into cos to produce 
uniformity with the words following, 
ov% (os Trapodevovra. Independently 
of this reason, the tendency is to 
change fls into cos in such cases; 
e.g. Potter on Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 

J 5 (P- 359) OV ... fls 0OV TfTlfJL^Kaai 

writes 'seu potius coy 6f6v', though 

fls 6fov Tipav is excellent Greek ; (3) 
Considering the meaning of dexfo-Qat 
fls, it cannot be assumed that those 
versions which give a rendering equi- 
valent to cos had coy in their text. 

ovx <&s Trapodevovra] ' not as a 
chance wayfarer, a mere passer by\ 
as e.g. Ezek. xxxvi. 34; comp. Ephes. 
9 f'yvwv Se 7rapo&fv<ravTa.s Tivas eKeWfv, 
Mart. Ign. Ant. 5 8ia *tXi7T7rcov Trapco- 
dfvev MaKfdoviav (of Ignatius himself). 
See also TropoSoy, Ephes. 12. On the 
other hand Hilgenfeld (A. V. p. 191 
sq) here, as in Ephes. 9, gives to 
TrapoSeuet;- the sense 'to take a 
by-way', understanding it of one who 
has deserted the true path of the 
Gospel, which is par excellence 'the 
way', and supposing that an an- 
tithesis is intended between this dSoy 
Kara Qeov and the 68os Kara o-dpKa 
mentioned in the next sentence. 
To this it is sufficient to answer ; 
(i) That Trapodfvfiv, though a fairly 
common word, never has this mean- 
ing elsewhere ; and (2) That such an 
antithesis would be meaningless here, 
even if the readers of the letter 
could have discovered it. 

4. /cat -yap at /LIT) K.r.A.] i.e. 'for 
not only have those churches through 
which I passed welcomed me; but 
also those which lay out of the way, 
etc.' The Curetonian Syriac text, 
as represented by one MS 2 2 , omits 
the negative and reads 'for even 
those which were near to the way, 
etc.' It has been contended that 
this was the original reading, and 
this supposed fact has been alleged 


X. rpd(f><*) Se vfJiiv Tavra aVo CjJivpvns Si* ' 
d^iOfJiaKapicrTWV. eamv Se Kcti apa efjiol (rvv a\- 


i 5] GLS m Mg; om. AA m . 5i] GM ; dia g. 2 IOTI? & Kal] 

GL ; OT' 5 (om. Kal) gM ; <?.?/ or sunt AA m S m . a/^a fytoi] before ai)v 

GLg ; after TroXXots M. aXXots TroXXots] GLM ; TroXXots /cat aXXots g ; 

aliis (om. TroXXots) A m . For AS m see the next note. 3 Kal Kpo/cos] 

LA m M; KpoKos (om. Kal) Gg. The two remaining authorities take a different form; 

as favouring the priority of the Cure- 
tonian letters by Lipsius (S. T. p. 
136). But (i) The negative cannot 
be dispensed with, for it alone gives 
any significance to KOI yap 'for 
even\ 'for also' '; and (2) Though 
absent in one (2 2 ) of the two Syriac 
MSS, it is present in the other (2 3 ), 
and the latter elsewhere preserves 
the correct reading as against the 
former; see Ephes. 19 with the 
note. S. Chrysostom indeed says 
of Ignatius at yap Kara rr/v 68ov TroXeis 
iravrodev 7)\fi(f)ov TOV 
era TroXXcoi/ e'e7re/i7roi> 
K.r.X. (Op. II. p. 598) ; 

but the expression diverges too far 
from the words of Ignatius to justify 
the inference that the negative was 
omitted in his copy of Ignatius; 
and indeed the word o-wrpe'^ovo-at im- 
plies the presence of those churches 
which did not lie on the actual 

777 Kara <rap/ca] By this qualifying 
clause he wishes to imply, that though 
in actual locality they lay out of his 
way, yet in the spirit they were all 
his close and intimate neighbours: 
comp. Ephes. I v/zolj/ e [eV o-apKi] eVt- 

This passage is quite inconsistent 
with the account in the Antiochene 
Martyrology, which represents Ig- 
natius as sailing direct from Seleucia 
the port of Antioch to Smyrna. To 
save the credibility of this Martyr- 

ology, Pearson (ad loc.} translates 
at pr) irpoo-rJKovo-ai /Liot, 'which do not 
belong to me', i.e. 'are not under my 
jurisdiction', separating 7-77 65o> K.r.X.; 
and so too Smith ' multi ab ecclesiis 
non mei juris et ad me neutiquam 
spectantibus [JLU) Trpoo'T/Kotxrat /wot], 
in hoc nimirum ultimo itinere, quod 
in mundo restat emetiendum [r^ 
680) TTJ Kara trap/ca], Ut mihi obviam 
irent missi, me singulas civitates 
ingressurum honoris causa praeces- 
sere'. It will be seen that Zahn 
(/. v. A. p. 254) is mistaken, when he 
charges Smith with giving to odos 
the sense ' episcopal jurisdiction ' ; 
but though Smith is not guilty of 
this error, his separation of T^ 68a> 
from irpoo-rJKovo-ai and his general 
interpretation of the passage (in 
which he follows Pearson) are too 
harsh to be tolerable. Even if this in- 
terpretation were possible, Kara iro\iv 
would remain an insuperable diffi- 
culty. The only land journey which 
on this hypothesis Ignatius had 
hitherto taken was from Antioch to 
Seleucia, some 15 or 16 miles (130 
stades, Procopius Bell. Pers. ii. u, 
I. p. 199 ed. Bonn. ; 120 stades, Strabo 
xvi. 2, p. 751). For the double dative 
comp. 2 Cor. xii. 7 cdoQq /iot o-KoXo^ 
rrj o-apKt, and see Kiihner 424 (11. 
p. 375 sq), Winer xxxii. p. 276. 

Kara rroXiv K.r.X.] ' went before 
me from city to city ', i.e. so as to 
make preparations and welcome him 





Flepi TWV 7rpoe\66vTO)v /UL ctTTO Cvpias ek 
v [rot?] Qeov TrKrreva) i)/xas eTreyvcoKevcu. ois 

sunt mecum et alii multi fratres dilecti A (omitting /cpo'/cos) ; sunt atitem mecum 
etiam alii multi crescus (sic) S m . poi\ GLA m ; om. S m Mg ; al. A : comp. 

Smyrn. 13, Polyc. 8. 4 TUI> trpoeXdovruv fj.e] G ; qui praevenerunt me A ; 

qui comitati sunt et deduxerunt me S m (this also seems to represent irpoeKQbvTuv ; 
comp. Luke xxii. 47) ; T&V TrpoffeKQovrwv (om. pe) g ; advenientibus mecum L ; r&v 
ffvve\6bvT<av poi [M]; quivenerunt A m : see the lower note. 5 TOV Qeov] G; 

0eou gM. 

on his arrival. For Kara TTO\IV comp. 
Luke viii. i, 4, Acts xv. 21, xx. 23; 
for Trpodyfiv, Matt. xiv. 22, xxvi. 32, 
xxviii. 7, Mark xi. 9, etc. Zahn (/. -z/. 
A. p. 255) rightly objects to taking 
it as an equivalent to rrpoTre/uTreti', 
a sense which it seems never to 
have; nor indeed would his guards 
have allowed anything like a tri- 
umphal procession. The ayeiv of 
npoayeiv here is intransitive, and the 
construction is the same as in ?rpoeX- 
6fiv 10. When the word is transi- 
tive, it has the sense 'to put forward' 
or 'to drag forward'. 

X. ' I write this from Smyrna by 
the hand of the Ephesians. Among 
others the beloved Crocus is with 
me. I believe you have already re- 
ceived instructions concerning those 
who have gone before me to Rome. 
Inform them that I am near. Re- 
fresh them with your friendly ser- 
vices, for they deserve it. I write 
this on the gth before the Kalends 
of September. Farewell ; endure unto 
the end in Christ Jesus.' 

I. Tpa(pca de K.r.A.] The Syrian 
epitomator here leaves the text of 
this epistle. He first makes up a 
sentence of his own; 'Now I am 
near so as to arrive in Rome'. He 
then inserts two chapters (4, 5) from 
the Epistle to the Trallians. And 
he concludes with the farewell sen- 
tence of this epistle, eppcoo-^e K.r.X. 

fit* 'E<peo-io>i/] For the names of 
some of the Ephesian delegates who 

were with Ignatius at Smyrna, see 
Ephes. i, 2. These delegates are 
mentioned also in Magn. 15, Trail. 
13. For the whole expression comp. 
Philad. ii, Smyrn. 12, in both which 
passages he says ypa<pa> dta 
Eovppov (the only Ephesian then re- 
maining with him at Troas). See 
also I Pet. v. 12 dia 2iAovai>oi) vplv... 
dt o\iyo>v eypcn//-a. In all these in- 
stances the preposition would seem 
to denote the amanuensis. And this 
would appear to be the case also in 
the passage before us. But in Polyc. 
Phil. 14 'haec vobis scripsi per 
Crescentem', Crescens would appear 
to be the bearer of the letter; and 
in Dionys. Cor. quoted in Euseb. 
H. E. iv. 23 TTfv Trpore'pctJ/ ijfuv 8ia 
KXijfjievTos ypcxpelo-av, Clement is the 
composer of the letter, though it is 
sent in the name of the whole Ro- 
man Church. 

2. cito/zaKapurTa)i/] See Ephes. 

3. KpoKof] See the note Ephes. 2. 

4. reoi> 7rpof\d6vTd)v /xe] No men- 
tion is made of these persons else- 
where. The letter however presup- 
poses throughout that the Roman 
Church already possessed informa- 
tion of his condemnation and ap- 
proaching visit to Rome; and such 
information could only be conveyed 
by a previous arrival from Syria. 
The Metaphrast, not understanding 
this obscure allusion, abridges the 
passage so as entirely to alter the 






eyyvs p.e OVTCI' jrdvTes yap ei<riv a^iot [TOV] 
uon/' ovs TrpeTrov VJJLLV ecrTiv Kara TravTo. dva- 
eypa^a Se VJJLLV TavTa TVf Trpo evvea KaXav- 
wv Ce7TTfjippi(jov. epptocrBe ek re Acs iv vTTOjULOvrj 'Irjcrov 

XplOTTOV. 5 

G ; dt)\6creTe g (but 1 mandastis or mandatis) ; manifestatis L ; 
notificate A m S m ; def. AM. TOV Geou] G ; deov g ; def. M. 2 vtuv 

<rTiv\ G ; tvriv V/MV g ; est vos L ; def. M. 3 5] GLS m g (but om. 1) ; 

om. AA m M. T77...SeTrre j u/3/)/wj'] txt LMg (but creirTefJipplov in M) ; add. 

TOVT(TTLV avyoticrTov dxddt. rplrri G ; ante ix kalendas sefitembres, mense augtisto qui 
dies 22 erat A; ante ix kalendas ahekani (gr. et lal. septembris, hoc est 24 augusti) 
A m . The difference in the calculations in GAA m shows that the additions have 
been made independently. S m substitutes for the clause a local reckoning of time, 
undecitno (die) mense ab. 4 'Irjcrov XptoToi?] GLMg ; add. dei nostri S ; 

prsef. domini nostri Am ; add. gratia domini nostri vobiscum omnibus A ; add. estate 
incolumes. gratia vobiscum S m . Add. &^v GAS m M ; om. SLA m g. 
There is no subscription in GLAA m S m M. For Sg see the Appx. 

sense; Kpoxoy, TO iroQ^rov ovopa, TUV 

<TVV6\66vT(OV fiOl ttTTO SvplttS LS d6aV 

Qeov. eypa-^a v^uv K.r.X. 

1. eyyvs /ie oi/ra] This would be 
the case, when the letter arrived in 
Rome and the message of Ignatius 
was delivered. There is therefore no 
difficulty in his using such language 
at Smyrna; see Zahn 7. v. A. p. 251. 

agioi TOV eeoO K.r.X.] See Ephes. 2, 
where the same expression occurs. 

2. Kara Traira aVaTraCo'ai] See the 
note on Ephes. 2. 

3. TT) Trpo evvea K.r.A.] i.e. August 24. 
The Armenian martyrology alone has 
correctly reckoned the day. The 
others give the 2ist, the 22nd, or the 
23rd. The 2ist is the equivalent to 
the nth of Ab in the Syriac Mar- 
tyrology (Mcesinger p. 26). For the 
common construction rrj npo eWa 
K.r.A. comp. e.g. Plut. Mor. 203 A rrj 
Trpo fuas vtova>v oK.Ta>(3pi(t)v. So also 
we have such expressions as Trpo pias 
Ty/iepay, Trpo Tpiaxowa ly/icpcop, 'one day 
before', 'thirty days before', in Greek 
writings of this age : comp. e.g. John 
xii. I Trpo e| qp.fpv TOV Trao-^a, and 

see Winer Ixi. p. 697, together with 
the instances in Kypke Obs. Sacr. I 
P- 393 s q- It is the Greek equivalent 
to ante diem nonam Kalendas Sep- 
tembres, though the construction in 
Latin is somewhat different. 

4. eppcoo-tfe] See the note on 
Ephes. 21. 

fv vnop-ovfj K.T.A.] Comp. 2 Thess. 
iii. 5 KaTvdvvai vp,<av TO.S Kapdias els 
Tyv dycnrrjv TOV GeoO KOI els TTJV VTTO- 
TOV Xpia-Tov. In Rev. i. 9 
'I^o-ou, the right reading is 
fv 'ITJO-OV. The expression 
apparently has the same sense here 
as in 2 Thess. iii. 5, but the meaning 
is doubtful. Most probably it is 'the 
patient waiting for Christ': comp. 
I Thess. i. 3 TTJS VTroiJ.ovrjs TTJS eArn'Sos 
TOV Kvpiov K.r.A., and see also Rom. 
viii. 25. In the LXX it is a transla- 
tion of nipD, nipD, etc, 'expectatio', 
'spes', e.g. Ps. Ixii (Ixi). 5, Ixxi (Ixx). 
5, Jer. xiv. 8, xvii. 13, etc. The com- 
mentators however more commonly 
take it otherwise, 'such patience as 
Christ Himself showed'. The former 
sense is much more appropriate here. 




HTHE name Philadelphia was borne by several cities (see below, p. 
249). Of these perhaps the most important was the Syrian Phila- 
delphia, the Rabbah or Rabbath-Ammon of the Scriptures ; while the 
second in importance if second was the Lydian Philadelphia, with 
which Ignatius corresponded. But, though bearing the same name, 
they did not owe it to the same person. The Syrian city was so 
designated from the second Ptolemy of Egypt, who restored this ancient 
capital of the Ammonites ; the Lydian city was called after the second 
Attalus of Pergamus (B.C. 159 138) its founder. Both these princes 
bore the surname Philadelphus. The foundation of the Lydian city is 
distinctly ascribed to the Pergamene king (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'ArraAov 
KTiV/xa TOV 3>iAaSe'A<ov), as indeed its situation would suggest. Yet we 
may be tempted to suspect an error in this statement. Joannes 
Laurentius the Lydian, a writer of the sixth century, himself a native 
of this Philadelphia, in a part of his work which is not preserved, 
related how it was founded by the Egyptians (de Mens. iii. 32, p. 45, 
ed. Bonn., on rrjv lv AvSia <I>iAa8eA<eiav AiyvTTTtoi eTroAto-av) ; and this 
notice would seem to point to Ptolemy Philadelphus, who had large 
possessions in Asia Minor (Theocr. Idyll, xvii. 88). 

Philadelphia lies at the foot of the Tmolus mountains, which separate 
the valley of the Hermus on the north from that of the Cayster on the 
south, and is washed by the river Cogamus, an important tributary of 
the Hermus (Plin. N. H. v. 30 ' Philadelpheni et ipsi in radice Tmoli 
Cogamo flumini appositi,' Joann. Lyd. de Magistr. iii. 26, p. 218, T^S 


fveyKOvar}*; pe <l>iXaSeX<j(>ias T^S VTTO TO> T/xooXu) KCH AvSta Kei/xevrys). It 
is situated in the loop which connects the valley of the Mseander with 
that of the Hermus, the valley of the Cayster being shut in between the 
two. Hence the importance of its position, as commanding the way to 
the pass between the two valleys. It is nearly equidistant from Tripolis to 
the west and Sardis to the east (33 miles from Tripolis, 28 from Sardis, 
Anton. Itin. p. 336 ; 34 miles from Tripolis, 30 [?] from Sardis, Peuting. 
Tab.), lying on the great high-road between Apamea and Smyrna, which 
leaves the Maeander close to Tripolis and touches the Hermus near 
Sardis. Along this road the great king led his countless hosts on his 
fatal expedition against 'Greece ; and Callatebus, at which he halted on 
this occasion, and where he committed the plane-tree to the guardian- 
ship of one of the Immortals, must have been not far from the site of 
the later city of Philadelphia 1 . It was along this same road also that 
Cyrus marched with his Greek auxiliaries from Sardis to the Mseander 
(Xen. Anab. i. 2. 5, see Ainsworth's Travels in the Track of the Ten 
Thousand Greeks p. 13 sq) ; but no place within these limits is men- 
tioned by name in Xenophon's account of his march. Descriptions 
of the road, and of the city of Philadelphia, will be found in Smith 
Sept. Asiae Eccles. Not. p. 32 sq; Chandler Travels in Asia Minor etc. 
J< P- 33 sc l ( d' Churton); Arundell Seven Churches p. 163 sq; 
W. J. Hamilton Researches in Asia Minor etc. n. p. 370 sq; Ainsworth 
1. c; Eellows Asia Minor and Lycia p. 216 sq; Texier Asie Mineure 
in. p. 23 sq. For the physical features of the region see Tchihatcheff 
Asie Mineure P. i. p. 235 sq, 470 sq, P. iv. Vol. 3. p. 229 sq. 

Philadelphia does not appear ever to have attained the magnitude or 
the wealth which its position might have led us to expect. The ' little 
power' (Rev. iii. 8 /xucpav e^eis Swcyuv) of the Christian Church here 

1 Herod, vii. 31 itvai irapct. KaXXdn;- Cogamus at Aineh Ghieul (see Hamilton 

jSov 7roXii>, ev rrj dyfuoepyol JJL\L CK ftupUcijs Asia Minor II. p. 374), near which the 

re KCU 7TU/30U TToievcrt /c.r.X. Philadelphia tamarisk grows in great abundance. This 

is still famous for a similar confection, is possible; but not so the position as- 

called halva; von Hammer Gesch. d. Os- signed to Callatebus in Smith's Diet, of 

man. Reiches i. p. 220, Texier L?Univers the Bible, s. v. Philadelphia, 'not far 

p. -271. Xerxes is stated by Herodotus to from the Mseander'; for the Mzeander 

have arrived at Sardis from Callatebus must be some seventy miles from Sardis 

Sevrtpy y^py, and as the distance be- a distance far too great for Xerxes' 

tween Philadelphia and Sardis is 28 or host to traverse in the time. Cyrus took 

30 miles, this would be a fair two days' three days, marching quickly with a 

march for a large army. On the other much more manageable force (Xen. 

hand, some would place Callatebus about Anab. i. 2. 5). 
four hours higher up the valley of the 


probably reflected the comparative size of the city itself. It lies indeed 
in a region of great natural fertility ; and, as is frequently the case with 
volcanic regions, this was especially a vine-growing country. The wines 
of Tmolus were among the most celebrated of antiquity (Virg. Georg. 
ii. 98, Plin. JV. H. v. 30, xiv. 9). But this physical characteristic was 
at the same time its most terrible scourge. It borders on the region 
called Katakekaumene, which is to Asia Minor what the Phlegraean 
Plains are to Italy ; and in a country where every city was more or less 
liable to such catastrophes, none suffered more cruelly from convulsions 
of the earth than Philadelphia. On this account the city itself con- 
tained a very small population, the majority preferring to live in the 
country and follow agricultural pursuits. Strabo, who gives us this 
information, expresses his surprise that even these few are hardy 
enough to brave the dangers. The earthquakes, he says, are con- 
stant : the houses are continually gaping asunder with the shocks : 
the architects are obliged to reckon with this fact in building (Strabo 
xii. 8, p. 579, xiii. 4, p. 628). In the terrible catastrophe during the 
reign of Tiberius, when twelve cities were thrown down in one night, 
Philadelphia was among the sufferers (Tac. Ann. ii. 47 ; see also the 
Puteoli marble, C. L Z. x. 1624). Doubtless these subterranean forces 
were exceptionally active when Strabo wrote ; but the account of a 
Philadelphian in the sixth century shows that the danger was not 
confined to any one epoch. This last-mentioned writer, Joannes Lau- 
rentius, also speaks of the hot springs in this region, as connected with 
its volcanic energy (de Ostent. 53, p. 349, ed. Bonn.) 1 . 

In the age of Pliny (N. H. v. 30) this city had no law-courts of 
its own, but belonged to the jtirisdictio or conventus of Sardis (see 
Colossians p. 7 sq). Before the middle of the next century however 
a change appears to have been made; for the rhetorician Aristides 
speaks of the legate as holding courts here (Op. i. p. 530, ed. Dindorf, 
TTJV xcipOTOvtav Iv <iAaSeA<ia [v. 1. <E>iAaSeA(ia] SIKCUTT^/HOIS 
/AoO ; see Masson Vit. Aristid. ib. in. p. cxviii sq). No great 
weight can be attached to the fact that the epithet ' splendid' is 
given to Philadelphia in a Smyrnaean inscription of the age of Valerian 
and Gallienus (C. I. G. 3206 o> rfj Aa/x7rpa <E>iAaSA<eW TroAct); nor 
again, do the titles of the two ruling bodies in the city, 'the most 

1 From this district also was obtained ...ofds e<rriv 6 e/c <i>iXa5eX0eas 

the highest quality of the commodity rrjs Iv AvStq.. For the substance meant 

which the ancients called spuma nitri; by a0p6s virpov see the reff. in Steph. 

Dioscorid. Mat. Mcd. v. 130 o'0pos vlrpnv Thes. s. v. aQpovirpov, ed. Hase et Dind. 


sacred,' or ( the most excellent Council,' and 'the most splendid People' 
(rj iepwTOLTr} [/cpa/mmy] fiovXrj KOL 6 XayuTrpoVaTos Siy/Aos, C. I. G. 3416, 
3421), imply very much. It is more important to observe that Phila- 
delphia bore the name of ' Little Athens.' This designation was given 
to the city on account of its religious character. As the great Athens 
especially prided herself on being the most 'pious' city in Greece (see 
the passages in Wetstein on Acts xvii. 16, 22 sq), while from an opposite 
point of view the earliest historian of the Christian Church described 
the place as 'beset with idols' (Acts xvii. 16 KaretSwXoi/) ; so also this 
miniature Athens was distinguished by the number of its temples 
and the frequency of its festivals (Joann. Lyd. de Mens. iv. 40, p. 75, 
Mi/cpas 'A^vas e/caXow TTJV <J>iXaSe\<av Sta ras copras KCU TO, tepa T<OV 
eiSwXwv). This statement is borne out by the not very numerous 
extant inscriptions found in or near the city. Among the festivals 
celebrated there we read of the Jovialia Solaria ( Aeta "AXeta <J>iAaSe%- 
<eia C. I. G. 3427, Acta "AXeia ev <J?iXa8eX<eia no. 3428, /xeya'Xa "AXeta 
no. 3416; see Boeckh's note, n. p. 804 sq, Lebas and Waddington no. 
645), of the Communia Asiae (KOLVO. 'Ao-tas ci/ ^XaSeX^a'a, no. 1068, 
3428), and of the Augustalia Anaitea (/xeyaXa ^e/Sao-ra 'AvaetVeta no. 
3424, i. e. in honour of Artemis or Aphrodite Anaitis, a Persian and 
Armenian deity worshipped in these parts) : while Asiarchs, pane- 
gyriachs, xystarchs, ephebarchs, hipparchs, etc., appear in considerable 
profusion. More especially mention is made of the ' priest of Artemis ' 
(no. 3422) who seems to have been the patron-goddess of the city 
(see Mionnet iv. p. 97 sq, Suppl. vn. p. 398 sq) ; and the title of 
* high-priest,' which occurs from time to time, probably belongs to this 

It would seem from these facts that paganism had an exceptional 
vitality in this otherwise not very important place. At the same time, 
it is no less clear that Philadelphia was a stronghold of the Jews. 
The message to the Church in the Apocalypse contains a reference to 
' the synagogue of Satan,' which is further denned as ' those that called 
themselves Jews, though they are not' (Rev. Hi. 9) ; and in accordance 
with this notice the Epistle of Ignatius is largely occupied in controvert- 
ing a stubborn form of Judaism which obviously constitutes the chief 
peril of the Christian Church in this city (see esp. 6, 8, 9). The 
promise in the vision of Patmos that the Jews should come and worship 
' before the feet' of the Philadelphia!! Church had been fulfilled mean- 
while ; but the influx of Jewish converts had been attended with the 
usual dangers. 

The intimate connexion which subsisted between Philadelphia and 


Smyrna, where Ignatius made his long halt, appears from several cir- 
cumstances. Among the coins of Philadelphia are not a few which 
commemorate the ' concord ' (o/xoVota) of the Philadelphians with the 
Smyrnaeans (Mionnet, iv. pp. 100, 108, Suppl. vn. pp. 400, 401). The 
Anthology again contains a couplet recording some honour which 
Philadelphia, /m^xoov 77 TTO'XI? euvo/xir/s, had paid to a statue of one 
'Philip ruler in Smyrna' (Anthol. n. p. 450). Again, an inscription 
at Smyrna mentions one Apollinaris, a citizen both of Smyrna and of 
Philadelphia, as of other places also (C. I. G. 3206). And lastly we hear 
of Philadelphian Christians crowned with martyrdom at Smyrna about 
the middle of the second century (Mart. Polyc. 19 ; see below, p. 243). 

The earliest notice of Christianity in Philadelphia is the passage in 
the Apocalypse (iii. 7 13). But the language there used implies that 
this church had already existed for some years at least. In default of 
any information we fall back, as before (see above, pp. 102, 147), on the 
supposition that its evangelization was due to S. Paul and his com- 
panions ; though here the distance from Ephesus, his head-quarters, was 
much greater than in the cases of Magnesia and Tralles. 

Unlike the churches which have come before our notice hitherto 
Philadelphia had been visited in person by Ignatius. At the bifur- 
cation, on the banks of the Lycus, his guards had taken the right- 
hand road which led in a more northerly direction over the Derwend 
pass through Philadelphia and Sardis, by the valleys of the Cogamus 
and Hermus, to Smyrna (see above, p. 2). At Philadelphia they 
appear to have made a halt of some duration. To this visit Ignatius 
incidentally alludes more than once in the course of the letter. He 
speaks of making the acquaintance of their bishop, whose modesty and 
reserve and gentleness he praises highly ( i). After the example of 
S. Paul, he appeals to the character of his intercourse with them. It 
was entirely free from tyranny or oppressiveness of any kind ( 6). He 
alludes obscurely to an attempt on the part of certain persons to lead 
him astray an allusion which (in the absence of information) it were 
lost time to attempt to explain. He reminds them that he had warned 
them emphatically ' with the voice of God ' to give heed to the bishop 
and other officers of the church (7). He had done all that one man 
could do (TO tSiov CTTOIOVI/) to promote unity. He recals a dispute 
apparently held at Philadelphia when the Judaizers had pleaded the 
ancient charters (ra ap^cid) against the Gospel, while he himself de- 
clared that Christ's Cross and Resurrection were their own witnesses 
and superseded any such appeal ( 8). 

IGN. II. 16 


Nor is this the only point in which the Epistle to the Philadelphians 
differs from the previous letters. It was also written from a different 
place. Since the despatch of the earlier letters, the saint had moved 
onward from Smyrna to Alexandria Troas, and was waiting there to 
embark for Europe. This interval had somewhat altered the position 
of affairs. Two persons had meanwhile joined him from the east after 
his arrival at Troas, or at all events after his departure from Smyrna 
Philo, a deacon of Cilicia, and Rhaius Agathopus, a member of the 
Syrian Church. They had followed in his track, and halted at Phila- 
delphia. Here they had received a hearty welcome from the main 
body of the church ; but some persons doubtless his Judaizing op- 
ponents had treated them with contempt ( n). From them he 
probably heard of those misrepresentations of his conduct during his 
stay at Philadelphia, which he considers it necessary to rebut ( 6, 7). 

But at the same time, they brought him more welcome news also. 
The prayers of the churches had been heard. The persecution at 
Antioch had ceased. He therefore urges the Philadelphians to despatch 
a deacon to Syria, as their representative, to congratulate the brethren 
there. Other churches which lay nearer, he tells them, had sent dele- 
gacies on a larger scale ( 10). 

But, though the letter contains this incidental charge, its direct 
purport and motive is different. The main burden is the heresy which 
troubled the Philadelphian Church. It had awakened his anxiety 
during his own sojourn there, and the later report of Philo and Aga- 
thopus had aggravated his alarm. What the nature of this heresy was, 
the tenour of his letter plainly indicates. He is attacking a form of 
Docetic Judaism (see the note Trail. 9), but more directly from its 
Judaic than from its Docetic side. The Docetism is tacitly reproved in 
the opening salutation, where he congratulates the Philadelphians as 
* rejoicing in the Passion of our Lord without wavering,' and ' steadfast 
in the conviction of His Resurrection/ and salutes them ' in the blood 
of Jesus Christ which is eternal and abiding joy.' There are perhaps 
also allusions to it, when speaking of the eucharist he refers to the 
1 one flesh of our Lord Jesus Christ ' ( 4), and when he describes him- 
self as 'taking refuge in the Gospel as the flesh of Jesus' ( 5). But 
the Judaism is openly attacked. A Jew talking Christianity, he says, 
is better than a Christian talking Judaism. If any disputant is silent 
about Christ, he is no better than a tombstone with its epitaph inscribed 
( 6). The Judaizers allege the ancient charters : but to himself Jesus 
Christ His Cross and Resurrection is the one inviolable charter ( 8). 


The prophets are to be loved and admired, because they foretold Christ 
( 5). The priests too are not to be despised, but the great High- 
priest is better than all. He is the door through whom patriarchs and 
prophets alike, not less than the Christian Church, must pass to the 
Father ( 9). These heretics are described as treacherous wolves 
devouring the flock ( 2). The heresy itself is a noxious herb, which 
does not belong to the husbandry of Jesus Christ ( 3). As a safeguard 
against its assaults he recommends here, as elsewhere, unity and obe- 
dience to the bishops and officers of the Church ( 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). 
In saying this, he merely repeats a charge which he had given them 
orally ( 7). More especially they must not separate themselves from 
the one eucharistic feast ( 4). No schismatic can inherit the kingdom 
of God ( 3). 

When Ignatius wrote this letter from Troas, Burrhus the Ephesian, 
alone of the delegates who had been with him at Smyrna, still remained 
in his company (see the note on Ephes. 2). He was the amanuensis of 
the letter ( n). 

It will be seen from the above account, that the impression of the 
Philadelphian Church left by the language of Ignatius is less favourable 
than that which we obtain from the message in the Apocalypse, where 
its constancy is commended (Rev. iii. 8, 10). The warning with which 
the Apocalyptic message closes was not superfluous ; ' Hold fast 
that which thou hast, that no man take thy crown (ver. u). } At the 
same time the main body of the Church appears to have been sound ; 
for Ignatius praises the steadfastness of their convictions (inscr.), and 
declares that he has found ' sifting, and not division,' among them ( 2). 
The next notices also in point of time are honourable to the Philadel- 
phian Church. She numbered among her sons eleven martyrs, who 
suffered at Smyrna in the persecution which was fatal to Polycarp, 
A. D. 155 (Mart. Polyc. 19). We are also told of one Ammia a pro- 
phetess of Philadelphia (ij ei> 4><AaSeA.<ei'a 'A/x/xia) who appears to have 
flourished early in the second century, for her name is mentioned in 
connexion with Quadratus more especially (Anon, in Euseb. H. E. 
v. 1 8). The Montanists claimed her as a forerunner of their own pro- 
phetesses; but this claim the orthodox writer quoted by Eusebius 
indignantly denies. The name is probably Phrygian, and occurs com- 
monly in inscriptions belonging to these parts (see Colossians p. 307). 
At the council of Nicaea this Lydian Philadelphia is represented by her 
bishop Hetcemasius (Spic. Solesm. i. p. 535, Cowper Syriac Miscellanies 
pp. n, 28, 33), as is also the Syrian by her own bishop Cyrion. On 

1 6 2 


the other hand at the Council of Constantinople (A.D. 381) the only 
Philadelphia which puts in an appearance is the Isaurian (ib. p. 37, Labb. 
Cone. i. p. 1135)5 both her more famous namesakes being unrepre- 
sented. In the meanwhile our Philadelphia has been toying with Semi- 
arianism. At the Synod of Philippopolis (A. D. 347) there was present 
one Quirius (Kv'pios) bishop of Philadelphia (see Labb. Cone. 11. p. 743), 
apparently the Lydian city, though the name of the bishop would suggest 
the Syrian; and at the Synod of Seleucia (A.D. 359) again, we meet 
with a Theodosius, bishop of Philadelphia, here expressly denned as the 
Lydian city (Labb. Cone. n. p. 922). At Ephesus (A.D. 431) the 
Lydian Philadelphia is represented by Theophanes or Theophanius 
(Labb. Cone. in. p. 1086) ; and at later councils also her bishops appear 
from time to time. For some centuries Philadelphia remained a suffra- 
gan see under Sardis, but at a later date it was raised to an independent 
metropolitan rank, though apparently not without some vicissitudes (see 
the Notitiae pp. 96, 132, 156, 226, 236, 246, ed. Parthey). 

It was in the last struggle for independence that Philadelphia won 
an undying renown. The strategical importance of the site, which 
doubtless had led to the foundation of the city in the first instance, 
was also the cause of her chief woes. Philadelphia was besieged by 
every invading army in turn, Byzantine, Latin, and barbarian. Against 
the Turkish hordes the Philadelphians offered a manly resistance. For 
nearly a hundred years after the neighbouring places had succumbed, 
Philadelphia held out. ' The whole land beneath the sun,' writes the 
Byzantine historian, 'was subjugated by the Turks, but this city like 
a star shone still in the over -clouded mid-heaven' (Ducas iv. 4, p. 19, 
ed. Bonn.). It is said that she was sustained in her resistance by the 
commendation and the promise in the Apocalypse. At length she 
yielded to the assaults of the victorious Bajazet, 'the thunderbolt.' 
But even then her fall was due quite as much to the baseness of 
the Byzantine emperors as to the persistence of the Turkish invader. 
Philadelphia was part of the price paid by John and Manuel Pala3O- 
logus for the support of the Turk against rival claimants to the throne 
of the Csesars in their own household. The Greek emperor summoned 
the Philadelphians to surrender and receive a Turkish governor. They 
replied proudly that 'they would not, if they could help it, deliver 
themselves over to the barbarians.' But it was only a question of time. 
The siege, aided by famine, was successful ; and the Greek emperors, 
fighting under Bajazet, were the first to enter the defeated city ; 
concludes the historian, eaXw <3>iA,aSe'X<ta vj TTJS Av$ta? iroAt? 


is (Chalcocond. de Reb. Turc. ii. p. 64, ed. Bonn.). Probably 
Philadelphia had never been more prosperous than at this epoch, 
for it is described as ' of vast size and very populous ' (Ducas 1. c. 
vVepexovora TO> //.eyelet KCU TroAu'avSpos ovcra). Nor was this siege the last 
trial endured by this city. If she was chastised with whips by the 
Ottoman Bajazet 1 , she was chastised with scorpions under the Tartar 
Timour, the conqueror of Bajazet (Ducas xvi. p. 71, xxii. p. 122). 
But from first to last she has never altogether forfeited her claim to 
the proud title of a ' Greek ' city. 

The present name of Philadelphia, as given almost universally by 
English travelers, is Allah Shehr> 'the city of God.' The true form 
however seems to be Ala Shehr, ' the pied or striped city ' (v. Hammer 
Gesch. d. Osman. Retches i. p. 219, not 'the white city,' as in Texier 
E Untvers p. 270, Murray's Handbook for Turkey in Asia p. 327), but 
no explanation is given of this epithet. The Apocalyptic message to 
this Church (Rev. iii. 12), containing the promise that 'the name of 
the city of God' shall be written 'on him that overcometh,' may pos- 
sibly have led travelers and natives alike to wrest Ala Shehr into 
Allah Shehr. At all events the coincidence with the language of the 
Revelation is purely superficial. At the present time Philadelphia con- 
tains a population variously estimated at from seven or eight to fifteen 
thousand, of whom a larger proportion than is common in Turkish cities 
perhaps a third or a fourth are Christians. The number of churches 
again is differently stated, the highest number being thirty, and the 

1 T. Smith Sept. As. Eccles. Not. p. 33, guilty. This wall is a mass of vegetable 

speaking of this victory of Bajazet, writes; matter incrusted with a calcareous de- 

'Sola conjectura est, quam jam profero, posit, as pointed out long ago by Wood- 

hujus stragis, cujus ille author erat, ward (Addition to Catal. of Foreign and 

vestigia adhuc restare. Ad mille enim Native Fossils p. n, 1728). A specimen 

quingentos ab urbe [Philadelphia] passus procured by him may still be seen in the 

versus austrum crassum murum ex ossibus Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge, 

humanis cum lapidibus gypso confusim Tchihatcheff (P. iv. Vol. 3, p. 230 note) 

permistis consistentem vidi ; ilium [Baya- tells us that the Turks in the neighbour- 

zidem] hoc irae suae in obstinates hosce hood glory in this supposed atrocity of a 

cives monimentum erexisse verisimile former sultan. He has so little acquaint- 

mihi videtur : mihi enim pene constat fa- ance with the writings of his predecessors, 

cinus adeo horrendum et ab omul huma- that he supposes himself to have dis- 

nitate prorsus alienum nonnisi a Turcis covered the phenomenon and unearthed 

perpetrari posse.' Rycaut also mentions the legend, though this wall was men- 

this wall built of human bones. The tioned by Smith two centuries ago, and 

Turks have enough to answer for ; but of the true explanation given by Woodward 

this atrocity assuredly they were not a century and a half ago. 


lowest fifteen ; but only five or six are in common use, while the greater 
number lie in ruins. The Christian community here is governed by a 
resident bishop ; and altogether its ecclesiastical arrangements betoken 
a vitality and influence, such as is rarely found in the cities of Asia 

The often-quoted passage of Gibbon may be quoted once again, as 
a just tribute to a city whose past history is exceptionally bright in the 
midst of the surrounding darkness. 

* The captivity or ruin of the seven churches of Asia was consum- 
mated ; and the barbarous lords of Ionia and Lydia still trample on the 
monuments of classic and Christian antiquity. In the loss of Ephesus 
the Christians deplored the fall of the first angel, the extinction of the 
first candlestick, of the Revelations ; the desolation is complete ; and 
the temple of Diana, or the church of Mary, will equally elude the 
search of the curious traveler. The circus and the three stately 
theatres of Laodicea are now peopled with wolves and foxes ; Sardes 
is reduced to a miserable village ; the God of Mahomet, without a rival 
or a son, is invoked in the mosques of Thyatira and Pergamus ; and 
the populousness of Smyrna is supported by the foreign trade of the 
Franks and Armenians. Philadelphia alone has been saved by pro- 
phecy or courage. At a distance from the sea, forgotten by the em- 
perors, encompassed on all sides by the Turks, her valiant citizens 
defended their religion and freedom above fourscore years; and at 
length capitulated with the proudest of the Ottomans. Among the 
Greek colonies and churches of Asia, Philadelphia is still erect; a 
column in a scene of ruins ; a pleasing example, that the paths of 
honour and safety may sometimes be the same (Decline and Fallc. Ixiv).' 

The following is an analysts of the epistle. 

'IGNATIUS to the CHURCH OF PHILADELPHIA which is rooted 
firmly in the conviction of the Passion and Resurrection of Christ; 
greeting in the blood of Jesus Christ which is abiding joy, so long as 
there is obedience to the bishop and presbyters and deacons.' 

* Your bishop has his authority from God and exercises it in love. 
I admire his gentleness and modesty. As the lyre to its strings, so is 
he strung to the commandments ( i). As children of truth, shun 
dissension. Follow the shepherd, lest ye be devoured by wolves ( 2). 
Abstain from noxious herbs, which are not of Christ's husbandry. Be 
united with the bishop, that ye may be owned by God. No schismatic 
shall inherit the kingdom ( 3). Be partakers in one eucharist. There 


is one flesh, one cup, of Jesus Christ, one altar, one bishop ( 4). I 
love you heartily, and therefore I warn you. By your prayers I hope 
to be made perfect, while I cling to the Gospel and the Apostles. We 
love the Prophets also, for they foretold Christ and were saved through 
Him ( 5). Turn a deaf ear to Judaism. Whosoever speaks not of 
Christ, is no better than a gravestone. Flee from these snares of the 
devil. I thank God, that I oppressed no man, when I was with you 
( 6). They tried to mislead me in the flesh ; but the Spirit cannot be 
misled. I told you plainly to obey your bishop and presbyters and 
deacons. It was the voice of the Spirit, enjoining unity ( 7). I have 
done my best to promote harmony. God will forgive those who repent 
and return to unity. Men appeal to the archives against the Gospel ; 
I know no archives but Jesus Christ His Passion and Resurrection 
( 8). The ancient priesthood was good ; but the great High-priest is 
better. Patriarchs and Prophets must enter through Him as the door. 
The Prophets foretold ; the Gospel is the crown and fulfilment ( 9).' 

'Your prayers have been answered. The Church of Syria has 
peace. Send a deacon to congratulate them. The nearer churches 
have sent bishops and presbyters also ( 10). I thank God that you 
gave a welcome to Philo and Agathopus. May their enemies be for- 
given. The brethren at Troas salute you. I write by the hand of 
Burrhus. Farewell in Christ ( n).' 


'/r/VAT/OC, d Kal Qecxpopos, KK\ri<ria Oeov ira- 
Kal 'Irja-ov Xpurrov Trj 01/0-77 ev 0<\aSeA<^)ta rfjs 
'A&ias, riXenfJievn Kal ri^paarfjievn ev 6/movoia Oeov 

TTPOC <$>lAAAeA(t>eic] /J.a.yvTiffievffiv 0tXaeX0eu<ru' iyvarios G (the first word 
being the displaced subscription to the Epistle to the Magnesians which imme- 
diately precedes) ; Ignatius philadelphids L* ; TOV avrov t-jriffToXr) irpos 0tXct5eX0ets 
(with the number 5" in the marg.) g ; ad philadelphenses (the form uncertain) A. 

i 6 Kal] See Ephes. inscr. i 'Irja-ov XpwTov] L; icvptov 'I. X. Gg; 

ADELPHIA, which is founded on godly 
concord and rejoices in the passion 
and resurrection of the Lord : greeting 
in the blood of Christ, if she is united 
with her bishop and clergy whom He 

npoc <J>iA&AeA(J>eTc] Here the co- 
pies of the genuine Ignatius and of 
the interpolator's text agree in 
taking the form <tXaeX0eiy, not 
SuXaSfX^rjiW. Steph. Byz., S. V. 3>iXa- 
8e'X<eta, after mentioning several 
places of the name, adds o 

This however refers pos- 
sibly not to all, but only to the last 
mentioned, the Philadelphia of Syria ; 
for he adds OUTGO yap y la>(rr)iros K Trjs 
'lovda'iKrjs ap^atoXoyi'as. Yet the same 
Josephus, who there (Ant. xx. i. i) 
uses $tXaSX$j;i/oi', in an earlier pas- 
sage (xiii. 8. i) has ^tXaSfX^els, both 
passages referring to the Syrian 
Philadelphia. The same variation oc- 

curs with regard to the Philadelphians 
of 'Asia.' In the coins we have con- 
stantly $iXadfX0ea>i/ (Mionnet IV. p. 
97 sq, Suppl. VII. p. 397 sq), and once 
(perhaps by an error) ^tXadeX^ei'wi/ 
(iv. p. 103). In the inscriptions too 
the form is most commonly <iXa- 
8f\favs, e.g. C. L G. 3206, 3424, 
3425, 3426 ; but peyiaivos &i\ade\(pr)- 
vfjs, no. 3436, and this must also 
have been the form in the mutilated 
inscription no. 3000. Joannes Lydus 
is styled 3>iXaSeX<evff in the head- 
ings of his works. So also it is 
written in Nicet. Chon. Alex. vii. 16, 
p. 341 sq (ed. Bonn.). In Suidas s. v. 
2e'ros we have c HpoS6You TOU <I>iXaSeX- 
0atov, a form which seems not to 
occur elsewhere. The Latins com- 
monly say PhiladelphenuS) Plin. N. 
H. v. 29 (30), Tac. Ann. ii. 47. But 
the version of Ignatius has ' Phila- 
delphicis (-sis),' and the version of 
the interpolated text ' Ad Philadel- 
phienses' ; while in the printed texts 



dya\\i(*)iuLvri ev rtp TrdOei TOV Kvpiov I^JULCOV 
5 Kai ev rfj dvacrTacrei avrov, 7re7r\ripo(f)opriiuLevri ev TTUVTI 

iesu christi domini nostri A. T^J 'Aoias] GL : urbe asiae A ; om. g (substi- 

tuting ev Ayd-jry). 3 TjSpafffJL^vrf] rjdpafffdvr) (sic) G. 0eou] Gg; 

om. A. 4 &ya.\\i(i}y.VQ\ G; &ya\\o^vrj g. roG Kuptou TJ/J.WV] GL* 

(but LJ domini iesu christi) g* (prob. but the Gk MSS add i-r)<rov or l^aov xpiffTov). 
[A] omits TOV Kvpiov THJ.WV here and substitutes christi for CU)TOU in the next clause. 

of Jerome Vir. III. 16 it is 'Ad 

2. 3>iXaSeX(pia] The form 3>tXa- 
8eX<a with the diphthong appears 
in the inscriptions (e.g. C. I. G. 
1068, 3428 four times), and gene- 
rally in the best MSS of ancient 
writers; comp. Moschop. Hep! tr^ed. 
p. 121 <iXae'X(peia TroXiy ro (pet Si- 
(frdoyyov, (piAaSeXcpta 8e ZoSra (quoted 
in Steph. Thes. s. v., ed. Hase et 
Dind.). So too it is scanned in 
Anthol. II. p. 450 'EK <iXadeX<peiV 
^fivrfia K.r.X. ; comp. also Anon, in 
Euseb. H. E. v. 17, and Eusebius 
himself (speaking of this epistle) 
H. E. iii. 36 (though with a v. 1.). 
Accordingly it is written Philadel- 
phea on the Puteoli marble C. I. L. 
x. 1624. In Apoc. i. 1 1, iii. 7, however 
the uncial MSS are generally agreed 
in the form <J>iXa5eX<ia, and so it oc- 
curs on coins, Mionnet IV. pp. 98, 100, 
SufipL VII. p. 399, and in an inscrip- 
tion C. L G. 9911; and with this 
spelling apparently it is found also 
in the MSS of Mart. Polyc. 19. I have 
therefore retained this form, which 
alone appears in the Ignatian MSS. 

TTJf 'Atria?] This town was one of 
several bearing this name. Another 
was in Isauria, a third in Egypt, a 
fourth (the ancient Rabbath-Ammon) 
in Palestine ; see Steph. Byz. s. v. 
Thus here, as in the case of Tralles, 
rrjs *A(rtas might have been added 
for the sake of identification, * Asia ' 
being of course the Roman province 
(see Trail, inscr.). The same words 
however are added in most texts in 

the case of Ephesus, where such 
specification was unnecessary (see 
Ephes. inscr.). Politically Philadel- 
phia was in ' Asia,' but ethnographi- 
cally it was in Lydia (Dioscorid. Mat. 
Med. V. 130 (131) 3>t\adf\<j)ias...'ri)s eV 
AuSi'a, Steph. Byz. s. v. iroXis AuStas, 
Ptol. v. 2. 17, and the Notitiae gene- 
rally), or in Mysia (Strabo xiii. 10, 
p. 628). 

3. ij\(T)fjL(VT)] See the note Rom. 
inscr. Here it is used absolutely, 
' having found mercy.' 

TjdpaoTieVi; ev] For this construc- 
tion see Smyrn. I, and possibly 
Polyc. i (see the note). 

o/zojWa 6fo>] See Magu. 6, with 
the note. 

4. ayd\\ia)fjLvr) K.r.X.J ' rejoicing 
in the passion] i.e. 'joyfully recog- 
nising it and the benefits derived 
from it.' For the prominence of 'the 
passion' in these letters, see the note 
on Ephes. inscr. The connexion of 
'steadfastness in concord' and 'rejoic- 
ing in the Passion' is to be noticed. 
The Docetic teaching at once threat- 
ened the unity of the Church and 
assailed the reality of Christ's death. 

aSiaKpmor] ' without wavering* ; 
comp. Rom. inscr. TreTrX^pto^eVois ^a- 
piros Qeov aSiaKpi'reos (with the note), 
and see also the note on ddidicpiTov 
Ephes. 3. 

5. KOI ev T?] araoracrei K.r.X.] This 
is perhaps best taken with the pre- 
ceding words ayaXXuo/zeVfl /c.r.X., rather 
than with the following 7r7rX?7po(po- 
pT/jtztVfl. For this co-ordination of 
the passion and the resurrection see 



eXeer fjv cr<nrab^uw ev al/maTL 'Irjcrov Xpi<TTOv y YI 

eav ev evl 

toGLV (TVV Tip eTTLCTKOTTCO Kdl TO?S (TVV aVTto 7rp6(T/3vTpOl$ 

KCCI SictKOvois aTroSeSeiyjuej/ots ev yvtofjup 'Irjcrov XpiarTov, 

2 Trapa/tovos] GAg ; incoinquinatum (fytw/xos ?) L. eb.v ev evl wcrtf] G ; si 

in uno simus (v. 1. sumus} L ; ev evl uxriv g* (MSS, but prob. eav has been accidentally 
omitted) ; si stetis in concordia A. For the change of persons in AL see the lower 

below 9, Ephes. 20, Magn. n, 
Smyrn. 7, 12; comp. Smyrn. i. 
There is however no objection to the 

construction nXrjpoCpopelcrdai eV ry 
dvaa-rdo-ei 'to be convinced of the 
resurrection'; comp. e.g. Magn. n. 
iTTv\r]po^op^vrj K.r.A.] ' being fully 
convinced] i.e. of their reality. On 
the meanings of n\T)po<popc'ii> itself, 
and on its different connexions with 
eV, see the note Colossians iv. 12 

where, as here, the preposition de- 
notes the sphere, the surroundings, 
of the .conviction. Their firm belief 
was a manifestation of God's mercy ; 
comp. the preceding ^Xfrjuevrj KOL 

I. a<77rao/iat eV at/iart K.r.X.] i.e. 
' whom I greet as ransomed with me 
and incorporate with Christ through 
His blood,' again an indirect con- 
demnation of Docetism. Only those 
are included in his greeting who 
acknowledge with him the reality of 
Christ's passion; see below 4 els 
evaxriv TOV alfjLaTos CLVTOV, and comp. 
Ephes. I dva^TTvptjo-avres ev at/zart 
06o, Smyrn. I ^paa-fievovs ev dyanrj 
ev rw ai/ttart Xptorou. 

rJTis K.T.X.] ' seeing that it] i.e. 
at/za 'Irjcrov Xpto-roC, the gender of the 
relative being thus attracted to xapa, 
as e.g. i Tim. iii. 15; comp. Winer 
xxiv. p. 206 sq. For similar in- 
stances of attraction in these epistles 
see the note Magn. 7. The blood 

of Jesus Christ, sincerely recognised 
in itself and in its practical conse- 
quences, is the source of all abiding 
joy. This is the simplest construc- 
tion. On the other hand Zahn 
(7. v. A. p. 350) takes the antecedent 
to fJTis to be the whole sentence ayaX- 
\utp4vg K.r.X. But the interposition 
of another feminine relative rjv, re- 
ferring to a wholly different ante- 
cedent, and thus isolating TJTIS from 
the words in question, seems to me 
to be an insuperable objection to 
this construction, which otherwise 
would be very reasonable. 

2. Trapapxwos] Comp. Ephes. inscr- 
els doav Trapd^ovov K.r.X. The word 
occurs occasionally in classical 
writers, but not in the LXX or N.T. 

/ioXiora K.r.X.] To be connected 
with a07rab/nai K.r.X. ; comp. Polyc. 
6 avri^fv^ov eya> rav viroracro'o^evotv 

TO) eTntTKOTTOp K.r.X. 

eav K.r.X.] ' if they] i. e. the Phila- 
delphian Christians. He still uses 
the third person, because the address 
of the letter is not yet concluded ; 
see 2 Joh. i roTs reKvois avrrjs, con- 
trasted with ver. 4 T ^> v TeKv<ov crov. 
The difficulty has occasioned the 
substitution of the first or second 
person in the versions, and the read- 
ing fjidXia'Ta ev evl wviv in the inter- 
polator's text. See the upper note. 

This sentence a warning against 
dissension is a sort of after-thought, 
which deranges the whole of the 

5 ovs KaTa TO 




' ev /3e(3cu(t)(rvvr] TW 

> i > t * >5* > ^> y 

OVK a(p eavTov ovoe 01 

note. 3 ffvv ai/ry] GL ; om. Ag. 5 ofls] GL ; 8s [g] (adding 

TT]v eKK\Tia-lai> /c.r.X. afterwards) ; qui A (adding nos afterwards). Thus 5s seems to 
have been an early corruption, which obliged Ag to supply the object to Iffr-ripi^ev 
in different ways. OeX-rj/jLa] G ; f3ov\i<)/j.a g*. 7 OVK] ou% G. 

subsequent passage. After the words 
yv ao-7rao/*at K.r.A. would naturally 
have followed KOI ev^o/mi TrAeZo-ra 
xaipeiv (comp. Magn. inscr., Trail. 
inscr.). This however is forgotten; 
there is no opening benediction, such 
as we find in the other six letters ; but 
instead of this Ignatius runs off into 
a justification of the Church officers 
thus accidentally mentioned (dnoSf- 
Seiypevois K.r.A.), and more especially 
into a eulogy of the bishop (ov eVi- 
(TKOTTOV eyvwv). 

4. aTroSedfiy/j-evois] l designated,' 
'appointed to office'; comp. Susann. 
5 Acai a.Tredeixdrjo'a.v 8110 Trpfcrflvrcpot 
CK rov \aov Kptrai K.T.A., 3. very com- 
mon classical usage. This word 
refers to the nomination or election 
by the human agents whether the 
congregation or the officers of the 
Church as the following words lv 
yvap.r] K.r.A. show. 

fv yv(o/j.r)] i.e. 'with the approval 
of; comp. Ephes. 3 of eVtWoTrot ot 
Kara ra Tre'para opiaflevres fv 'ij/troC 
Xptorou yv<0p.r) (lulv (with the note). 

5. ovs Kara x.r.A.] i.e. Christ con- 
firmed and established in their office 
the persons so appointed through 
human agency by the gift of His 
Holy Spirit; where TO tfitoi/ de\ijp,a 
is opposed to the oVoSf it-is of man. 

I. 'I know well that your bishop 
does not owe his office to any human 
appointment or any spirit of vain- 
glory, but to the love of God the 

Father and of Christ. His gentle- 
ness overwhelms me; his silence is 
more powerful than the speech of 
others; for he is attuned to perfect 
harmony with the commandments, 
like the strings in a lyre. Therefore 
I praise and bless his godly mind, 
knowing its virtues and perfections, 
its calmness and forbearance, which 
are of God.' 

7. A Ov fTrio-KOTrov] The relative 
refers to the previous avv ro5 eVt- 
O-KOTTU; but the antecedent being so 
distant, cnicmoTrov is added to make 
the reference clear. For the cause 
of the derangement in the sentence, 
which has given rise to this awk- 
wardness of expression, see the note 
on jiaAto-ra K.r.A. above. The inter- 
polator has straightened the con- 
struction, Qeao-apfvos vfj.d)t> TOV eiri- 


Ignatius had passed through 
Philadelphia on his way to Smyrna ; 
see above p. 241, and 6, 7 (with the 
notes). There is no indication in this 
letter or elsewhere, that the Phila- 
delphian bishop had visited him at 
Smyrna with the delegates of other 

OVK a0' eavrov K.r.A.] An obvious 
reflexion of Gal. i. I OVK air' dvdpwncav 
ovde 81 dvOpaTTov, where see the note 
on the difference of prepositions. 
Neither did he himself originate 
(oVo), nor did other men confer (did), 
the office which he held. 



KKTija-6ai TY\V ^laKoviav TY\V ek TO KOIVOV 
ov$e /caret KevoSo^iav, a'AA.' ev dyaTrr} Oeov 
S Kvpiov ' lrj(rov XpKrrov' ov KaTaTreTrXtjyiuLai 
eTrieiKeiav, os 0*17 wi/ 7r\eiova Suvarai TCOV \a\ovv- 
TCOV crvvevpv6iuii(rTai yap rals eVroXals, w? %op$als 5 

i Sicucovlav] Gg ; administrationeni JL ; dispensationem (domus-administrationem 
= olKovojji.lav) A. There is no reason to suppose (with Petermann) that L read 
oiKovopiav. In L olKovojj.La elsewhere (Ephes. 6, 18, 20) is always dispensatio, 
whereas Sta/covta is rendered by ministratio in 10 below, Magn. 6, by ministerium 
in Smyrn. 12, and by this very word administratio in Hero 9. On the other hand 
the rendering of A certainly implies olKot>ofjt,iai>, and we may suppose that this word 
was substituted in some texts, because diaKovia seemed an unfit term to apply to 
a bishop. TO] gL ; rbv G, and this was also the reading of A, which translates 

quae decet communem hominem. i 0eou...X/3i<rTo{/] GLA ; 'I. X. Kal 6eov 

Trar/oos TOV eyelpavros K.T.\. [g]. 4 TrXe^oi'a] GL ; TrX^ g; al. A. 

T&V XaXoi^i'Tajj'] quam loquentes (rationales] A ; TUV fjidraia \O\OIJVTUV GL ; TUH> 
TT\OV \a\otvTuv g* (the Gk MSS, but 1 om. irX&>i>). The Armenian word means 
properly *persons gifted with X67os,' i.e. 'speech, reason, intelligence,' and its em- 

1. fig TO KOIVOV K.T.X.] 

Smyrn. 8 r3i/ dvrjKovTcw els TTJV KK\rf- 
a-iav. For the expression avr/Kfiv els 
see the note on Clem. Rom. 45. The 
verb takes a dative in Clem. Rom. 35 
Ta avjjKovra rfj a/zo'/i 
62 T>V avrjKovTWV rfj 
Herm. Sim. v. 2 avijKovo-av rf] vrj- 
a-Tia, and so in Polyc. 7. 

2. ovde Kara Kfvodoiav] ' nor with 
vain-glory? Add to this the expres- 
sion in 8 \ur\btv K.O.T fpL0iav Trpcur- 
o~fTc, and for both combined comp. 
Phil. ii. 3 prjdev K.O.T epLOfiav /mj&e Kara 
KfvoboLav. For the different mean- 
ings of Kevodogia see the note on 
Magn. n. 

0eoi)] The subjective genitive, as 
the antithesis to OVK. afi eWrov K.T.\. 
suggests ; comp. Trail. 6. God's love 
conferred the office upon him. The 
genitive is perhaps objective in Rom. 
inscr. (see the note). 

3. ov] SC. rov enio-KOTTOv. 

4. fmeiKfiav] ' modesty ', modera- 
tion, forbearance? See the notes 
on Clem. Rom. 58, Ign. Ephes. 10. 

There is an oxymoron in 
TrX^y/iat, since cirieiKfia is the quality 
to reassure, not to dismay. Similarly 
in the following clause silence is said 
to be more eloquent than speech. 
Comp. Ephes. 6 ocrov /SXeVei ris <rt- 
ywvra eVi'crKOTroi', TrXfiovws avrbv (po- 
(Bcio-6a>. See the note there. 

os o-iyo)!/ K.T.X.] So Carlyle says of 
Cromwell (Life and Letters, Introd. 
c. 2) 'His words still more his 
silences and unconscious instincts, 
when you have spelt and lovingly 
deciphered these also out of his 
words will in several ways reward 
the study of an earnest man.' 
Comp. Aristoph. Ran. 913 sq. ot ' 
eViyo>j/. AIO. e'-y&> S' e^aipov TTJ CTKCTTTJ 
Kai p, TOVT' erepnev ov% T/TTOV TJ vvv ot 
\a\ovvTfs. The interpolator and 
transcribers have enfeebled the ex- 
pression by inserting ir\eov or parata. 
The editors have retained the latter, 
apparently without misgiving. 

5. o-vvvpv6fju(rTai] ' is tuned in 
harmony with 1 ; comp. Ephes. 4 TO 





s\ / s \ /V * I \ \ s~\ \ y 

Kiuapa. bio fJiaKapi(i JULOV rj ^-v^rj Tyv ets t7eoi/ av- 
TOV ryvtojULriv, eViY^oi)? evapeTOv Kcti TeXeiov oitcrav, TO 
avTOv KCCI TO dopyrjTOV [ai/roiy] ev 7rd<rri eVt- 

ployment here is a proof that the translator had ? neither irXtov nor fidrcua in his 
text. The evidence of 1 seems to show that ir\tov was omitted in the original text of 
g. See the lower note. 5 o-vvevptdfuo-rai] G ; pattens est et concordans est A ; 

o~vv/]p[AO(TTai g ; Concordes estis (ffvvevpvdfjLKrde ?) L*. xopScus Kiddpa] GL ; 

chordae citharae (%op5ai Kiddpq. or mddpas) A : %o/>5ai rf Kiddpq. g. 6 els 

0edv] GLg; divinam (frdeovt) A; comp. the v. 1. in Trail. 8. 7 r<?- 

Xeioj>] G ; re\dav g. 8 ai/rou sec.] G ; om. Lg ; al. A. 9 fwiros] 

GLg. The rendering of A is scio quod perfecta est (om. tvdperov) ea et non unquam 
conturbatur et irascitiir sed vivit omni humilitate cum deo (per deum). Petermann 
suggests that the translator read fo)v for fwi'Tos, or that he misunderstood the Syriac 
XTI Xn/frn 'dei viventis/ separating the last word and interpreting it vivit. But 
a third solution seems at least as probable. May not the Syriac translator himself 
have separated &VTOS from 0eou and connected it with auroG? See the lower note. 

6)y ^OpSai KlQapq. Here 

however the metaphor is not so 
clear. It is not easy to see in what 
sense the harp as a whole can be 
said to harmonize with the several 
strings; and, even if this difficulty 
were waived, the application of the 
metaphor is not good. Perhaps we 
should read ^opSai Kidapq, as some 
authorities suggest. For rais ei/ro- 
AaTs, used absolutely, see the note 
on Trail. 13. If the lexicons may 
be trusted, not only is <i>fvpu$jut'Vii/ 
a airaf; Xryopevov, but neither evpvB- 
/ii'o> nor arwvpvdfjios occurs else- 

6. TTJV els 6eoi> K.T.A.] The same 
expression occurs Rom. 7 : comp. 
Polyc. I (rov rr)v ev 0eo> yv<^^r]v. 

7. fvdpcrov] The word does not 
occur in the LXX or N. T., but is 
found in 4 Mace. xi. 5, and in 
Clem. Rom. 62 T&V a)0eAi/ieorarcoi' 
els fvaptrov ftiov. It is a favourite 
word with the Stoics; see Phryn. 
p. 328 (Lobeck) irapa rols 2ra>tKoTy 
KVKAemu rovi/o/ia, OVK ov dp^alov, with 
Lobeck's note. 

Here an adjective of two 
terminations, as e.g. Plat. Phaedr. p. 
249 c, Leg. x. p. 951 B, Aristot. Eth. 
NIC. vii. 14 (p. 1153), Pol. \. 2 (p. 
1252), and frequently. Compare 8^- 
Aos [Clem. Rom.] ii. 12. 

TO aKivrjTov K.r.A.] In apposition to 
rr)v els 0. avrov yvm^v^ as explaining 
it. Ignatius here runs into Stoic 
phraseology (see the note on eVdperoi/ 
above). For dopyT/ro? see the note 
on Clem. Rom. 19. 

9. Qeov (avros] i.e. ' inspired by 
a living God.' There is not however 
much force in the epithet here, and 
perhaps {avros should be separated 
from 0fov and taken with avrov, 
as the Armenian Version suggests ; 
COmp. 3 Iva <acriv Kara *Ir](rovv X/M0TO9 

II. 'Therefore as children of 
truth, avoid dissension and false- 
teaching. Where the shepherd is 
there let the sheep follow; for many 
wolves are prowling about, ready to 
seize the stragglers in the race of 
God. But they will have no place, 
so long as you are at unity.' 



II. TeKva ovv [<^>WTOS] fit\f)0i<K 9 (pevyere TOV 

KCLI ras KctKoSiSacrKaXias* OTTOU 5e 6 TTOL^V ecmv, 
e/cel a>s TrpofiaTa aKO\ov 6eTT' TTO\\OI yap \VKOL d^io- 

i Tticva] GLA Dam-Rup 5 ; cos T^/o/a g. 0wrds dX?70eias] GL* (but a v. 1. 

inserts <?/) g Dam-Rup; lucis et veritatis A. It is clear therefore that 0wr6s aXydetas 
is older than any existing authorities, though probably corrupt. The remedy how- 
ever is not to insert a /cai, as is commonly done : see the lower note. 2 5] G 
(but the Casanatensian transcript has ptv) g Dam-Rup ; autem L; et A. 5 evo- 
TTjTi] kv(jyrt]Ti G. ovx ^ovfftv] Gg ; non habent L ; non est illis A (but the 
freedom elsewhere used by A in translating the Syriac future deprives it of weight). 

I. TeKva K.r.X.] TeKi/a <pa>roy OC- 
curs, Ephes. v. 8 ; viol [TOV] <pa>ros, 
Luke xvi. 8, John xii. 36, i Thess. v. 
5. The reading of the Greek MSS 
(pa>Tos d\r)6eias, 'of the light of truth,' 
cannot stand; for definite articles 
would almost certainly be required. 
The text might be mended by in- 
serting a KOI, as the Armenian Ver- 
sion gives 'light and truth.' On 
such a point however a version has 
little weight, since this would be a 
very obvious expedient for a trans- 
lator. I am disposed to think that 
TfKva d\r)6eias was the original read- 
ing of Ignatius ; and that (pooros was 
first intended as a substitution or a 
gloss or a parallel, suggested by the 
familiar scriptural phrase raera (viol) 

So again 3, 7, 8, 
Smyrn. 8. The word occurs both 
in the LXX, and in the N. T. (Heb. 
ii. 4, iv. 12), but not in this sense. 

2. KdKoSioWKaAms] See [Clem. 
Rom.] ii. 10 KaKoSiSao-KaAovires, with 
the note. 

3. XVKOI] So S. Paul, Acts xx. 
29 Xvfcot /SapeTs. . ./ZT) (f)i6p.evoi TOV 
noi/jiviov ; comp. John x. 1 2. In a'io- 
TTIOTOI there is perhaps an allusion 
to the 'sheep's clothing' of Matt. 
vii. 15 (comp. Clem. Horn. xi. 35, 
Iren. i. praef. i, Clem. Alex. Protr. i. 
p. 4). For the metaphor see also 
Epictetus Diss, iii. 22. 35 ri ovv et; 

is d\r)dciais. ovTto yap 
wff ol Troip-eves, orav \VKOS dpnao-r) n 
T(>V Trpoftdrav CIVTWV KCU OVTOI 8e irpo- 
/3ara elo-iv ol viro o-ov dpxop-cvoi : comp. 
ib. i. 3. 7 ol pev. . .\VKOIS 0/j.oioi yiv6fj.c- 
$a, aVto-rot <at eVi'/SovXoi /cat /3Xa/3epo/- 
ol de \eovcriv x.r.X. Rhodon (in Euseb. 
H. E. v. 13) calls Marcion o HOVTLKOS 
\VKOS, and at a later date it is not un- 
common as a designation of heretics. 
dgioTno-Toi] 'specious, plausible, de- 
ceitful] as in Polyc. 3 (where how- 
ever the bad sense is not so directly 
prominent) ; comp. Trail. 6. *araio- 
7rio-rev6/Ltei/ot (with the note). Suidas 
distinguishes between the earlier and 
later sense of this word, 'A^iomo-ros 
ov^l 6 Kard7r\ao~TO$ Xeyerai VTTO reoi/ 
TraXataji/ /cat reparei'a xpoD/iei/oy, aXX' o 
Trto-ros- *at doKifjios KOI d|to^pfo)s. For 
this later and bad sense comp. 
Epist. ad Diogn. 8 rovs- KCVOVS Kal 
(Keivatv \6yovs ayroSe^?; TCOV 
0tXoo-o0a)j/, Lucian Alex. 
4 7Ti6avr]v KOL d^iOTTtarov KOI vT 
KTJV TOV /SeXrt'oz/oy, Charito iv. 9 
/zoi/evo-e KaXXtpor;ff a^toTTto-rw rw rrpoo-- 
toVa) (comp. ib. i. 4), Apollon. in 
Euseb. H. E. v. 18 Qefj-io-wv 6 TTJV 
dt-ioTTio-TOv irXeovft-iav ijfJ.(picrfjLVos. 
So too ato7rioTi'a, Joseph. B. J. ii. 
13* 3 irwrdrrao'iv VTT' dioirio~Tia$ ycrav 
dvfvpfToi, Tatian ad Graec. 25 KCKpa- 
yus drjfjLoo-ia fter' d^ioTrto-r/as-, Aristid. 
-4r/. y?/z<?/. i. 4 (<7/. ii. p. 745, ed. 
Dind.) dio7rto-rt'ay 5e ai ro 




Y\^>ovr\ KaKrj 
5 aAA.' ev rr evoTrjTi vpjiwv ov% e^ovcriv TOTTOV. 

III. 'ATre^ecrde TCOV KCIKCOV /3oraj/w^, CKTTIVCLS ov 
'Irjcrovs XJCHCTTOS, Sid TO JJLYI eivai ai/Voi)s (pvTeiav 

6 'Air^x^yde] GL [Dam-Rup] ; add. ovv g ; jam (ergo) A (prob. representing ovv, 
if it be not an insertion of a translator or of a scribe). #0Twas ou yewpye'i 

'I. X.] GL; &<rTivas 'I. X. ou yewpyei g; &v X/HOTOS irjaovs ov ye&pyei Dam-Rup (so 
the MS, but Lequien omits ov)', quas dominus noster iesus christus non plantavit A 
(omitting the rest of the sentence). 7 auroi)s] Gg* (MSS, though edd. 

read curds) Dam-Rup; ipsos L (not ipsas, as commonly given); def. A. There is 
therefore no authority for aurds. <f)VTetav] (f>vrlav G. 

the Christian Spo/ios, which occurs 
so frequently in S. Paul ; see the 
note on Rom. 2, and comp. also 
Clem. Rom. 6, 7, [Clem. Rom.] ii. 7 
(with the notes). The idea here is 
much the same as in Gal. v. 7 eVpe- 

XfTf KdXas' TLS VfJLClS VKO^V ', The 

word 6eo8p6pos occurs again Polyc. 7, 
but in a somewhat different sense, 
1 God's courier.' 

5- V T7J CVOTTJTl K.T.X.] i So long 

as you are united, they will find no 
place for their machinations.' 

III. ' Beware of these false teach- 
ers, as of noxious weeds, which were 
not planted by the Father and are 
not tilled by Christ. Not that I found 
any dissension among you, but on 
the contrary purity of faith. Those 
who belong to God and Christ attach 
themselves to the bishop ; and those 
too, who repent and enter again into 
the unity of the Church, are owned 
by God and live after Christ. Be 
not deceived. No man who follows 
a leader of schism can inherit the 
kingdom of God. He, who adheres 
to a false doctrine, dissevers himself 
from the Passion.' 

6. /3orai/<3i/] ' weeds' See the 
note on Trail. 6, where the same 
metaphor occurs. 

7. yeapyel] Comp. John xv. I 
o Trcrn/p p.ov 6 ycupyos eVrti/, i Cor. iii. 

(with the whole chapter, 
which treats of a^tonio-rio. in all its 
forms) ; and a^ioTnWcoy, Polyb. iii. 33. 
17 TOIS d^tOTTiarcos' ijfev8o/j.vois (comp. 
xii. 9. 3, xxviii. 4. 10), Tatian adGraec. 
2 a^tOTriarfos 1 r/cra)r6i;(raro, Joseph. B. 
J. I. 25. 2, Anon, in Euseb. //. E. 
v. 1 6. In this sense the word differs 
from iriOavoS) as implying a show 
of severe honesty or downrightness. 
It is frequently found however in a 
good sense, even in late writers, e.g. 
Joseph, c. Apion. i. I, 20, ii. 37, 
Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 2 (p. 327), ii. 5, 
6 (pp. 442, 445), vii. 8, 9 (p. 862). 
The manner in which it slips into a 
bad sense will appear from Clem. 
Alex. Paed. iii. n (p. 302) p.rj p.6vov 
eivai jfjias dXXa KOI dgiorrio-Tovs 0a- 

4. jdovfi Ka/d/] This is the bait 
which they hold out to their victims ; 
see the parallel passage Trail. 6, 
where the same phrase occurs. 

alxiJ-aXcoTL^ovo-tv] As in 2 Tim. iii. 
6; and so Iren. I. praef. i dia rrjs 
7ravovpyo)s (rvyKeKpoTrjiJifvrjs TrtBavorrjTos 
...alxna\a>Tiovo-iv avrovs (comp. ib. 
i- 3- 6), quoted by Pearson. In all 
these cases it is said of the machina- 
tions of heretical teachers. 

0eoSpo/uous] l the runners in the 
stadium of God] who is the great 
s. It is the metaphor of 







o(TOL 'yap Qeov eicriv KO.I 'Irj&ov XpLcrrov, 

(Taj/re? \6t*3(TlV 67TI TY\V VOTr}Ta Tffs /C/C\^(7/a5, K.O.L 

OVTOL Qeov ecrovTaiy a/a warns Kara 'Irj&ovv XpicrTOV 5 

i 7rar/)6s] Gg; rou 7rar/>os Rup. dTroStuXtov-ioV] abstractionem L (comp. Rom. 
inscr. a-rrodivXia^vois, translated abstractis); aTrodivXiff^vov G; clamor A; def. g. 
The rendering of A is explained by Zahn /. v. A. p. 270. The same Syriac root ?;? 
signifies colare (&vXl$w, e.g. Pesh. Matt, xxiii. 24) and clarum sonitum reddere; see 
Bernstein Lex. Syr. Chrestom. s. v. 2 Qeov dciv Kal 'I^crou Xptorou] GLSjj 

del sunt A ; xptcrrou c^crtv [g]. 6 d5eX</>o /iof] GLS X Dam-Rup i Anon Syrj 

9 0fov yeo)pyioj/...f > crrf. Here the 
Father is represented as planting 
the field and as sending Christ to 
till it. 

avTovs] i.e. 'these heretical teach- 
ers,' who are intended by the natal 
fioravai. The reading is certainly 
avTovs, not avras (see the critical 
note) ; and the sudden change to 
the masculine is the same here as in 
the parallel passage, Trail, n <ev- 
yere ovv ras Kaicas Trapa(f)vddas...ovTOi 
yap OVK eicriv (pvreia ivarpos. 

(pvreiav irarpos] A reference to 
Matt. xv. 13 naara (pvrda, yv OVK 

(pVTV(TfV 6 TTttTT/p /AOV K.T.X., aS in the 

parallel passage Trail, n already 
cited. There is also doubtless an in- 
direct reference to the parable of the 
tares sown by the Evil One, Matt, 
xiii. 24 sq. This reference has been 
seen by the interpolator; for to the 
words Sia ro p-f) clvai avrovs (pvrciav 
Trarpos he adds aXXa (rnfppia TOV 

i. ovx on] This sentence must 
be taken as parenthetical. Ignatius 
guards against appearing to censure 
the Philadelphians in what he has 
said. The words oo-ot yap K.T.\. are 
connected with the previous sen- 
tence, ao-Tivas. . .irarpos. For this cor- 
rective ovx ri see tne note on 
Magn. 3. 

fvpov] ' I found? This implies that 
Ignatius had himself visited Phila- 
delphia; see above p. 241, and the 
notes on I ov e'7nVK07roi/ eyvcw, 6 
on eftaprjo-a K.r.X., 7 *Kpavymm p,fT- 
av a>v. 

dTTodivXio-fjiov] 'filtration? See the 
note on Rom. inscr. aTro8iv\uTp,evois 
dno TravTos dXXorpiou ^pw/iaroj 1 . The 
false teachers had been at Philadel- 
phia ; but the Philadelphian Chris- 
tians had strained out these dregs 
of heresy. They had separated them- 
selves from the heretics ; but this 
separation deserved the name of 
'filtering,' rather than of 'division.' 

2. 0eoO elo-iv] For this phrase 
see the note on Ephes. 5. 

5. /cara 'irjo-ovv K.r.X.] So again 
Magn. 8. Similarly, KOTO, ^pto-rta- 
vio-fibv rjv Magn. IO, <ara 6eoi> fjv 
Ephes. 8, /cara d\ri0iav fiv Ephes. 6, 
Kara KVpiaKyv rjv Magn. 9, Kara lov- 
daio-pbv f)v Magn. 8, Kara dvOpairovs 
rfv Trail. 2, Rom. 8. 

6. pr) irXavaadc] As in I Cor. 
vi. 9, xv. 33, Gal. vi. 7, James i. 16. 
Here the phrase is clearly suggested 
by i Cor. vi. 9 sq, whence the words 
fiaxrikwuf Qeov o\> KXrjpovofjLfl also are 
borrowed. Comp. Ephes. 16, where 
there is the same connexion of 
phrases suggested by S; Paul's lan- 




9 d$e\(f>oi JULOV e'l TIS 

B A c i A e i' A N e o Y oy KAHpoisiOMe?' i T/S 
eV d\\orpia yvcojULrj TrepnraTel, OVTOS TW TrdBei ov crvy- 

io IV. CTTOi/Sacrcrre ovv juiia ev^api(rria 

(but for the Syriac authorities see Clem. Rom. ii. 13); fratres (here) A; dSeX0oi 
(before ^77 TrXavaade) g. <rx<- VTt ] txt GL Dam-Rup; add. dirb TTJS 

d\7)6eias [g]; add. ecclesiam Anon-Sy^; add. ecclesiam dei Sj ; separatoris ec- 
clesiae A. 7 KX^povoyaei] GLA Dam-Rup Anon-Syrjj /cXT/povo/x^o'et g; 

haereditabit Sj. The future is taken from S. Paul, i Cor. vi. 9, 10, Gal. v. 21. 
8 r 7rd0et] GL; add. christi SjA. The sentence is paraphrased in g, OVTOS OVK 
<TTIV ypuTTOv ovre TOV irddovs avrov 

Church, they severed themselves 
from the passion of Christ and all 
the benefits flowing therefrom ; see 
Smyrn. 6 with the note. 

IV. ' Therefore take care to keep 
one eucharistic feast only ; for Christ's 
flesh is one and His blood is one; 
there is one altar and one bishop 
with his priests and deacons. Do 
this, and ye will do after God's 

IO. /iia eu^apioria K.r.X.] Comp. 
Smyrn. 8 TOVS oc p.pio~p.ovs (peuytre 
...pjoVis xtopis firio-Koirov TI Trpatro-e- 
ro) TQ>I> avrjKovrcov fls TTJV eKK\r)o-iav' 
fKfivr) ficfiaia fv^aptor/a iiyeio~6<i) i] IITTO 
TOV cirio-Konov ovo-a, K.r.X. The heretics 
disobeyed this rule. These passages 
in Ignatius (comp. also Smyrn. 6, 
and perhaps Ephes. 13) are the 
earliest instances of evxapiaria ap- 
plied to the Holy Communion ex- 
cept perhaps Doctr. Apost. 9 Trepi Se 
TTJS fv^aptorriay, OVTO>S ev^apia-- 
rT/o-arf K.r.X. : comp. Justin Martyr 
Apol. i. 64, 65 (p. 97 sq) /*eraXa/3eu/ 
OTTO roO evxapio-rrjOevTos a'prou KOI otvov 
KOI v8aTOS...Kai r) rpo0j) avTrj xaXflrai 
Trap 1 ij[ 6v^apiorria...r7)i/ 81 ev)(r)S 
\6yov TOV Trap 1 avrov f v^apio-rj/^et- 
<rav Tpocprjv, c rjs at/ia KOL o~dpK.cs Kara 

cr^tfoi/rt] ' making a rent] ' causing 
a schism? For this absolute use of 
vxi&w comp. Orig. Comm. in Matth. 
x. 1 6 (in. p. 462) ov o-xtfov wf 
avTrjs (i.e. rfjs o-vi/aycoy^?), Dion. Alex. 
Ep. ad. Novat. (in Euseb. H. E. vi. 

45) VKV TOV fil) Q-^lVat, pESSagCS 

referred to in E. A. Sophocles Lex. 
s. v. It is not so used in the LXX 
or N. T. 

8. aXXorpt'a] 'strange] i.e. 'here- 
tical/ as in Trail. 6 aXXorpias /3o- 
ravrjs, Rom. inscr. aXXorpi'ou ^p<B/xaroy, 
Papias in Euseb. H. E. iii. 39 rols 
TO.S dXXorptas eWoXas fj,vr)fjLOV(vov(riv. 

So too gcvos, Heb. xiii. 9. 

ra) Tra^ei] See the note on Ephes. 

ov o-vyKarem'&rat] 'AflJ no part or 
agreement with] ' dissociates himself 
from' ; Exod. xxiii. i, 32, Susann. 20, 
Luke xxiii. 51 ; comp. o-vyKarddfo-is 
2 Cor. vi. 1 6. The full phrase would 
be o-vyKaTaridfo-Qat {j/fj(f)ov, or K\fjpov } 
'to cast in one's vote or lot with.' 
It is a good classical word. The 
meaning of Ignatius here is ex- 
plained by the following sentence, 

o-TrovSacrare fit a ev'xapto-Ti'a xpj/a&u. 

These heretics separated themselves 
and set up a eucharistic feast of 
their own. By thus severing them- 
selves from the true eucharist of the 



O~apKO7TOir)6fVTOS 'l^O*OU KOl O~a.pK.CL KCU 








Jv ' Irjcrov XpKTTOv, Kai eV 
evcocriv TOV cLLfjiaTOs avTOv* ev 6v(ria(rTri- 
piov, ws ? 7ri(TKO7ros 9 afjia TCO TrpecrfivTepiw Kai Sia- 
KOVOIS TO?S (rvv$ov\ois juiov *Lva o eav 7Tpdcr(rrjTe 9 Kara 
Qeov TrpdorornTe. 5 

af/za edi8dx0r)ij.ev eivai (comp. Dial. 

117, p. 345), Iren. iv. 18. 5 
(Tvp,<po)vos r) yi>(0fjt.r) rfj 

as yap dno yrjs apros irpcxr\a^avo- 


KOLVOS a pros <TTLV, aXX' 6v^api(rria, 
K.T.X., Clem. Alex. Paed. ii. 2 (p. 178) 

"2 et'j evtaffiv] GL; concordiae Sj', om. A; al. g. 3 ws] G; et L (but 

perhaps we should read ut; see the converse error in Rom. 4, and comp. Ephes. 21); 
sicutetA; Kai [g]. Should we read ws /cal with A? dta/rfvots] G; rots 5ta- 

[g]. 6 'A5eX0ot /xou] not omitted in A, as stated by Petermann ; but 

eucharistic loaf betokening the union 
in the one body of Christ. 

2. els evwcriv] ' ' unto unity] i.e. 'so 
that all may be one by partaking of 
His own blood.' For the word 
CVGHTIS see the note on Magn. i. 

ev 6vo-iao-Tqpiov] Comp. Cyprian 
Epist. xliii. 5 (p. 594, H artel) 
'Aliud altare constitui aut sacerdo- 
tium novum fieri praeter unum altare 
et unum sacerdotium non potest. 
Quisque alibi collegerit, spargit.' It 
would be an anachronism to suppose 
that Ignatius by the 'altar' here 
means the 'Lord's table.' Even in 
Irenasus, though he is distinctly 
speaking of the eucharist in the 
context (see the passage quoted 
above), yet only a spiritual altar is 
recognised; Haer. iv. 18. 6 'offerimus 
eum ei, non quasi indigent! sed 
gratias agentes [e vx a P l ~ TOVVTf s] do- 
minationi ejus et sanctificantes crea- 
turam...sic et ideo nos quoque offerre 
vult munus ad altare frequenter sine 
intermissione. Est ergo altare in 
caelis (illuc enim preces nostrae et 
oblationes diriguntur) et templum, 
etc.' Compare also the passages of 
Clement and Origen quoted in the 
note on Ephes. 5, and see Philip- 
pians p. 265 sq. Probably Ignatius 
here means by the term (to use 
Clement's definition) the a0poio-p.a 
T&V Tals evxals dvaKC ip.eva>v. See the 
notes on Ephes. 5, Trail. 7. For 

KOI KaXj;, Orig. i:. 6W^. viii. 57 eo-ri 
Se <ru/M/3oXoi> jJ/Jii' T^S Trpoy TOJ/ Qcov 
apros ev^apian'a KaXov- 
; comp. Tertull. <jf. J/<3;r^. i. 23 
'super alienum panem alii deo gra- 
tiarum actionibus fungitur.' On the 
question whether the eucharist was 
at this time still connected with 
the agape or not, see the note on 
Smyrn. 8. 

With this passage compare I Cor. 
xi. 1 8, 2O TTpwrov p.ev yap 
fjifvav vpatv ev KK\r)oriq aKouco 
/iara eV VJMV 

piaKov delnvov (payelv /c.r.X. The 
heretics of Ignatius' time violated 
this bond of union, though not in 
the same way, but by holding sepa- 
rate eucharistic feasts ; see the note 
on Smyrn. 6, 8. 

I. pia yap crap K.r.X.] Doubtless 
suggested by i Cor. x. 16, 17 TOV 
apTOv ov KXe5/i>, ov^t Kotvavia. TOV 
(rco/iaros TOV Xpicrrou eo~Tiv ; on e 19 
apros, ev o-to/ia 01 TroXXoi ecrpev' ol 
yap Travres e< TOV evos apron fj.eTexop.ev. 
The ' one flesh ' here is the one 

v v(J.G>v eVt TO avro, OVK (TTIV KV- 



Y. 'A$e\<poi fJiov, Xiav tiOtKjpjMU dyaTrcov 
vTreparyaXXo/ULevos dcr<pa\i^oiuLcu v^ds* OVK eyco oe, 
d\\' '/Beret's Xpia-Tos, ev to SeSe/zeVos (j)o/3ovimai 


d\\* Y\ Trocrev^rj V/ULWV 

10 0eoV] /me dTrapria-eiy *iva ev 


attached to the former sentence. 9 di/aTrapricn-os] gLA; avdpiraffros G. 

et's 6e6v] Gg; om. L [A]. 10 K\-f, PV i^V] GL; e/cX^ g- The read- 

ing of GL seems to underlie the rendering of A, which paraphrases the sentence 
loosely ita ut digmts fiam hac portione et in ea requiescam. 

different applications of the image 
see Magn. 7, Rom. 2 (with the notes). 

3. TTpecrpvTepicp] See the note on 
Ephes. 2. 

4. <rw8ov\ois] See the note on 
Ephes. 2. 

Kara 0eoi>] See the note on Magn. 

V. ' Brethren, my love for you is 
unbounded, and I wish therefore to 
warn you yet not I, but Jesus 
Christ, whose prisoner I am, anxious 
and fearful as yet, because not yet 
made perfect. But your prayers will 
perfect me, so that in God's mercy 
this my lot may be fulfilled, and I 
may obtain the martyr's crown. I 
cling to the Gospel as the flesh of 
Christ, and to the Apostles as the 
presbyters of the Church. Yes, and 
we love the prophets also, because 
they foretold the Gospel and awaited 
the coming of Christ. Thus they 
were saved by faith through union 
with Him, being worthy of all love 
and honour ; to whom also Christ 
bore witness, and who are enrolled 
in the Gospel of our common hope.' 

6. eW^ujuai] Implying profuse 
demonstrations of love, as not un- 
frequently, e.g. Arist. Vesp. 1469, 
Lucian Salt. 81, Polyb. v. 106. 7 eis 
Trdvras rovs ficuriXfls f^e/ce^uKro, i.e. 
'were lavish in their loyalty and 
devotion'; see also Clem. Alex. 

Protr. 2 (p. 27). So the Latin *ef- 
fundi,' e.g. Cic. Att. iv. 9 'in nos 
vero suavissime hercule est effusus.' 

7. V7rfpaya\\6p.evos] So vnfpdo- 
a(eiv Polyc. I, vnfpeTraivflv Ephes. 6. 

d<r(pa\] '/ warn you,' l put 
you on your guard? The word 
means properly 'to shut up fast,' 
'to make secure for oneself,' e.g. 
LXX Neh. iii. 15, Wisd. xiii. 15; 
comp. Clem. Horn. ii. 45 6 TO irepie- 
%ov o-cU/Lia (V aVf/pa) TTfXayfi TTJ/ev/iari 
(3ov\f)s da-(pa\i(TdfjLvos. See Bekker 
Anecd. p. 456 TO do~(pa\ic(rdai /3ap- 
/Sapoi/. It is however a common word 
from Polybius downward. 

8. ev <a 8(8ffj.evos] Comp. 7, 
Ephes. 3, 'Trail, i, Rom. I. For the 
feeling of Ignatius respecting his 
bonds see the notes on Ephes. 3, 1 1, 
Magn. i. 

(poftovpat paXXov] Comp. Trail. 4 
vvv yap fjif SfT TT\fov (pof3e1o'6ai. 

9. dvairdpTio-ros] See the parallel 
passage Ephes. 3 el yap KOI dedep-ai 
fv TO) ovofiaTij OVTTO) aTTTyprtcr/Liai ev 

XptoTw: The word dvandp- 
occurs Diog. Laert. vii. 63. It 
is vain in the face of the authorities, 
the requirements of the context, and 
the parallel passage, to attempt with 
Voss to defend dvdpTraoros here. 

10. cMrapri'o-ei] The word was 
condemned as a solcecism by the 
purists; but the condemnation must 






GL; o/frou xP LffT v g> christi A. 

be taken with some qualification. It 
is used several times by Aristotle. 
See Lobeck Phryn. p. 447 sq. 

K\rfp(d\ Of martyrdom ; see the 
note Trail. 12. 

iJXeif^v] After S. Paul's manner of 
speaking, 2 Cor. iv. I Ka6<as ^Xe^drj- 
fjifv, OVK eyKdKov/Lifi/, I Tim. i. 13, 1 6 
dXXa fatjQljV. . .aXXa did rovro yXtrjQrjv : 

comp. Rom. xi. 30, 31. So too i Pet. 
ii. 10. See also Rom. inscr. (note). 
For eXfel&Qai tv comp. Smyrn. inscr. 
The construction is Iva 
roil K\ijpov ev (a y\erj9r)V, 'that 

I may secure, make good, the lot, 
in which (i.e. in the way of obtain- 
ing which) God's mercy placed me' : 
comp. Trail. 12 roG K\ijpov ovircp 
eyKfi/jLai [MS ov] eVirv^eii', 
Rom. I els TO TOV K\rjpov fiov dvep,7ro- 
dio-Tws (wroXa/Seii/. So too Mart. Polyc. 
6 TOV tdiov K\fjpov dirapTio-Tj. 

i. 7rpoo-(pvya)v] This can hardly 
be connected with ijXeijdrjv (as Zahn 
proposes 7. v. A. p. 575), seeing that 
cirirvxto intervenes. Nor is there 
any objection to connecting it with 
iva...f7riTvxo*' The participle here 
signifies not 'by taking refuge,' but 
'inasmuch as I took refuge.' In 
other words it is not necessarily part 
of the contingency implied in Iva. 

cos o-apK.1 K.r.X.] i. e. because it gives 
the earthly life, records the actual 
works of Christ, as the Logos incar- 
nate; comp. 9 ft-aiperov df TI e%et 
ro evayyeXiov, rr\v Trapovcriav TOV 
Kvpi'ov !7/*o>i' 'irjo-ov Xpio-roO, ro TraOos 
avTov, K.r.X. The metaphor is eucha- 
ristic. Somewhat similarly Origen 
in Lev. Horn. vii. 5 (ll. p. 225) 
interprets the words of John vi. 
53 sq, cav p,T) (pdyrjTf TTJV crdpKa K.r.X., 

'carnibus et sanguine verbi sui...po- 
tat et reficit omne hominum genus' ; 
and so too Euseb. Eccl. Theol, iii. 

12 eoo-re avTa flvai TO, pijpaTa <al TOVS 
\6yovs avTov TT/V <rapK.a KOL TO aip.a 
/c.r.X., Anon. Brev. in Psalm, cxlvii 
(Hieron. Op. VII. p. 530 Appx) ' Ego 
corpus Jesu evangelium puto, sanctas 
scripturas puto, doctrinam ejus ; et 
quando dicit Qui non comederit car- 
nem meant etc.' These passages are 
quoted by Ussher. See also the 
notes on Trail. 8, Rom. 7, for similar 
eucharistic metaphors. There is 
probably an indirect allusion to 
Docetism here. 

rolf aTToo-roXoiy K.r.X.] The Apostles 
stand in the same relation to the 
Church at large, in which its own 
presbytery does to each individual 
church. So conversely Trail. 2 

V7rOTd<TO~fO~Qai Kai TCO TTpC&ftvTfpiW) <ag 

Tois aTrocTToXois 'Irjo-ov Xpto-roD (comp. 
Smyrn. 8). See the notes on Magn. 
6, 13, Trail. 3. 

The expression obviously points 
to some authoritative writings of 
the New Testament. The 'Apostles/ 
like the 'Prophets,' must have been 
represented in some permanent form 
to which appeal could be made. So 
far the bearing of the passage seems 
to be clear. But it is not so obvious 
whether Ignatius refers to two classes 
of writings included in our New 
Testament, ro cuoyyAiov the Gospel 
or Gospels, and ot aTrdo-roXot the 
Apostolic Epistles (perhaps includ- 
ing the Acts), or to one only, ot dm')- 
o-roXot as expositors of the euayyeXioi>, 
in which latter case it would com- 
prise the Gospels as well as the 
Epistles. The former view is taken 
by Ussher, Pearson, and Leclerc, and 
more recently by Westcott Intro- 
duction to the Gospels p. 416, and 
Hilgenfeld Einleitung in das N. T. 
p. 72; while Zahn (7. v. A. p. 431 
sq) and others interpret cvayyc\tov 




in the latter way, not of the book, but 
of the teaching. The parallel pas- 
sages are 9 below ot yap dyaTT^rot 
TrpofprJTat KarjfyyetXai/ els avTov, TO de 
fvayyeXiov aTraprtcr/ia eo~Tiv 
Smyrn. 5 ovs OVK ireio~av at n 
retai ovde 6 vdpos Mcoo-ecos, dXX' ov8e 
vvv TO evayye\iov K.r.X., ib. J 
e rots 7rpo<p7yrats, e'^atpe- 
ra>s de TO) evayyeXtw, eV o> ro 7rd6os 
r\\iiv Sedr/Xcorat K.r.X. These passages 
point to the latter view, which re- 
gards the Apostles as the expositors 
of the Gospel. They cannot how- 
ever be considered decisive in them- 
selves, since ' the Gospel ' might here 
be broken up into 'the Gospel' and 
'the Apostles,' just as 'the Prophets' 
are broken up in Smyrn. 5 into 
'the Prophets' and 'the Law of 
Moses.' But the use of evayye'Xtoi/ 

in the context here (els TO evayyeXtov 

KdTT)yye\Kevai and o-vvrjpidar}p.evoi ev 
T<0 evayyeXi'w) is a more powerful 
argument, and seems to show that 
the idea of written documents is not 
intended in the word evayye'Xtoi/ it- 
self, but only involved in the subse- 
quent mention of the 'Apostles.' 
In this case the description of the 
Old and New Testaments as 'the 
Prophets' and 'the Apostles' re- 
spectively may be compared with 
Justin's statement Apol. i. 67 (p. 
98 D) ra dTTOfJLVTjfjiovevfjLaTa TWV aTrocrro- 
\o)v fj ra (Tvyypa^nara reof TrpofprjTav 
dvayivwo-KfTai, or the language in the 
so-called Second Epistle of Clement 
14 ra /3i/3Xi'a /cat ot aTrofrroXoi, or the 
classification of the Muratorian 
Canon (Tregelles, p. 58) 'neque inter 
prophetas completum numero neque 
inter apostolos.' Towards and after 
the close of the second century the 
separation of the ' Gospels ' from the 
'Apostles' becomes common, e.g. 

Trpea-fivTepio) cfefcAtytria?. Kal TOI)S Trpo- 

GLg; ministris (diaconis) A. 

Iren. i. 3. 6 rcov evayyeXtKcoi/ Acat rcoj/ 
aVoo-roXtKcoV, Clem. Alex. Strom, vii. 
3 (p. 836) ro re euayyeXioi> o re aVo- 
crroXos, Tertull. de Praescr. 36 ' evan- 
gelicis et apostolicis literis,' and 
elsewhere ; see Reuss Gesch. der 
heil. Schr. N. T. 300. There is 
indeed nothing to prevent the same 
author from using both modes of 
speaking in different places ; comp. 
e.g. Clem. Alex. Strom, iii. 10 (p. 
543) VO/JLOS re oftoG *ai TrpocpfJTdt o~i>v 
/cat rc5 euayyeXia) e'i> ovopaTi Xpio~rov 
ets n'lav (Tvvdyovrai yvaxriv, with ib. 
V. 5 (P- 664) rou evayyeXt'ov K.a\ rcoi/ 
aTToa'roXcoz' oyioicos rots 7rpo(pi]Tais a7rao~t, 

Vi. II (p. 784) 0-VfJL<pa>VLdV TT)V KK\T}- 

o~iao~TiKrjv j/ojuov /cat TrpoCprjTav op.ov <al 
aTToo-rdXcoi/ o-vv /cat rco evayyeXtco. But 
we should certainly not expect it in 
the same passage, and therefore 
there is no ground for interpreting 
the language here in a way which 
would perhaps (we cannot say, cer- 
tainly) be an anachronism in the age 
of Ignatius. Lessing attempted to 
handle Ignatian criticism here and 
burnt his fingers (Siimmtl. Schrift. 
XI. 2, pp. 187, 197, 237, ed. Malt- 
zahn; passages referred to by Zahn 
/. v. A. pp. 431 sq, 575). He stated 
that there was no trace of a collection 
of N. T. writings in the fathers of 
the first two centuries, and being 
confronted with this passage de- 
clared it to be corrupt. His emen- 
dation is an exhibition of reckless 
audacity, all the more instructive as 
coming from a great man ; Trpoo-cpv- 

Xptorov /cat rots 7rpeo~/3vrepois e<K\Tj- 
o-t'as cos aTToo-roXois- /cat rovs 8id<6vovs 
5e ayaTrcS, cos Trpocp^ras Xptcrroj/ /caray- 
yetXai/ras /cat rov avrov Trveu/zaros 
peTdcr^ovTds ov Kai ot aVooroXoi. 

2. Kdl rovs npo<piJTds fie K.r.X.] 




(f>r}Ta$ $e dyaTTcoimev, Sid TO Kai CCVTOVS ek TO evayye- 
\iov KarriyyeXKevai Kai ek CCVTOV e\7rieiv Kai avrov 
dvafjitveiv ev o> Kai TrurTevcravTes eorcoBrjcrav ev evorrjTi 
' Irjcrov Xpia-Tov, ci/res d 


GL; diligamus L; ay air w g; diligo A. Perhaps it was treated 
as two words dyairu ptv : see the lower note. 5 Kai ffwrjpidfjiifjfj^voL] 

GL; om. g. A translates the passage quos testificatus est dominus noster iesiis 

For what reason are the prophets 
thus suddenly introduced ? The mo- 
tive is clearly apologetic ; but what is 
the accusation or the antagonism 
against which the words are di- 
rected? Is it aimed at Judaizers 
who overrated the Old Testament 
in comparison with the Gospel? 
or at Anti-Judaic Gnostics or Mar- 
cionites who depreciated or even re- 
jected it? In the former case the 
force of the words will be, 'We do 
not disparage the prophets any more 
than yourselves ; only we maintain 
the superiority of the Gospel ; the 
prophets themselves look forward 
and bear witness to the Gospel.' 
And this sense is required by the 
context, eav de TIS lovda'io-fjibv epprj- 
vevrj K.T.X., i.e. 'but if any one, while 
upholding the Prophets (the Old 
Testament), so interprets them as 
to teach Judaism, etc.' It is more- 
over supported by the very close 
parallel in 9, 10, where Ignatius 
represents his Judaizing opponents 
as alleging against him the ar- 
chives (i.e. the records of the Old 
Testament), while he himself con- 
cedes the greatness of the Mosaic 
priesthood (*aXot KOI ol tepets), but 
maintains the superiority of the 
great High-priest of the new cove- 
nant (Kpela-ffov 8e 6 dpxtepevs), declar- 
ing that all the saints under the 
old dispensation entered through 
Him into the presence of God, and 
that the prophets heralded the Gos- 

pel. See especially the note on 

9 KaXot KCU K.T.X. 

i. dya7r<ap.ev] Not an imperative, 
'let us love/ as the Latin Version 
'diligamus,' but an indicative, 'we 
love.' It may be a question how- 
ever, whether we should not read 
ayaTTco /zeV, to which the antithetical 
clause would be lav Se TIS tovSaiV/ioi/ 
K.T.A. ; comp. Trail. 4 dyaira> JMCJ/ yap 

TO TTddflv K.T.X. 

els TO evayyeXiov K.T. X.] For the 
construction and sentiment alike 
comp. 9 ot dycnrrjTol Trpo^rcu Karrjy- 
yfiKav fls OVTOI/, Barnab. 5 ot 7rpo<p^Tat, 
OTT' avrov f\ovres TTJV \dpiv, els avrov 
e7rpo<piJTev<rav. For the sentiment 
see also the notes on Magn. 8, 9 ; 
for the construction comp. \eyciv els, 
Acts ii. 25, Ephes. v. 32, and see 
Winer xlix. p. 495. 

3. ev < KOI K.T.X.] i in whom also 
(i..e. when He actually appeared to 
them) they believed and so were 
saved^ ; comp. 9 below. On the 
salvation of the prophets through 
Christ, as involving the descent into 
Hades, see the note on Magn. 9. 

lv evoTqTi] ''in an unity which 
centres in Jesus Christ] i.e. they 
were incorporated in one and the 
same body with the faithful members 
of the Church ; comp. 9 ndvra 
TaCra fls evorrjTa Qeov. 

4. a^iayaTTT/Tot] ' worthy of this 
love, which we accord to them,' a 
reference to KOI TOVS Trpofpijras 8e 

On the compounds of 




5 ayioi, VTTO ' Iri&ov XpicrTOu jJLfjLapTVpniJLevoi Kat crvvrj- 
piQfjuifjievoi ev TW evayyeXicp T^S KOivfjs \iri$os. 

VI. 'Gav Se TJ? iov^aicrijiov ep/urjvevrj VJULIV, jULrj 
ctKOvere avrov. afj.eivov yap ecmv Trapd dvSpos Trepi- 

christus quodfideles computantur (numerantur] in evangelio, thus clearly recognising 01. 7 5^] GL ; et A ; om. [g]. TIS] GA[g] ; om. L. 

LA ; TJ/JUV G ; al. g. 

hear the circumcised teaching Chris- 
tianity than the uncircumcised teach- 
ing Judaism. But in either case, 
if they speak not of Jesus Christ, 
they are no better than tombstones 
inscribed with men's names. Flee 
therefore from the snares and devices 
of the Evil One, lest your love wax 
feeble : and meet together all of you 
in concord. I thank God that my 
conscience acquits me of oppressing 
any one, while I was among you. 
And I pray that my words then 
spoken may not rise up in judgment 
against you.' 

7. iov8a'io-fj.ov] See the note on 
Magn. 8. 

ep/ij/i/evT/] 'propound"', as Celsus 
in Orig. c. Celt. iii. 58 (i. p. 485) ovSe 
dvvTjo-ovrai rot? Traio~\v (pfj.Tjvfvciv dya- 
6ov (quoted by Pearson), where as 
here the accusative describes not the 
text interpreted but the result attain- 
ed by interpretation. The reference 
here is doubtless to the interpreta- 
tion put upon the language of the 
prophets who have been mentioned 
in the last sentence, so as to support 
Judaizing practices, just as below 
( 8) Ignatius represents his oppo- 
nents as appealing to the ap^eta 
against him. 

8. apeivov yap K.r.X.] Who is 
meant by the aKpofivo-ros in this 
sentence? Is he to be identified 
with the TIS in the preceding clause, 
SO that d<ovtv Trapa aKpofivaTov in 
the latter place corresponds to 

agios in Ignatius see the note on 
Ephes. 4 dtov6[j,ao~Tov. 

5. aytot] Connected by previous 
editors with the preceding words, 
but it seems to go better with those 

a-vfTjpidfj.Tjfj.evoi] i.e. 'included a- 
mong those who participate in the 
privileges of the Gospel.' It is 
wrongly explained by Smith l pro- 
phetae cum apostolis in evangelic 
connumerati, utpote de quibus utris- 
que insigne testimonium illic reliquit 
Christus.' There is no reference 
to the written record in euayyeAio> 

6. TTJS Koivfjs eXTTi'Soy] ''our com- 
mon hope] i.e. Christ, as appears 
from 1 1 below eV XptaroJ 'l^oroO, TTJ 
Koivfj c\7ridt Tjfj,(ov; and so elsewhere 
in Ignatius; see the notes on Ephes. 
i, Magn. ii. Zahn (/. v. A. pp. 430, 
435) suggests reading TTJS Kaivfjs eXTrt- 
dos, comparing Afagn. 9 eis icau/orijra 
f\iridos ; but I cannot think this an 
improvement. Not to mention that 
7) Koivf) f\7ris occurs more than once 
elsewhere in Ignatius, the epithet 
here is especially appropriate, as 
enforcing the main idea of the pas- 
sage (comp. ev evorrjTi 'ir/o-ov Xpiorou 
and o-vvrjpidij.r)ij,voi) that all alike, 
whether they lived before or after 
the coming of Christ, are united in a 
common Saviour. 

VI. * But if anyone so interprets 
them as to find Judaism in them, 
listen not to him. It is better to 








CtfJifyoTepOl 7Tpt ' lt](TOV 

jULri XaXcoviv, OVTOL e/moi (TTrjXai eiffiv KO.I TOLUOL 
<p* ois yeypaTTTai JJLOVOV oW/xara dv6pu>7ru>v. 
ovv r9 KaKOTe%vias Kai evedpas TOV ap^ovTOs 5 
TOV aiaivos TOVTOV, fJuiTTore 6\i/3evT6s Trj yvw/uLri CLVTOV 

7 a<rdevri(TeTe] g ; ^aa-0vrj<TTai G ; infirmetnini LA. dXXa] GAg ; sed 

et L. 8 evxapurTu 8] GL ; ef>x a P^ T ^ (om. 5<?) A [g*] (but v. 1. euxaptcrrws). 

9 fMov] GLA ; om. [g]. 1 1 tv tuKptj)] GL ; 17 ev fj.LKp^. g ; dub. A (where 

97. ..17 may perhaps be represented by vel etiani). 5^] GL* (but a v. 1. omits 

ere avrov in the former? In this case 
the teachers would be represented, 
not as Jewish Christians, but as 
Gentile Christians with strong Ju- 
daic tendencies. This seems the 
most natural interpretation; nor 
can I with Zahn (/. v. A. 368 
sq) see any serious objection to it. 
These opponents of Ignatius indeed 
are represented as intimately ac- 
quainted with the Old Testament 
and taking their stand upon it ( 8 
eav fj,fj fv Toiy dp^fiois K.r.X., comp. 
Smyrn. 5 vs V K fireKrav at 7rpo<pr)- 
Tfiai ovde 6 vopos MwcreW) ; but the 
effective proselytizing of Jews and 
Judaic Christians among persons of 
Gentile origin is a patent fact, and 
there is no reason why proselytes so 
made should not have taken up the 
position of proselytizers themselves 
in Philadelphia. On the other hand 
it is possible, though I think not 
probable, that the aKpo/3uoros is the 
recipient, not \hz promulgator, of the 
false interpretation. Under any cir- 
cumstances the tavScuo-pos, i.e. Jewish 
manner of living, which was enforced, 
would include the observance of 
sabbaths (comp. Magn. 9), rigorous 
restrictions respecting meats and 
drinks, etc., and in short such prac- 
tices as are condemned in Col. ii. 16, 
21, but not circumcision, as the word 

shows. Though circum- 
cision was insisted upon by the 
earliest Judaizers (see Gal. v. 2 sq, 
vi. 12 sq), this requirement was soon 
dropped as impracticable. In the 
Clementine Homilies for instance, 
notwithstanding their strong Judaic 
tendencies, nothing is said about it. 
Thus the heresy combated by Ig- 
natius was only an iovdaio-pos UTTO 
pepovs, as Epiphanius describes the 
Judaism of Cerinthus (Haer. xxviii. i). 

1. xptoTiai/toYioi/] See the note on 
Magn. 10. 

Though the word 
occurs many times in 
S. Paul (see also Acts xi. 3), d/cpo- 
PVO-TOS is not once found in the N. T. 
Nor does it occur in the LXX, though 
found in other of the Hexaplaric 
Versions, Exod. vi. 12, Josh. v. 7. 

2. dp(poTpoi] i.e. whether Trepiro- 
p,r)v x* v or axpo/Svoroy. 

Trept 'irjo-ov Xpurrov K.r.X.] See the 
note on Ephes. 6. 

3. o-TTJ\ai K. T. X.] Comp. Matt, 
xxiii. 27 7rapo/noiaere rdcpois KCKOVICI- 
fjLevois. So old men are styled rjjpfioi, 
Eur. Med. 1209, HeracL 168, Arist. 
Lys. 372 ; comp. Lucian Dial. Mart. 
vi. 2 fj.\lsv%6v TWO. rdcpov ; and (roper, 
e.g. Athen. xiii. p. 580. So too the 
Latin 'sepulcrum,' Plaut. Pseud, i. 4. 
19. The closest parallel however 




iv Trj dyaTrrj' d\\d TraVres ITTI TO avTO 

eV duepicTTa) Kapoia. ev-vapia'Ta) oe TW Oew 

I i i it /\f i i i 

JULOV, OTL evcrvveiSriTos el/ULi iv viuv, Kai OVK e'^et TLS KOV- 
10 %ii(ra(r6ai oi/Ve \d6pa OVTC (pavepws, OTL efldprjo'd Tiva 
eV jULiKpw rj iv jmeyaXw. Kai 7ra<n Se, eV ols e\d\r](Ta y 
iva jULrj ei? jmapTVpiov auTO KTrto~a)VTai. 

; om. gA (but A omits Kai also). 12 /xapru/oioj'] G; fjutprvptav g. 

g ; possideant L ; KTLffuvrai G ; fiat Us A. So in Trail. 8 G has dva- 
KTlffaffde for ai> 

is in Laberius (Macrob. 5/. ii. 7) 
'sepulcri similis nil nisi nomen re- 
tineo,' quoted by Voss ; comp. also 
Lucian Tim. 5 rjv irov /cat oSa> 
CVTVXG) Tivl avr<ui>, coo-Trep rw/a 
TraXatoO vfKpov virriav VTTO rov %povov 
a'rarerpa/A/ieV?;!/ Trapep^oj/rai /i^Se di/a- 
yvovres. So Jerome (<7/. VI. p. 105), 
referred to by Ussher, explains o-r^- 
Acu in the LXX, Hos. x. i, of the 
heretics, because 'terrae suae bona 
verterunt in titulos mortuorum, quia 
omnis doctrina eorum non ad vi- 
ventes refertur, sed ad mortuos etc.' 
The Pythagoreans used to erect 
'cenotaphs' (Orig. c. Cels. ii. 12, iii. 
51) to those who were untrue to the 
principles and practice of their 
school; comp. Clem. Alex. Strom. 
V. 9 (p. 680) <TTTJ\TJV eV avroi yevefrdai 
ofo wcp3>, Iambi. Vit. Pythag. 17 
TWO. ro> roiovro) KOI p.vr)iJ.lov 
, a practice to which Zahn 
directs attention in his note. The 
false teachers in Ignatius however 
are compared not to the dead, but 
to the sepulchres themselves. 

5. <pvyere /c.r.X.] See Polyc. 5 
ras KaKOTe%vias (peuye (with the note). 

ToO apxovros K.T.X.] See the note 
on Ephes. 17. 

6. 6\i(3evTs K.T.A.] i worn out, 
wearied, by his suggestions? 

7. fa<r6evTJ(TTe] ' grow weak 1 \ 
comp. Matt. xxiv. 12 ^v-y^o-erat i) 

TWV TToXXcaV, ApOC. ii. 4 TT]V 

yaTTTjv (rov rr)V Trpcorrjv f 

eVi ro avTo /c.r.X.] 'meet together] 
i.e. for public worship and the eu- 
charist ; comp. 4 o-Trov&ao-are /ua ev- 
^ai. For eV a/ieptVra) 
comp. Trail. 13. 

9. evo-umS^ros] See Magn. 4 
with the note. 

10. on f(3dpT)(ra /c.r.X.] 2 Cor. xi. 9 
eV 7rai/ri dftapf) epavrbv vp.1v eY^T/o^a, 
xii. 1 6 y< ov KarfftdpTjcra v/Ltay (v. 1. 

), 1 Thess. ii. 9 Trpos ro pr) 
rtva vp.a>v (comp. 2 Thess. 
iii. 8). See also the protest of Samuel, 
2 Sam. xii. 3 riva Karedwda-Ttva-a vfj.uv 
fj riva f^eniao-a u/xc5v; Hefele sup- 
poses that Ignatius refers to the 
yoke of Jewish ordinances: but he 
was extremely unlikely to be charged 
with imposing such a burden. The 
parallel of S. Paul's language would 
rather suggest that he is speaking of 
using his position and authority ty- 
rannically, whether (as in S. Pauls 
case) to burden them with his 
maintenance, or (as the following 
words suggest) to overawe and crush 
any free expression of opinion. This 
apology obviously implies that he had 
heard of such accusations brought 
against him at Philadelphia. The 
report was probably conveyed to him 
by Philo and Agathopus ( ii). See 
Zahn /. v. A. p. 266 sq. 

11. /ecu Trda-t 6V /c.r.X.] 'yea, and 
for all those among whom I spoke, I 




VII. Gl yap Kal KCLTCL crdpKa jme Tives f]6e\rj(rav 
7r\avfj(rcu, d\\a TO TrvevfjLa ov TrAai/arcu, aVo Qeov ov 
o?AeN yap nd0eN epxerAi KAI HOY YTT<\rei, Kal TO, 

l] GLA ; om. g. rives 7j6^\Tj<rav] GL ; -rjQtXrjffdv rives g. i rb 

GLA ; add. fjiov [g]. 4 tKpatyacra] GLAg* (but some texts 

of g add ydp) ; add. igitur S r ;ueraj> uv] GLSjA ; )uerai> uv g* (vulg.) : 

see the lower note. 5 0eoO 0wi/^] LSjA ; paraphrased OVK e/*6s 6 \67os 

d\Xd deov g ; om. G. 6 diaKbvois] G ; rotj SICIKOVOIS g. ol 5' 

K.T.X.] ol 5t TTTtffavTtt jue ws 7rpoei56>a r6v nfpivphv TIVUV \tyew raGra* /*</>- 
rys 5^ /aoi /c.r.X. G; quidam autem suspicati (add. j/ L 2 ) me ut praescientem 
divisionem quorundam dicere haec ; testis autem mihi etc L ; et sunt quidam qui 
cogitaverunt de me quod tanquam cognoverim divisiones quorundam haec dixerim ; 

pray that they may not find my 
words a testimony against them'; 
comp. Trail. 12 (with the note). For 
the dative with tv^eo-^at see the re- 
ferences in Rost u. Palm s. v. 

VII. 'Though certain persons 
attempted to deceive me in the flesh, 
yet the Spirit is not deceived. It 
knows its own movements, and it 
penetrates into the most secret re- 
cesses. When I was among you, I 
told you plainly, speaking with the 
voice of God, to give heed to your 
bishop and presbyters and deacons. 
Some men suspect that I said this, 
knowing the dissensions which im- 
pended. But indeed I did not learn 
it of flesh and blood; the Spirit 
cried aloud, saying, "Do nothing 
without the bishop; defile not your 
bodies which are the temples of 
God; cherish unity; avoid dissen- 
sions ; be imitators of Jesus Christ, 
as He was of His Father." ' 

I. ijti&rjvav K. r.X.] 'desired to 
lead me astray] i.e. 'to impose upon 
me by their deceit' ; comp. Magn. 3 
ov^ on rov eViV/coTroj/ TOVTOV rbv /3Xe- 
Trop-cvov 7r\avq TIS K.r.X. Markland's 
interpretation of TrXai/^o-ai 'decepto- 
rem esse' (i.e. 'would make me out 
a deceiver') is refuted by the fol- 
lowing ov irXavarai, and indeed by 
the whole context. It is vain to 

speculate on the circumstance to 
which Ignatius alludes. The ex- 
pression xara a-apita points to some 
deceit practised upon him (and per- 
haps successfully) in the common 
affairs of life; comp. esp. Ephes. 8 
a 5e Kal Kara a-dpKa Trpao-o-ere, Rom. 9 
TTJ oSw rfj Kara o"apca. In this pro- 
vince they might deceive him, but 
in the sphere of the Spirit no de- 
ception was possible. The obscurity 
of the allusion is a strong testimony 
to the genuineness of the letter. 

2. ro Trvfiipa] i.e. 'the Spirit 
which is working in me.' 

3. oldev yap ic.r.X.] John iii. 8 
OVK oi8as TroOfv ep^erai Kal TTOV vVayei, 
said of the wind, as the symbol of 
the Spirit. The coincidence is quite 
too strong to be accidental. Nor 
can there be any reasonable doubt 
that the passage in the Gospel is 
prior to the passage in Ignatius. 
The application in the Gospel is 
natural. The application in Ignatius 
is strained and secondary; nor is 
his language at all explicable, except 
as an adaptation of a familiar pas- 
sage. 'Though no one else can 
trace the movements of the Spirit,' 
Ignatius would say, 'yet the Spirit 
knows full well its own movements.' 

Kal TO. KpvTTTa /t.r.X.] Comp. i Cor. 
ii. IO ro yap nvevfjia iravra epavva^ xiv. 




KpVTTTa e\ey^i. eKpauyaora /ULera^v wv, eXaXovv 

5 ya\ri (ficovrj, Oeov (ficovri' Tco eTTicrKOTno TTpocre^eTe 

T TTpefffivTepia) Kai SLctKOvois. oi S' 

testatur autem nobis etc S x ; et sunt quidam qui cogitaverunt de me quomodo cognovi 
ego divisiones quorundam et dixi hoc ; testatur mihi etc A ; el 8 uTroTrretfer^ pe us 
Trpofji.ad6vTa rbv fj.epi<rfj.6v rwuv \yew ravra, /mdprvs JJLOI /c.r.X. g* (but 1 has hi vero 
despexerunt me etc, thus showing that the earlier reading of g more closely followed G). 
It seems clear that the original of all these was oi 8' vwoirTefoavTe's pe wj irpoeidbra 
rbv pep. nv. \y. ravra, /Jt-dprvs 8t pot K.r.X. G has preserved this with the corruption 
of TTT&raj'res for inroTTTeixravTes ; L has translated it literally (for the sunt of L 2 is ob- 
viously a later addition) ; S 1 (followed by A) has set the syntax straight ; and g (as 
it now stands) has paraphrased the sentence, mending the grammar at the same 
time. See the lower note. 

25 ra KpvTTTa. rrjs Kapdias avTov (fravepa 
yiverai, Ephes. V. 12, 13 /laXXov de 
KOI eXeyxere' ra yap Kpv(j)rj yivo^eva 

4. cKpavyao-a] For the expres- 
sion see Job. xi. 43 (puvfj neyaXrj 
. comp. Tatian Orat. 17 
(oo-nep OTTO rou fierecopov 
e pov, and see the note on 
Ephes. 19 p,vo-T7]pia Kpavyfjs. Bunsen 
(Ign. p. 73) translates eKpavyao-a l Ich 
schrieb einen Brief,' and suggests 
that the writer alludes to passages 
in the letter to Polycarp (I suppose 
to 4, 6). By such free renderings 
anything may be made of anything. 
Moreover the letter to Polycarp 
does not profess to be written from 
Philadelphia, but from Troas. 

/z.erai a>j/j 'when I was among 
you? It is evident from the whole 
context that Ignatius had himself 
visited Philadelphia. He must there- 
fore have taken the northern road 
through Sardis to Smyrna, instead 
of the southern which would have 
led him to Ephesus on his way 
thither (see above, p. 241). Zahn 
(/. v. A. p. 268) adopts the reading 
p-cragi) <av eXaXow, 'in the midst of 
my discourse,' which is found in the 
common text of the Long Recension, 

and is rendered (though incorrectly) 
in the Latin Version of the same, 
'inter eos quibus loquebar.' The 
Greek MSS however of the Long 
Recension do not altogether support 
this reading; while in the Greek MS 
of the uninterpolated text, and in all 
the Versions of it (Syrian, Armenian, 
Latin), it is consistently read /*erau 
a>j/, e'XaXow. The change of tense 
(Kpavyao-a, e'XaXovv, is no serious ob- 
jection to this latter reading, which 
is otherwise much more natural. 

5. 0600 0<^] The words are 
omitted in the Greek MS by homceo- 
teleuton, as in a parallel instance 
Trail. 7. The paraphrase of the in- 
terpolator, OVK fj,os K.T.X. (see the 
critical note), gives the right sense. 
For a similar claim where the writer 
declares himself to be speaking with 
the voice of God, see Clem. Rom. 59 
(with the note). 

T<u eVia-KOTTo) /c.r.X.] Comp. Polyc. 6 
ra> eVia-KOTra) 7rpoo-e^6r... 
e'yco TWV vjroTo.o'O'OfJifVtov ra> 
irpfo-fivrepois, diaitovois. 

6. 01 ' VTTOTTTfVO'aVTfS K.T.X.] ' but 

these persons suspecting me? There 
is no authority for any earlier form 
of the text than this ; see the critical 
note. We must therefore suppose, 




jue, ft)s TrpoeiSoTct TOV jULepKr/mov TLVWV, Xeyeiv 
jULapTVs $6 /mot ev a) SeSejuLai, OTL airo (rapKOS d 
OVK eyvtov TO $e TrvevfULa eKripwcrev, Aeyoy ra'Se' 
Xtopis TOV eTriCTKOTTOv jmr}$v TTOfeZre* TY\V crdpKa VJULCOV 
ws VOLQV Oeov TtipelTe* Trjv evwcnv ayaTrare* roik jmepi- 5 
(r/uovs (pevyeTe* fJUfju^Tal yivevGe 'Irja'ov XpiGTOv, w 


I ws 7r/)oei5ora] GL ; ws irpo^ad^vTO. g. Zahn supposes that the reading of 
SjA (see the last note) was wo-irep eidora, and adopts this reading. But the omis- 
sion of the preposition in rendering irpoupt.ffiJ.4vr) Ephes. inscr. (2A), and irpoop&v 
Trail. 8 (A), renders the inference somewhat doubtful. And, even if it were cer- 
tain, this reading does not seem so well supported, or so good in itself, as ws irpo- 
eiSo'ra. i 5<f] GLSj ; om. [A] [g] [Antioch 14] [Dam-Rup 5]: see the last 

note. ACOI] GL[A]g Antioch ; pov Dam-Rup ; nobis (]/ for v) Sj. iv $\ 

GLSjA Antioch Dam-Rup ; di ov g : see the note on Magn. 5. 

either that some word such as 77- 
TI&VTO has fallen out, or that the 
sentence is an anacoluthon. This 
latter seems the more probable hy- 
pothesis. For similar instances, where 
in the hurry of dictating under pres- 
sure of circumstances sentences are 
left unfinished, see the notes, Ephes. 
I ' Anode gdpevos K.T.\. Otherwise we 
might adopt Zahn's conjecture, ct 8e 
virwTTTevordv rives fie K.r.X., thus making 
paprvs de /iot the apodosis.. 

2. Iv w dede/Mii] See 5 with the 

OTTO aapKos K.r.X.j Matt. xvi. 17 
<rap KOI af/ia OUK aTrexaXv^ej/ K.r.X. 

3. Xeyoi/ K.r.X.] See Rom. 7 <ra>- 
6ev fj.oi \eyov, AeOpo K.r.X. (with the 
note). If the masculine \eyav be 
correct here, it may be compared 
with <elvos in Joh. xvi. 13, 14; but 
no dependence can be placed on the 
reading in such a case. There is the 
same v. 1. also in Rom. 7. The pas- 
sage has been misunderstood to mean 
that ' an apocryphal writing is quoted 
as Holy Scripture' (Supernatural 
Religion i. p. 273, ed. 2 : see West- 

cott Canon p. 60, ed. 4). Ignatius 
is plainly speaking throughout this 
passage of a spiritual revelation to 

4. Xwpls K.T.X.] See the note on 
Magn. 7. 

TTJV crdpKa K.r.X.] Comp. [Clem. 
Rom.] ii. 9 ScT ovv r^JLas (&s vaov Qeov 
(pv\d(T(rciv rr)v (rapKa, with the note. 
See also the notes on Ephes. 9, 15. 

5. evaxnv] Comp. Polyc. i rfjs 
fvaxrecos <poz/ne, and see the note 
on Magn. i. 

TOVS ficpi(rp.ovs $>(vytTf\ Comp. 2 
above (with the note), and Smyrn. 8. 

6. fjufjuyral K.r.X.] i.e. of His eVt- 
CIKCUI ; comp. Ephes. 10, and see the 
note on fufujral ovrcs Geov Ephes. i. 

VIII. 'I therefore did my best to 
promote union. Where dissension 
is, there God has no dwelling-place. 
Now the Lord will forgive all who 
repent and return to the unity of 
God and to fellowship with the 
bishop. I have faith in the grace 
of Christ, who will shake off your 
chains ; but I exhort you to do 
nothing in a sectarian spirit. I heard 




VII I. 'Gyw jjiev ovv TO io*iov eTroiovv, ftk a 

ek evaxriv KartipTia-iuLevos. ov Se 


>7, 0eos ov KctTOiKel. Traoriv ovv fJieTavoovtriv d<piei 
6 Kvpios, eav /xerai/OT/crftxm/ ets ivoTrira Oeov Kai a~vve- 

SplOV TOV 7TlO'KO7rOV. TTLO'TeVtO TY\ %dplTl ' IrjO'OV Xpl~ 

CTTOV, os \vcrei d(p>' VJULOJV TrdvTa SecrfULOv TrapaKaXco Se 

av6p<j)irLvris\ GL Antioch Dam-Rup ; ab hominibus S 1 A ; dirb (rro/xaros avdp&Trov g. 
3 e/c77/)i;cro-ey] G Antioch [Dam-Rup]; clamabat S X A; praedicavit L; eicfjpvi-t fioi g. 
Xeyoi'] Antioch ; \eywv Gg* (some MSS ; but v. 1. \eyov) ; dicens L ; et dicebat S : A ; 
om. Dam-Rup : see the lower note. 4 TOU] G Antioch ; om. g Dam-Rup. 

5 Type'ire] g Dam-Rup; Typrjre G. 6 Kai] GLA[g] ; om. Dam-Rup. 10 

/ueravoouo-u/] G ; rots fj.rai>oov<nv g. i j Kvpios] GL*A ; 6 0e6s g. avve- 

dptov] G; ffvvedpelav (or (rvveBpLav) g* ; concilium L; coetus A. 13 os] 

GL ; on g ; ^^ is A. i^w] GLA ; fyuwj> g*. S^] G ; autem L ; oiV g 

(but autem 1) ; om. A. 

some persons saying 7 a;/// <?/ be- 
lieve it, unless 7 find it in the 
charters. I said to them, It is so 
'written. They answered, You are 
begging the question. But to me the 
charter, the inviolable charter, is 
Jesus Christ and His Cross, His 
Death and His Ascension, and faith 
through Him. In these I hope to be 
justified through your prayers.' 

8. ro i'Sioi/] l my own par? \ as 
e.g. Isocr. Archid. 8 (p. 117) Set 
TOV/J.OV 'idiov fin-civ, Lucian de Merc. 
Cond. 9 <? eyeoye Tovfj-ov "idiov K.r.X., 
passages quoted in the lexicons. 

9. Ka.T7jpTi<Tnevos] ''settled. 1 The 
Latin translator here, as elsewhere, 
has rendered it 'perfectus,' as if 
a7r?7prioyzeVoj. On the meaning of KQT- 
aprieiv 'to settle, reconcile, pacify, 3 
see the note on Ephes. 2. 

II. els fvoTTjTa Geov] Comp. 9 
below, Smyrn. 12, Polyc. 8, where the 
same expression occurs. See also 
the note on ev d/zoi/ota Qeov Magn. 6. 
The ei/oTT/s here is the result of the 
evoxris mentioned just before. For 
the abridged expression pcTavoelv fls 
comp. Smyrn. 5 

fls rb TTci^o?, and see the note on 
Ephes. I 8fdp.fvov OTTO "Svpias. 

(rvvfdpiov K.T.X.] i.e. ' the bishop 
with his council of presbyters as 
assessors.' In Apost. Const, ii. 28 
the presbyters are styled 


(pavos' eo~Ti yap (rvvedpiov KOI flovXr) r)y 
eKK\r)o-ias. See the notes on Magn. 
6, 13, Trail. 3. A civil owtSpiov TMV 
npfo-ftvTepwv at Philadelphia is men- 
tioned C. 7. G. 3417 (comp. 3422). 

13. \vo~ei K.r.X.] Is. Iviii. 6 Xve 
iravra o-vv8o-jj.ov Si<iay, from which 
passage the interpolator has substi- 
tuted (rufSfcr/ioj/ aft IK ias for dfo~fj.ov 
here. The passage of Isaiah is 
quoted, Barnab. 3, Justin Apol. i. 37 
(p. 77), Dial, is (p. 233), Iren. iv. 17. 
3, Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 18 (p. 470), 
Apost. Const, ii. 53, viii, 5, and seems 
to have been a very favourite cita- 
tion in the early Church. In the 
original the 'bonds of wickedness' 
refer to the oppression of the weak, 
and apparently in a literal sense to 
the chains of slaves and of debtors. In 
the LXX however it may be a ques- 
tion whether crui/fifo-jMoi/ is not in- 


v/udS) nJLrjSev K.CLT epiBeiav TTpcKrcreTe ct\\a K.CLTOL 
fma6iav. eirel rjKOV(rd TIVWV Xeyovrwv OTL 'Gdv 



e] g ; facite A ; irpacrffeiv GL : see the lower note. 
fj.adlav] G; xpLcrrofJiaddav g* (with a v. 1. -ftaQtav). There is no authority of any 
value for xptiffroiMadeLav. AL1 all render X/HOTO- not Xf y n ff " r -' 2 ^?rei 

2. lv rols dpxeiots] ' in the ar- 
chives? For apxfiov comp. Dion. 
Hal. A. R. ii. 26 fifXP 1 T ^ s ^ s T " 

ap^fta (v. 1. ap^ala) ra drj/jLoa-ia eyypa- 
(prjs, Jos. C. Ap. i. 2O ev rois dpxeiois 
(v. 1. ap^aioiy) rwj/ $O/IKQ>I/, B. J. ii. 
17. 6 TO Trvp fTti ra dp^fta (pfpov, 
d(f>avi(rai cnvfii^ovrcs ra a-vufioXaia 
K.r.X., Apollon. in Euseb. H. E. v. 18 
TO T^S 'Ao-ias dpxflov, African, in 
Euseb. H. E. i. 7 dvaypcarTaiv els rdre 
tv roly dpxfiots ovrtov TO>V 'E/3paiKc5y 
aJv, Euseb. H. E. \. 13 TO>V eVt- 
OTTO Toav dpxfiav THJLLV dva- 
\T)(p6ei(r(0v. The word occurs in 
the following inscriptions found at 
Smyrna itself; C. I. G. 3137, 3264, 
3266, 3281, 3282, 3286, 3295, 3318, 
3335, 3349, 3356, 3382, 3386, 3394, 
3400. It signifies originally l the 
government house,' ' the magistrates' 
office.' Hence it comes to mean 
' the record-office ' ; and hence, like 
the English word 'archives,' it is 
used indifferently of the place where 
the documents are kept and the 
collection of documents themselves ; 
nor is it always easy to separate 
the one meaning from the other. 
The word is naturalised in Chaldee 
(see Levy Lex. Chald. s. v. }VD"i^) 
and in Syriac (see Payne Smith 
Thes. Syr. s. v. r^AiK'). The 
meaning here is as follows. The 
opponents of Ignatius refuse to defer 
to any modern writings, whether 
Gospels or Epistles, as a standard 
of truth ; they will submit only to 
such documents as have been pre- 
served in the archives of the Jews, 
or in other words, only to the Old 

tended to mean 'a conspiracy' (comp. 
ver. 9 (TvvSfo-fjiov KOI x fl P OTOV ' Lav \ as it 
is used in Jer. xi. 9 and elsewhere 
in the LXX. In Apost. Const, ii. 53 
ovdet r<u roC Kvpt'ou vo/zw Ave 
o~vv8(o~fjiov ddiKias' eVi (roi yap 
fovcriav 6 aaTTjp Wtro d(pievai a/zap- 
rias 1 K.r.X., #. viii. 5 Xveti' e 
o-vvSecrnov Kara rrjv fov(riav 
TOLS aTTooroXoty, it is understood of 
the remission of sins (comp. Matt, 
xvi. 19, xviii. 18). There may or 
may not be an allusion to this pas- 
sage of Isaiah here. In any case 
it seems to refer to the power of evil 
generally, as in the words of the 
collect 'though we be tied and bound 
with the chain of our sins, yet let 
the pitifulness of Thy great mercy 
loose us.' Hilgenfeld however refers 
it to the oppressive yoke of Judaism ; 
Uhlhorn to the overbearingness of 
the heretical teachers. See also the 
note on Ephes. 19 o6ev e'Xvero nava 
/layeta not TTOS 8f(Tfji6s K.r.X. 

I. Kar epitifiav] l m a sectarian 
spirit? From Phil. ii. 3 fj.r)8ev /cara 
epideiav p.r)8e Kara KVO$OLO.V : see the 

note on i, where the other member 
of S. Paul's sentence appears. For 
the meaning of e'pt'0eia, ' partisan- 
ship] ''factiousness] see the note 
Galatians v. 20. 

Trpdo-orere] See the note on Trail. 

Xpto-ro/za&'ai/] So xP^To/za^'y, Mo- 
dest. Encom. in B. Virg. i 00-01 0tXo- 
fjLdde'is rjyovv xP lo " ro / txa $ e ^ (Patrol. 

Graec. LXXXVI. p. 3080, a reference 
given in E. A. Sophocles s.v.) ; comp. 
Rom. inscr. 



2 7 I 

TO?? aovOs vp(t) 9 iv Tco evctyyeXico ov TricrTevto' Kat 

G ; quid audivi L ; TJKov<ra yap g ; sed quoniant audivi A. 3 ap- 

%etots] g ; scripturis antiquis (prioribus] A ; apxaiots G ; veteribus L. cv 

T(p vayye\i'^}] GL ; r6 evayyeXiov or rou eva-yYeXtou g*. A also seems to have 
read r6 evayye\tov, for it translates si in scripturis antiquis non laudatur (glori- 
faatur) evangelium, non crcdimus ei. 

Testament Scriptures. Thus the 
dpxeta and the euayyeXtov are op- 
posed as the Old Testament and 
the New, so that the antithesis is 
similar to that in [Clem. RomJ\ ii. 14 
ra /3tj3Xta K.OL ol dTrooToXoi. A wholly 
different interpretation however has 
not uncommonly been given to the 
passage, e.g. by Voss (apparently), 
Smith, and several later writers; ra 
dp^eia being explained as referring 
to the original autographs or au- 
thentic MSS of the Evangelical writ- 
ings, with which is contrasted TO 
cvoyyeXcoi/j the Gospel as written and 
preached in Ignatius' time. In other 
words his antagonists are repre- 
sented as complaining that the Gos- 
pels had been tampered with ; comp. 
Polyc. Phil. 7 os av nfOodevy ra Xoyia 
TOV Kvpiov Ttpos TO.S tSi'ay fnidv^Jiias 
(quoted by Zahn 7. v. A. p. 379), 
where however the words perhaps 
refer rather to misinterpretation than 
to corruption of our Lord's sayings. 
But this restriction of evayye'Xtoj/ is 
unnatural ; and altogether the inter- 
pretation is unsuited to the age 
and character of these Judaizing 
antagonists. Nor again is it easily 
reconcilable with ycypaTrrai. 

There can be no doubt, I think, 
that dpxeiW ought to be read here ; 
as by Voss, Cotelier, Smith, Rothe 
(Anf tinge p. 339), and others. For (i) 
The argument requires that the same 
form should stand in all the three 
places ; and, if this be so, there can 
be no question which word should 
be preferred on external authority. 
For dfia alone is read in the 

second and third places, while even 
in the first the weight of authority 
is in favour of dp^e/otf rather than 
apxaiots. (2) While ra aOiKra dp^f ta, 
' the inviolable archives,' is an in- 
telligible phrase, no very satisfactory 
meaning can be attached to ra aQiKra 
ap^aia. (3) It is more probable that 
the more usual word dpxaiois should 
be substituted for the less usual 
dpxfiois than conversely, as indeed 
we find to have been done elsewhere. 
For the common substitution of dp- 
Xala for dp^eia see Wyttenbach on 
Plut. Mor, p. 218 c. On the other 
hand Credner (Beitrage I. p. 15) 
reads dp^a/oiy, dp^aia, dp^aia, con- 
sistently, and so Hefele (in his later 
editions), Dressel, Hilgenfeld (A. V. 
p. 236), and others. 

Some of those who retain dpxaiois 
take it as a masculine, * the ancient 
writers' (comp. Matt. v. 21, 27, 33); 
and Markland even proposes at the 
second occurrence of the word to 
read ap\aloL fortv *Ir)(rovs Xprroy, 
comparing the line quoted in Pliny 
Ep. iv. 27 * Unus Plinius est mihi 
priores'-, but he does not say what 
he would do with the third passage 
ra aOiKTa dp^eia. The view of Bull 
( Works vi. p. 208, ed. Burton), that 
dpxaiot signifies 'the old rabbis or 
doctors,' has nothing to recommend 

3. ev r5 evayyeXi'w K.r.X.] The 
construction is, if I mistake not, 
4 Unless I find it (the point at issue) 
in the archives, I do not believe it 
(because it appears) in the Gospel? 
The parallelism demands this. [This 




s /ULOV avToTs OTL reypawTcti, d7reKpidrj(rdv JULOL 
Keirai. ejuiol Se dp%eld <TTLV '/^croi/ XpKrros, 
TO. aBiKTa dpxela 6 (TTavpos avTOV Kai 6 QOLVCLTOS Kai q 


GL, and so too [g*] (but with a v. 1. irpoKplvtTai) ; superfluum est 
A. d/>xe?a] Gg ; principium L ; scriptura prior A. 'Itjvovs X/MOTOS] G ; 

Irjcrovs 6 xP l<rT ^ 3 a0cra] adrjKra G ; inapproximabilia L ; qui non 

objectors on their own ground ; 
they ask for proof from 'the charters ' 
(roTr dpxfiois), and he points to the 
passages in the Old Testament. 

What the points at issue were, the 
following words 6 o-ravpos K.r.X. will 
suggest. The old question Trafy- 
rbs 6 XptoTos (Acts xxvi. 23 ; comp. 
Justin. Dial. 36, 76, pp. 254, 302) 
had still to be discussed. The Cross 
was still a stumbling-block to these 
Docetic Judaizers, as it had been in 
the Apostolic age to the Jews, though 
from a different point of view. They 
denied the reality of Christ's birth 
and death and resurrection ; see the 
note on Trail. 9. It was therefore 
necessary to show from the Hebrew 
Scriptures, not only (as in the Apos- 
tolic age) on rov XpioToj/ eet TraQelv 
Kai dvaa-Trjvai CK veicpa>v (Acts xvii. 3 ; 
comp. Luke xxiv. 26, 46, Acts iii. 
1 8), but also that He 'must needs' 
have been born in the flesh. 

2. IIpoAcetrai] ' This is the question 
before us, this remains to be proved* \ 
comp. Arist. Eccl. 401 yrept o-arrjpias 
Trpo/cei/xeVov, Dion. Hal. Ars Rhet. vii. 
5 (p. 274) ^ i" e pi avTov vvv TrpoKemu, 
Plut. Mor. p. 875 A, Galen Op. v. p. 
126, Clem. Horn. xix. 12 vvv anobel^al 
poi irpoKfirai (comp. ib. v. 8, xix. 13), 
Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 8 (p. 676) jrpo- 
KfiTai &' jjfjuv r( TroiovvT( 
(comp. Strom, i. 10, p. 344, ii. 21, p. 
500, vi. 15, p. 801, vii. i, 10, pp. 829, 
867), Athenag. Suppl. 18 ov yap rrpo- 
Keiftevov p.oi eXey^fii/, Orig. C. Cels. i. 
22, ii. 3, iii. i, iv. 38, 52, 53, 60, v. 2, 
vi. 19, 41, 51, vii. 2, 30, 48, and so 

construction I find is supported by 
Hilgenfeld Zeitschr. f. Wissensch. 
Theol. XVII. p. 116; but he reads 
apxaiois for ap^dais.] On the other 
hand the passage seems to be al- 
most universally taken, ' Unless / 
find it (i.e. the Gospel) in the ar- 
chives (or in the ancients'), / do not 
believe in the Gospel] with the very 
rare construction which occurs Mark 
i. 15 TTia-TftifTf fv rq> euctyyeXio). A 
third interpretation is adopted by 
Zahn (/. v. A. p. 378 sq, and ad loc.} 
after Holsten (in Dressel, p. 180), 
' Unless / find it in the archives, 
that is, in the Gospel, 1 do not believe 
if \ but the Greek order and pa- 
rallelism are strongly against this 
mode of breaking up the sentence ; 
not to say that the apposition of the 
apxeia with the Gospel is in itself an 
anachronism. Zahn takes the view 
that these objectors appeal to the 
original documents of the New Tes- 
tament, as evidence for the true 

I. Teypanrai] i.e. 'in the Old 
Testament Scriptures, 3 as Ephes. 5, 
Magn. 12, according to the common 
use of yeypaTrreu in the N. T. ; comp. 
Clem. Rom. 4, 14, 17, 29, 36, etc. 
Though it is not impossible that 
Ignatius might have applied ye- 
ypanrai to some Evangelical or 
Apostolical writings (as e.g. Barnab. 
4 ; comp. Polyc. Phil. 12), yet quite 
independently of the requirements 
of the context the word would refer 
much more naturally to the Old 
Testament. Ignatius meets these 


dvd<TTa(TLs avTOv KCU tj TricrTis tj Si auTOu* ev cus 6e\w 
5 ev Trj Trpocrev^rj u/mcov SiKaicoOrjvcu. 

rapitur A (attaching it to 'Iijffovs X/UOTOS and omitting apxeia). I n tne corre- 
sponding place g* has O.BLKTOV, for which some texts substitute avdevrLKbv . 
apxeia] G; principia L; om. A; apxeiov [g]. 4 i) 81' airroi] GL; TJ ire pi 

rotJrwv g ; ejus A. 

frequently. Hence TO 7rpoK.eiiJ.evov 
'the subject under discussion'; e.g. 
Joseph, c. Apion. i. 22, 35, Epict. iv. i. 
46, C/w. /fo/tt. xix. i, Clem. Al. Quis 
div. salv. 26 (p. 950), Orig. c. Cels. i. 
24, 44, iv. 21, v. i, vi. i, viii. 16, 65; 
and ra irpoK.eip.eva Joseph. Ant, xvi. 
2. 5. Many other interpretations 
have been adopted ; e.g. by Pearson 
1 It stands already written' (com- 
paring A then. xiv. p. 646 jrpoKeirai 
TO paprvpiov), and so Bull (in the pas- 
sage cited below) as an alternative, 
as also several later writers ; by Bull 
(Works vi. p. 208) 'It is rejected by 
us'; by Credner (Beitrdgel. p. 16) 'It 
is obvious/ ' So ist die Sache ausge- 
macht,' and so other writers ; by Hug 
(Introd. to the N. T. I. p. 105) 'This 
is to be preferred' (comparing Sext. 
Emp. Pyrrh. i. 8); together with 
others which it is unnecessary to 
give. All these fail, either as forcing 
a meaning on TrpoKeirai which is 
alien to it, or as yielding a sense 
which is unsuited to the context. 
The emendation of Voss, who inserts 
a negative, OTI ov n-poKeirat, and the 
conjecture of Pearson (see Smith p. 
84), who substitutes OVTI for on, may 
likewise be dismissed, notwithstand- 
ing the great names of their authors. 
They do not gain any support from 
the language of the interpolator, 
ov yap TrpoKemu (v. 1. TrooxpiWrai) 
ra dp^eia rov Tri/ev/xaroy, but just 
the contrary ; for this language is 
put by him into the mouth, not of the 
objectors, but of Ignatius himself. It 
is clear therefore that the interpolator 


read in his text npoKeirai, which he 
interpreted, '-The archives (i.e. the 
Old Testament Scriptures) are to be 
preferred] and he makes Ignatius 
answer the objectors accordingly. 

e'/uot 8e K.r.X.] i.e. 'Though I have 
condescended to argue, though I 
have accepted their appeal to the Old 
Testament Scriptures, yet to myself 
such an appeal is superfluous : Jesus 
Christ is the archives ; He contains 
in Himself the documentary proofs 
of His person and mission': comp. 
Clem. Recogn. i. 59 ' non ideo cre- 
dendum esse Jesu, quia de eo pro- 
phetae praedixerint, sed ideo magis 
credendum esse prophetis, quod vere 
prophetae sint, quia eis testimonium 
Christus reddat, etc.' 

3. adLKTa] 'inviolable'-, an appro- 
priate epithet of ap^eta, being used 
especially of sacrosanct places and 

5- ev TTJ Trpoo-evxf) * T. X.] i. e. 
'through your prayers'; compare 
Ephes. 20 with the note. 

8tKaia>8fjvai] Comp. Rom. 5. 

IX. ' The priests deserve respect, 
I allow; but much more the High- 
priest. He alone is entrusted with 
the holiest things of all, the hidden 
mysteries of God. He Himself is 
that door of the Father, through 
whom patriarchs and prophets and 
apostles and the whole Church must 
alike enter into the unity of God. 
But the Gospel has the pre-eminence 
in that it sets forth the advent, the 
passion, the resurrection of Jesus 
Christ. The prophets indeed fore- 





IX. Ka\oi Kai ol iepeis* Kpelarcrov Se o dp%iepevs 
6 TreTTHTTeviuievos Ta ayia TWV dryitov, os /uoi/o? TreTTi- 
TO. KpVTTTa TOV Oeov' avTOS wv 6vpa TOV 
$L ^s elcrepxovTai 'A/Spaa/m Kai. 'laaaK 

i Kai] GL; fj.h g: om. A. KpeTo-crov'] GL; Kpelcra-uv g* (though some 

MSS read Kpelcrvui)', dub. A. 3 O.VTOS v~\ GL; euro's effrw [g] (but 

the whole context is changed) ; et hie est A (but A commonly changes participles 
into finite verbs). 4 eiffepxovTcu] GLA ; eia^Bov [g]. 6 Geou] 

told Him; but the Gospel is the 
crown and completion of immor- 
tality. All things together are good, 
if your faith is joined with love. 5 

i. KaXoi *ai K.T.X.] The contrast 
here is between the Levitical priest- 
hood, and the great High-priest of 
the Gospel, i.e. between the old and 
new dispensations. This is recog- 
nised by most commentators, and 
indeed is so directly demanded by 
the context, that it is strange any 
other interpretation should have been 
maintained. The interpolator how- 
ever has altered the passage, so as 
to make a reference to the three 
orders of the Christian ministry, Ka- 
Xoi p,v ol lepfls *ai ol TOV Xd-yov 
StaKovoi, Kpei<T(TG>i> 5e o dpxiepevs K.T.X, 
interpolating several words so as to 
disconnect avros <av 6vpa from ap^ie- 
pevs, which he evidently intends to be 
understood of the Christian bishop. 
This has misled Cotelier, who in- 
terprets lepfls of the Christian pres- 
byters, and so too others (e.g. 
Greenwood Cathedra Petri I. p. 73). 
Rothe (Anf tinge I. p. 732) applies it 
to the Christians of Philadelphia 
generally, as the lepets of the new 
dispensation (comp. Rev. i. 6, v. 10, 
xx. 6). 

But what form of antagonism has 
the writer in view, when he says 
/caXot ai 01 fepels? Is the statement 
aggressive, as against those who dis- 
paraged the Old Testament dispen- 

sation ? or concessive, as towards 
those who rated it too highly ? Were 
these antagonists Antijudaic or Ju- 
daic? The latter view alone seems 
consistent with the sequence of the 
writer's thoughts. There is no indi- 
cation that the antagonists contem- 
plated here are different from those 
mentioned in the previous context, 
who were plainly Judaizers ; and 
moreover the stress of the sentence 
itself is not on the eminence of the 
Aaronic priesthood, but on the supe- 
rior eminence of the High-priest and 
the Gospel. 

Kpclo-o-ov] The neuter is justified 
by such passages as Matt. xii. 41, 42 
7rXetoi> > Icoi'a...2oXo/^coi/os ; comp. also 
Winer Iviii. p. 649 sq. 

6 dpxifpevs] After the Epistle to 
the Hebrews, ii. 17, iii. i, iv. 14, v. 5, 
10, vi. 20, vii. 26, viii. i, ix. n; 
see esp. vii. 7, 19, 22, 23, 26, VTTO 
TOV Kpeirroi'o$'...e7reicraya)yj) Kpeirrovos 
e\7ri8os...KpfiTTovos diadriKr)s...ol /neV 
TrXcioves clo-tv Icpcls yeyovoTcs 8ia TO 
6ava.TO) Kco\veo~6ai 7ra.pap.fve IP, 6 de 5ia 
TO peveiv K.T.X TOIOVTOS 7^/zij/ [/cat] 
dpxiepevs. For this term 
applied to Christ in early 
writers, see the note on Clem. Rom. 
36 ; and to the references there given 
add ib. 6l dia TOV ap^tepecos /cat ?rpo- 
o"TaTot> TO>J> ^vx^ v TJH&V) Melito 
Fragm. 15 (Otto) 'in sacerdotibus 
princeps sacerdotum,' Clem. Alex. 
Protr. 12 (p. 93), Strom, iv. 23 (p. 




5 'laKto/3 Kai ol 7rpo(f)rjrai Kai ol aTrocrroXoi Kai y 
cria. TrdvTa TavTa ei? ei/dr^ra Oeov. e^aipeTOV Se TI 


GA[g], The reading of the MSS of L, fidei, is obviously corrupted from del. The 
reminiscence of Ephes. iv. 13 would assist the corruption. 7 auTjjpos'] 

LA[g]; om. G. Petermann inserts crwr^pos after irapovvtav, but this is solcecistic. 
Zahn places it as I have done; and this position is suggested by g, which has 
Tty Trapovfftav TOV ffurfjpos TJ/JI.WV ' 

633), Tertull. adv. Marc. iii. 7 ' verus 
summus sacerdos patris, Christus 
Jesus/ iv. 35 'authenticus pontifex 
Dei patris ' (comp. iv. 9). 

2. o 7re7rtcrreu/i6i/oy K.r.A.] The re- 
ference is to the special privilege of 
the high-priest, who alone was al- 
lowed to enter into the holy of 
holies, as in Heb. ix. 7 12, x. 19 sq. 
This coincidence, combined with 
those noticed in the preceding note, 
shows, I think, that Ignatius must 
have had the Epistle to the Hebrews 
in his mind. 

os K.r.A.] 'for He alone etc! This 
clause explains the symbolism of 
'being entrusted with the holy of 
holies.' The furniture of the adytum, 
the ark of the covenant, the pot of 
manna, the rod of Aaron, the tables 
of the law, etc, which were com- 
mitted to the keeping of the high- 
priest alone, represent the secret 
counsels of God ; comp. Heb. ix. 3 sq. 

3. avros &v 6vpd\ 'He not only 
enters into the presence-chamber of 
the Father, but is Himself the door'; 
doubtless an allusion to John -x. 9 
e'yco etfu 77 6vpa- 6Y ep.ov cav TIS 
eio-e'A$//, aco^o-erat. For similar re- 
ferences to Christ, as the door or 
gate, see the note on Clem. Rom. 
48. See especially the allegory in 
Hernias Sim. ix. 12. It is worth 
observing also that this image occurs 
in the message to the Philadelphian 
Church, Rev. iii. 8 I 

<rov 6vpav a 

4. 'Aftpaap K.r.A.] For the man- 
ner in which Ignatius regards the 
privileges of the Gospel as extended 
to the patriarchs, etc, see the notes 
on 5 above, and esp. on Magn. 9. 
In the allegory of Hennas those 
stones which represent the patri- 
archs and prophets, not less than 
those which represent the apostles, 
are carried through the gate for the 
building of the tower, i.e. the Church ; 
Sim. ix. 4, 15. 

6. rravTa ravra K.r.A.] 'All these 
elements, whether they belong to the 
old dispensation or to the new, are 
brought to the unity of God] i.e. all 
are united together in the same God 
through the same Christ ; 5 above, 
TTKrrciKravTfS fa'codrja'av ev fvorrjTi 'l^- 
a-ov Xptoroi), where the idea is the 
same. For the expression ei/on/s 
see the note on 8. 

K.r.A.] Comp. Smyrn. 7 
e ra> evayyeAi'a), eV w TO 
ndOos fiiuv Sefi^Acorat KOL 77 dy&murif 

7- rrfv irapov<riav] The reference 
is obviously to the first advent, the 
incarnation, though the word, when 
not specially defined, generally refers 
to the second advent. The word 
does not occur in this sense in the 
N. T., except possibly in 2 Pet. i. 16. 
See for instances elsewhere, Test. 
Duod. Patr. Levi 8, Juda 22, Clem. 
Horn. ii. 52, Clem. Recogn. i. 59 
'praesentia et adventus Christi/ Iren. 

iv. 7. i, iv. 10. 

i sq, Clem. Alex. 
1 8 2 


Kvpiov rffjitov 'Irj&ov Xpt&TOv, TO TrdBos CLVTOV, TY\V dvd- 
>. ol yap dyaTrrjTOi 7rpo(pfJTai KaTriyyeiXav ek 
TO Se evayyeXiov dTrdpTiarfJid e&Tiv d(p6ap(rias. 
O/ULOV Ka\d ecTTiv, edv ev dyaTrn TricrTevrjTe. 
X. 'GTraSf) KaTa TY\V Trpoo'ev'xfiv vjULtov, Kai /caret 5 

i Kvpiov] GLA; om. [g]. aurou] GLA (which translates it after ryv dvd- 

; avTTjv g. TT)v] g ; Kai TTJV GA (but A inserts et before TO irdOos also 

and otherwise alters the form of the sentence). In one MS of L et is inserted, in 
the other omitted. See the lower note. i KarriyyeiXav'] G ; annunciaverunt 

L; KOLTrjyyeKov [g] (MSS, but with a v. 1.) ; praedicaverunt A. 4 

Strom, i. 5 (p. 331), i. 18 (p. 370). 
Early writers are careful to distin- 
guish the two Trapouo-uu of Christ ; 
e.g. Justin ApoL i. 52 (p. 87), Dial. 
14 (p. 232), 32 (p. 249) ; comp. ib. 49 
(p. 268), 120 (p. 350) ; Iren. iv. 33. 
i sq; Can. Murat. p. 35 (ed. Tre- 
gelles); Tertull. ApoL 21; Clem. 
Recogn. i. 49, 69. The passages in 
the Recognitions I should have over- 
looked, but for Hesse Das Murat. 
Fragm. p. 112. 

1. TO irados K.r.X.] For the ab- 
sence of conjunctions comp. Polyc. 
6 TO) eVio'KOTroj, Trpecr/Sure'pois, diaKo- 
vois. The KOI before TTJV dvaa-raaiv 
in the Greek MS of Ignatius is al- 
most certainly an interpolation. It 
produces an almost impossible Greek 
sentence, and demands another KOI 
before TO ndOos : see the notes on 
Trail. 7, 12. Whether we should 
read avrov or avr^i/, is a less easy 
question ; probably the former, both 
because it is better supported, and 
because avTr)v TT/I/ avafrraviv would 
emphasize the Resurrection as com- 
pared with the Passion, in a way 
which the language of Ignatius else- 
where does not justify, the chief 
stress being commonly laid on the 

2. KaT?/yyeiXai> els] For this con- 
struction see the note on 5. 

3. aTrapTtoyza a<p0apo-/as] ' the 
completed work of immortality] as 
the law was the first stage ; where 
aTrdpria-pa corresponds to TeTeXeico- 
rat in the parallel passage, Smyrn. 7 
quoted above. In i Kings vii. 9 
(Symm.) a^aprid^ara are the coping 
stones, the tops of the walls, com- 
monly called dpiyKoi. The word 
differs from a7rapTio>ios (Luke xiv. 
28), as the result from the operation. 
By d<f)0apo-ia is meant the indestruc- 
tible, eternal life, which is the object 
of the Gospel ; comp. Polyc. 2 TO 5e 
6ep.a d(p6apo~ia KOL for) alwvios, [Clem. 
Rom.] ii. 7 TOI> rfjs d(p6apaias dywva. 
The word however involves the idea 
of moral incorruption, which is in- 
separable from eternal life ; see the 
notes on Ephes. 17, Magn. 6. 

4. ivavra opov icaXa] i.e. 'whether be- 
longing to the old dispensation or 
the new'; comp. jcaXot *at ol lepeis 
K.T.X., and navTa ravra /c.T.X. 

X. 'Since the Church of Antioch 
has rest owing to your prayers and 
your Christian compassion, it is your 
duty to send a deacon thither, as 
God's ambassador, to congratulate 
them and to glorify Christ's name. 
Happy the man, who shall be en- 
trusted with this office. The mission 
will redound to your glory. If you 
really desire to send such a person, 




a a 6%eTe eV Xpicrrw 'Irjcrou, a7rr)yye\ri JULOI 
KK\ri(riav Tr\v eV 'AvTto%eia Trjs Cvpias, 
Trpeirov e<rrlv vfjlv, cos 6KK\rj(ria Oeov, -^eLporovn^cti 
ek TO 7rp<r/3evorcu e'fce? Oeov Trpea-fieiav, ets TO 


avrois eirl TO avro 


G; creditis L; al. Ag. 5 /card sec.] GL; om. g; al. A. 8 irptirov] 

txt GLg ; add. o$v S X A (but they alter the former part of the sentence). 
9 SI&KOVOV] GL; ministrum aliquem (unum) S x ; aliquem bonum ministrum A; 
MffKOirov g. 10 0-vyxa.prjvai] GLSjA; ffvyx^pridrjvcti. g. Kal 5oa<rcu] 

GLg; et glorificent S x ; qui glorificant A. 

you will not find it impossible. The 
churches nearest to Syria have sent 
bishops, and others presbyters and 

5. 'ETreidrj K.r.X.] When Ignatius 
wrote his four letters from Smyrna, 
he was still anxious about the 
Church of Antioch, and desired the 
prayers of his correspondents for its 
welfare ; see the note on Ephes. 21. 
By the time that he arrived at Troas 
however, or soon after, he had heard 
that the persecution was ended, and 
in the threeletters written from thence 
he charges his readers to send dele- 
gates to congratulate this church 
on the restoration of peace ; comp. 
Smyrn. 1 1, Polyc. 7. The words Kara 
TTJV K.r.A. are connected, not with 

QTr^yyeXr;, but with flprjvciifiv. 

6. TO. <nr\ayxya\ i.e. 'your Chris- 
tian compassion and love'; comp. 
Philippians i. 8 eViTro&S ivavras v^as 
fv wnXayxyois XpioroC 'irjo-ov (with 
the note). 

7. rfjs Svpias] As in Smyrn. II, 
Polyc. 7. So it is specified also 
Clem. Horn. xi. 36, xii. i : see also 
e.g. C. L G. 3425. The addition 
was not unneeded, though this was 
the principal place bearing the 
name ; for Appian (Syr. 57) relates 
that Seleucus founded (eKricrev) six- 
teen cities which he called 'Ai/rio- 
Xfia after his father, and Steph. Byz. 

s. v. enumerates fourteen bearing the 
name. Ignatius however inserts such 
specifications where there was not 
this reason ; see e.g. Ephes. inscr. 
ev 'E0eVo> TIJS 'Ao-ias-, Smyrn. inscr. 
cv ^pvpvT} rf)s 'Ao-i'a?, with the notes. 
This Antioch, the great Antioch, 
was not unfrequently called T; eVl 
&d<f)vr) (e.g. Strabo xv. i. p. 719, xvi. 
2. p. 749, Joseph. Ant. xvii. 2. i) or 
rj 7rl Ad<f)vr)s (Plut. Vit. Lucull. 21 ; 
comp. Plin. N. H.v. 18 'Epidaphnes 
cognominata') or 17 irpos 
(Hierocl. Synecd. 711) or -q 
Ad(pvrj (Mionnet v. p. 36 sq) or 77 
wept Ad(f)vrjv (Steph. Byz. s. vv. "A/cpa, 
Mepoq) ; but the associations con- 
nected with the grove of Daphne 
would not recommend this designa- 
tion to Ignatius ; see I. p. 41 sq. 

8. TrpeTrof crT\v K.r.A.] See the 
similar directions to the Smyrnaeans 
in Smyrn. n, Polyc. 7. 

9. Qeov Trpeo-fteiav] A similar mes- 
senger is called ^eoTrpeo-jSvr^s Smyrn. 
II, Ofodpopos Polyc. 7. 

10. eVt rd avro cc.r.X.] ' when they 
are assembled together ' in church ; 
comp. 6, and Ephes. 5, 13. The 
Latin translator has merely adopted 
the common Vulgate rendering of 
eVt TO avro m idipsum, but commen- 
tators (e.g. Smith, Jacobson) have 
misapprehended it. 

Kal &>ao-<u] It is possible to cor;- 

2 7 8 


TO ovojua' jjiaKcipios ev Xpia"Tto 'Irjcrov, os 

TT/S TOiavTrjs $LaKOvias* Kat v^els Soa(r6r](r<r6e. 
$e v/uuv OVK eoTTiv d^vvaTOv vTrep ovo/maTO? 
Oeoi)' ok Kai al e<y<yi<TTa eKKXrjo'icu eTre/m^av 67ri- 
(TKOTTOVS, al Se TTpecr/Surepovs Kai SICIKOVOVS. 

i TO 6vo/j.a] GL; add. rov 6eov g; add. domini SjA. X/H<TT 

gA; Irjcrov %/3t<rry GLSj. jcaTatw0?7<reTai] GL; KaTy^ubdrj g. A has a 

future, Si a present. 2 So^affO-rjcreade] GLg; glorificabitis Sjj dub. A. 

3 ] GLg; om. Sjj ^/ A. OUK ftr-ru/] GL; <? est.,.hoc Sjj <w quidquam 

est A ; ou irao-ii' g. 4 /ral at 2yyi<TTa $KK\f)ffla.i\ G ; <?/ quaedam propinquae 

ecclesiae L* (see appx) ; Kai dei al ZyyurTa CKKXycrlai g ; sanctae ecclesiae illae quae Sj ; 

nect these words with either x fl P~ 
rovfjcrai or Trpco'^fixrai or crvy^apfjvai.. 
The first mode of .connexion is re- 
commended by the subsequent clause 
KOI v^els dogao-Qjo-fo-de. The third is 
favoured by the proximity, and pro- 
bably this consideration should pre- 
vail. The second has nothing to 
recommend it. 

1. TO ovofjia] ' the Name ' ; seethe 
note on Ephes. 3. 

KaTaia)drj(rTai] See the note on 
Ephes. 20. 

2. KOL vpels K.r.X.] Perhaps to 
be connected closely with do^ao-ai TO 
ovofjia, the intervening words paicapios 
...SiaKovlas being parenthetical; comp. 

e.g. II 6t9 \6yOV TlpTJS' TlfJLTJ(rl dV~ 

TOVS 6 Kvpios K.r.X. 

3. 6e\ov<nv 8e x.r.X.] 'Where 
there is a will, there is a way.' With 
VTrep oVo/uaros GeoO must be under- 
stood TOTO iroielv, or words to this 

5. at 8e] 'but others,' presuma- 
bly those which were not so near and 
whose bishop could not be spared. 

XI. 'Philo the deacon from Cilicia, 
who is assisting me in the Word, 
and Rhaius Agathopus, who follows 
me from Syria, bear witness to the 
kindly hospitality which they re- 

ceived from you. I am thankful for 
it, and I pray that God may requite 
you. May Christ's grace redeem 
those who treated them otherwise. 
Salutations from the brethren in 
Troas, whence I write to you by the 
hand of Burrhus, whom the Ephe- 
sians and Smyrnaeans have sent with 
me to do honour to me. The Lord 
Jesus Christ in whom they trust will 
do honour to them. Farewell in 
Christ Jesus, our common hope.' 

6. Ilepi de K.r.X.] The persons 
here mentioned had followed in the 
track of Ignatius. They would 
therefore pass through Philadelphia, 
as he had done (see i, 6, 7, with 
the notes). From Philadelphia they 
went to Smyrna, where also they 
were hospitably entertained (Smyrn. 
10). It appears from the language 
of Ignatius to the Smyrnasans, that 
he had already left Smyrna, before 
they arrived. They therefore fol- 
lowed him to Troas. They were 
doubtless the bearers of the good 
news that the persecution at An- 
tioch had ceased. They would pro- 
bably also accompany him further ; 
and, if so, they would be those com- 
panions of Ignatius about whom 
Poly carp enquires, Phil. 13 'et de 





l $6 0/Xft)J/05 TOV 

i ^ \ r IA 

avopos fjLfjiapTVpr]iJLvoVi os 

CL7TO Kl\lKiaS 9 

~ -v ' /^ '" 

i/i/i/ ey Ao'yw t7eoi> I/TH;- 
perel fj.oi y a/ma ' Paiw 'Afc&oiroSt, dvftpi K\KTw 9 os 

sanctae ecclesiae quae A. Peter mann supposes that this reading is to be explained 
by a confusion of r^^VZaJI-D sanctae and r^0lL*^a propinquae. It seems 
quite as likely however that A|~I<M mav have been corrupted from KAIAI, the word 
yyi<rTa being omitted. 6 curb KiXidas avSpbs] GLA; dvdpbs dirb 

KiXiKlas g, 7 Geou] GLA; om. g* (but 1 adds dei). 8 'Pcu'y 

'A7a0o7ro<5t] see the lower note; peu . dyado-nrodi (with the interpunctuation) G; 
reo agathopode L; reo fratre et agathopode A; yalip (or 7011/19) KO! dyado-rrodi g*. 
See also Smyrn. 10, where L, in addition to Ag, inserts the conjunction. 

ipso Ignatio et de his qui cum eo 
sunt [rot? (rvv auro)] quod certius ag- 
noveritis, significate'; see Pearson 
V. 7. p. 171. In the opinion of those 
critics who maintain the genuineness 
of the Antiochene Martyrology, they 
were also the eye-witnesses and nar- 
rators of the saint's voyage and suf- 
ferings ( 7 rourcoi/ avroTrrai yevopevot). 
So for instance Ussher (App. Ign. 
p. 54), Ruinart (Act. Sine. Mart. p. 55, 
Ratisbon. 1859), Smith (p. 42, who 
says, 'vix a quoquam dubitari aut 
potest aut debet'), and many later 
writers. The first person however 
does not commence, as on this hy- 
pothesis it ought, at Troas, but off 
Puteoli ( 5 rj pels) ; see Zahn I.v. A. 
p. 42. 

TOV diaKovov K.r.A.] The Pseudo- 
Ignatius makes him a deacon of 
Tarsus, Tars. IO ao-Tra^erat v/zas 
^i'Xa)i/ o diaKovos vfjLaiv (a letter pur- 
porting to be written from Philippi). 
In the genuine Ignatius, Smyrn. 13, 
he sends a salutation to the Smyrn- 

7- dvdpbs p,fJLapTvpTjn,vov] The 

same phrase is used of the Seven 
in Acts vi. 3. On the meaning of 
HfiapTvpr}fj,(vov see the note on Ephes. 

fv Xoyw Qeov\ i.e. 'the preaching 
of the Gospel/ as e.g. Acts vi. 2 

Ka.Ta\ei\lsavTas TOV \6yov TOV GeoD, 

Col. i. 25 7T\r)pao-ai TOV \oyov TOV 
0eo, Rev. i. 9 8ia TOV \6yov TOV 0eou. 
In the parallel passage Smyrn. 10 
els \6yov Qfov the expression has a 
wholly different sense. Zahn how- 
ever treats the two phrases as equi- 
valent and compares Phil. iv. 17, 

vTn/peret] By doing the work of a 
deacon or attendant; comp. Acts 
xiii. 5 el^ov Se KOL 'ladvvrjv vnrjpeTTjv. 

8. 'Peu<a] I have ventured on 
this correction of the reading for two 
reasons, (i) I have not succeeded 
in finding the proper name Rheus 
elsewhere, whereas Raius (Raiius, 
Rahius) occurs several times Corp. 
Inscr. Lat. II. 1129, 4975 48 , in. 6183, 
V. 4078, and the feminine Raia, C. 
L L. n. 3499, in. 2400, 2502, v. 
973; see also the indices to Vols. 
IX. X. (2) This form explains both 
the readings of the MSS. By a com- 
mon itacism it would become 'Pew, 
as in the MS of Ignatius; by a slight 
corruption, PMOOI for p&icoi, it would 
produce the Taiw of the interpolator's 
text. As Raius is a nomen, and 
Agathopus a cognomen, the com- 
bination is correct. In a Greek 
inscription at Palmyra (C. L G. 4482) 
the name 'Pacuos occurs. 

'A-yatfoVoSi] A common name, more 
especially in the case of slaves and 
freedmen ; see for Greek inscrip- 


a7ro Cvpias JULOL aKO\ov6ei aVoTa^a/zei/os TW /3iw' eft 
HJLapTVpovcnv vfjiiv. Kayco TW Oew ev^apicrTco 
v/maJv, OTI eea(T#e ai/rous, ais KCCI V/ULCIS 6 Kvpios. oi 

i ct7rorad,w'os] GLA; airora^dfjievoi g. i virtp] G; pro LA; Trepi g 

(substituting virtp uv for &TL in the next clause). 4 'Iijerou Xpto-roG] gL; 

TOU irjcrov xp 10 " 1 " ^ G; domini nostri iesu christi A. The reading of G seems to 
have arisen from the accidental omission of Kvpiov y^w, for TOU i-rja-ov xP LffT v can 
hardly stand. 5 ru>v a5eX0wv] GAg ; multorum L. 6 Botfppoi/] 

G ; burrum L ; fiotpyov g (without any v. 1.) ; A has burdum here, as also in 
Ephes. i, Smyrn. 12. Petermann supposes that this is owing to a confusion in 
the Armenian letters for d and g, which closely resemble each other, so that the 

tions, C. /. G. 268, 270, 1380, 2454, 
[2837], 2878, 3847 d, 3977, 4716 d, 
etc ; Wood's Discoveries at Ephesus 
vi. 4 (p. 48); for Latin, C. L L. II. 
2431, 2864, 4463, 4550, in. 633, 1825, 

2113, 3017, SHi, 3959> v - 744, 806, 
1128,1185,1251,6388,610. In C. L 
L. II. 4463 it is connected with other 
familiar names, CVRA . AGATHOPI . 


As an early Christian name it ap- 
pears in the Roman catacombs (de 
Rossi Roma Sotterranea n. p. 47 sq, 
in. p. 286 (?) ; comp. Bull, di Arch. 
Crist. Gennaro 1863), being some- 
times confused with Agapetus. It is 
also used as the name of a con- 
fessor in the Ancient Syrian Mar- 
tyrology, published by Wright in the 
Journal of Sacred Literature, Jan. 
1866 (from a MS itself dated A.D. 412), 
under Nisan (April) 4th. For an 
illustration of the meaning of Aga- 
thopus, comp. August. Ep. 17 ad 
Max. (ii. p. 22) 'Namphanio [a Punic 
proper name] quid aliud significat 
quam boni pedis hominem, i.e. cujus 
adventus afferat aliquid felicitatis, 
sicut solemus dicere, secundo pede 
introisse, cujus introitum prosperitas 
ali qua consecuta sit?', quoted by 
Pearson on Smyrn. 10 (but he 
wrongly calls it an epistle of Maxi- 
mus to Augustine). The meaning 

will account for the frequency of the 
name, as one 'fausti ominis.' Cle- 
ment of Alexandria, Strom, iii. 7 (p. 
538), quotes a letter of the heretic 
Valentinus to one Agathopus. Voss 
(on Smyrn. 10) expressed a belief 
that he is the same person with our 
Agathopus, and defended his opinion 
in his answer to Blondel (see Pear- 
son V. L p. 645 sq, ed. Churton). 
This identification is likewise main- 
tained by Pearson (on Smyrn. 10) 
and by Grabe (Spic. Pair. n. p. 53). 
Chronologically it is quite defensible, 
since Agathopus is apparently a 
young man now, and Valentinus 
flourished within some 20 or 30 
years of Ignatius' death. Moreover 
it would help to explain those anti- 
cipations of Valentinian phraseology 
which we find in Ignatius (see e.g. 
Ephes. inscr., Magn. 8, Trail. I, 
Rom. inscr., 6, 7) ; for it would show 
that Ignatius moved in the same 
circles. The identification therefore 
seems far from improbable. But, the 
name being so common, too much 
stress must not be laid on it. 

In the interpolator's text this per- 
son is divided into two, 'Gaius (for 
Rhaius) and Agathopus,' both here 
&s\&'v&Smyrn. 10. There can be little 
doubt however that this is a mis- 
take; for (i) The addition dvfyl 




Se'avTlES avrovs XvTpwdeitia-av ev TY\ x<*pn~i 'Irj- 
5 (Tov Xpia-Tov. ' A(T7rd(^6Tai vjuids r\ dycnrr} TCOV d$e\(j)u)v 
ev TpwaSt' bQev KUI ypd(pa) v/uuv did Bovppov 

Greek reading underlying this authority would be potpyov. This explanation 
might pass here and in Smyrn. 12, where also g has (Sotpyov ; but it fails to account 
for the reading of A in Ephes. 2, where there is no various reading povpyov in the 
Greek, and where even g has the form in pp (though with some variations in the 
vowels). The true explanation of the Armenian reading in all the three passages 
is that which Petermann himself gives on Ephes. 2 ; that it arises from a confusion 
of the Syriac letters 3 and 1, d and r. The substitution of fiovpyos for povppos, 
here and in Smyrn. 12, has a parallel in the substitution of yaiy for paly just above. 

K.r.X. shows that a single 
person is mentioned; (2) In the 
spurious Ignatian Epistles (Ant. 13, 
Philipp. 15; comp. Tars. 10) only 
two persons are represented as being 
with Ignatius on this journey, <iXo>i> 
Kal ' A.yado7rovs ol diaicovoi. As these 
false letters emanated from the same 
author who interpolated the genuine 
letters, he is inconsistent with him- 
self, unless indeed the Kal, here and 
in Smyrn. 10, crept into his text at 
a later date. It would appear from 
Smyrn. 10 (see the note), that Aga- 
thopus, like Philo, was a deacon, for 
the two are there called fiia/toi/oi 
Xpto-rou (the word probably being 
used in its official sense). The 
Pseudo-Ignatius (11. cc.) is explicit on 
this point. 

1. diroTadfj,evos K.r.X.] l having 
bidden farewell to this lower life 1 \ 
comp. Philo Leg. ad Cai. 41 (n. p. 593) 
iva fu) o (ros 'A-yptTTTray aTrora^rat TW 
/3/G), [Clem. Rom.] ii. 6 Set de r 
TovTcp [ra> al>vi\ aTTora^a/jievo 

[r<5 /ieXXoi/ri] xpa<r0at, with the note. 
For the distinction between fiios the 
lower and o>j) the higher life, see the 
note on Rom. 7. 

2. [jiapTvpovo-iv V/JLIV] i.e. 'bear 
witness to your hospitality': comp. 
3 Joh. 5, 6, fls rovs a8e\cf)ovs Kal 
TOVTO evovs, 01 e pap-ru pr)orav <rov rfj 

3. toy Kal u/ias] i.e. diro8ccrai 
or a7ro8e'curo : comp. Ephes. 2 Kara 
Trdvra /ne dveTravcrfv, <as Kal avrov 6 
Trarrjp 'l^o-oO Xptarov ava^v^at [v. 1. 
ai/a^v^ei], Smyrn. 9 Kara iravra p.f 
dvcTravcrare, Kal vpas 'lr)(rovs Xpioros 
(with the note). See also the note 
on Smyrn. 5 /xaXXoi/ 8e K.T.\. for 
other similar modes of expression. 

ot 8e dTifj,d(ravTs] These were 
doubtless the heretical teachers who 
had opposed Ignatius himself when 
he was in Philadelphia; see above 
6, 7, 8. 

4. XvrpaOeirjcrav] ''be ransomed] 
and set free from this chain of sin, 
in which they are at present bound ; 
see above 8 r^ ^aptrt 'l^o-ou Xpto-roi), 
6s \va-fi d(p' Vfj.tov TrdvTa deo-pov. For 
this word as a theological term com- 
pare (besides the passages in the 
N. T.) Barnab. 14, 19, [Clem. Rom.] 
ii. 17. 

5. 17 dydirri] See the note on 
Trail, i. 

6. 8td Bouppou] He acted as the 
amanuensis of Ignatius. For this 
Burrhus see the note on Ephes. 2, 
and for the meaning of the preposi- 
tion 8ia the note on Rom. 10. 

7rep.(p6evTos] In accordance with 
the wish expressed Ephes. 2 
7rapa^ieli/ai avrov K.r.X, 




<p6evTOs a/ma ejJiOl aVo 'G<pe(ria)v Kat Cimvpvaicov ek 
\d<yov TLfji^. TifJirio-ei avTovs 6 Kvptos '/^(roi/5 XpLcrros, 
ek ov eXirityva-iv crapKi, ^v^y, TrvevjjLan, Trio-Tei, 
dyciTrri, Ojmovoia. eppcoa-Qe ev Xpurra) 'Iticrov, Ty Koivrj 
e\7riSi riJiwv. 5 

GLA ; om. g. 2 ri/^cret auVoi>s] G ; honoret ipsos L ; quos ho- 

norabit A; ods d/xe/t/'eTcu [g]. 6 Kupios] GLg; om. A. 3 e\7r/fou<rw'] 

Gg; sperent L; def. A. crap/c/, ^vxy, Trveu/xari] Lg; corpore et spiritu et mente 

A; crapKl, faxy (om. irvevfj-ari) G. irl<TTeL\ GLg; om. A. 4 X/9t<rr 

'I^trou] GLA; KV/)^ t77crov xP lffT V g- /coi^] GLg; om. A. 5 

txt GL; add. h ayiy irvevfiaTi g; add. gratia vobiscum: amen A. 
There is no subscription in GLA. For g see the Appx. 

1. djro 'E<^>f(7ta)y K.T.X.] Though 
himself an Ephesian, he was the 
joint delegate of both churches ; see 
Smyrn. 12. 

fls \oyov Tigris] l to do me honour] 
els \6yov meaning 'to the account 
of/ 'on the score of; comp. Smyrn. 
10 els \6yov GeoO, and see the note 
on Philippians iv. 1 5. 

2. rtpjo-ei avrovs] This responds to 
the foregoing n^s ; comp. Smyrn. 9 
o Ti/jiMV eViV/coTrov VTTO GeoO 

3. o-apjci, ^v\^y TTvevpaTi] For 
this threefold division of the human 
personality see the notes on i Thess. 
v. 23. The omission of Tn^v/Lwm 
(contracted TIN!) in some authorities 
is easily explained owing to the be- 
ginning of the next word TTI-. 

4. eppo>o-0e] See the note on 
Ephes. 21. 

TT) Koivfj eXTTi'St] See the notes on 
Ephes. i, Magn. n. 





IT would not be possible, even if it were advisable, to discuss the 
notices of Smyrna and the Smyrnaean Church with the same fulness 
which has been aimed at in the introductions to previous epistles. The 
history of a city which struck its roots into the most remote antiquity, 
which claimed Theseus or Tantalus or an Amazon as its founder and 
Homer as its most illustrious child, which has had a continuous au- 
thentic history of twenty-five centuries, and which is at this day the 
most flourishing and populous centre of commerce in the Levant, must 
be too well known to require, and too copious to admit, the scale of 
treatment which seemed suited to Magnesia and Tralles and Phila- 
delphia. Such details moreover, as are necessary to understand the 
position of Christianity in Smyrna at this time, have found their proper 
place in the notice of Polycarp. 

This letter, like the preceding one to the Philadelphians, was written 
from Troas, and probably about the same time. The personnel there- 
fore is the same. Burrhus is again his amanuensis ( 12). Philo and 
Rhaius Agathopus are again mentioned as having received a kindly 
welcome from his correspondents ( 10). Directions are again given 
for the dispatch of a representative to congratulate the Church of Antioch 
( n). But at Smyrna he had made a longer halt, and apparently had 
established more affectionate relations, than at Philadelphia. Hence 
he sends special salutations to certain classes of persons, and to certain 
individuals by name ( 13). 

The main purport of the letter is the condemnation of the same 
Judaic Docetism which he assails elsewhere (see pp. 16, 103, 147 sq, 


242 sq). But whereas in the Philadelphia!! letter it is attacked 
chiefly from its Judaic side, here on the contrary he denounces mainly 
its Docetism ( i 6). Yet at the same time its Judaism appears in- 
cidentally from an allusion to the tuition which these heretics had 
received from the Law and the Prophets ( 5). Their separatism and 
their contentiousness are dwelt upon more fully here than in his 
other letters, and the duty of unity is strenuously enforced in con- 

The following is an analysis of the epistle. 

' IGNATIUS to the CHURCH OF SMYRNA, which abounds in faith and 
love and lacks no spiritual grace ; abundant greeting.' 

<I give glory to Christ who has bestowed so much wisdom on 
you, that ye fully believe in the blood of Christ and are convinced of 
His incarnation, His baptism, His passion. The cross was the standard 
round which Jew and Gentile alike were summoned to rally ( i). These 
things were realities, not phantoms, as some persons, phantom-like 
themselves, imagine ( 2). The Lord appeared to Peter and to the 
disciples after the resurrection. They handled Him. He ate and 
drank with them ( 3). These things I say to warn you. If the life 
and death of Christ were unreal, then my sufferings also are unreal ( 4). 
These heretics have failed to learn from either the Law or the Gospel. 
It is a mockery to praise me, and yet to deny my Lord. I would 
gladly forget the existence of these men ( 5). Even angels will be 
condemned, if they believe not in the blood of Christ. Beware of these 
heretics. They abstain from deeds of love ( 6). They hold aloof from 
the eucharist of the Church. Yet love only is life. Shun them there- 
fore, and avoid dissension ( 7). Obey your bishop. The bishop is 
the centre of the individual congregation, as Christ is the centre of the 
universal Church. The bishop is the fountain-head of all authority 
( 8). Be wise in time. May God requite you for your kindness to 
me (9). I thank you also for your welcome of Philo and Agathopus. 
God will reward you ( 10). The Church of Antioch at length has 
peace. Send ye a delegate to rejoice with them. This will be a 
worthy work ; and it is within your reach ( n).' 

' Salutations from Troas. Burrhus, your representative, is my amanu- 
ensis. I salute your bishop, your clergy, your laity (12). I salute 
the families of the brethren, and the holy widows. Philo sends salu- 
tations. I salute Gavia and Alee and Daphnus. Farewell ( 13).' 



'IFNATIOC, 6 Kai 9eo00|005, KK\rj(ria Oeov Tra- 
Tpos Kai TOV riyaTrrj/mevov ' lrj(rov Xpi(TTOv, 
TravTi papier /mar i, TreTrXripco/ULevr] ev TTLcrrei Kai 
dvv(TT6priT(t) ovcrrj TravTOs ^ap/OT/crros, 6eo7rpe7rea"raTr] 

TTPOC CMyPNAIOyc] TOV aytov lyvaTiov ^TTICTTO <r/j.vpvalots (numbered a in the 
marg.) G; TOV avTov eiruTToKri irpbs (r/j.vpvaiovs g*; ad smyrnaeos A; item alia epistola 
sancti ignatii martyris qiii vocatur theophorus, quod est qui fert deum, qiiam scripsit 
ad smyrnaeos (numbered j8 in the marg.) C. For L see the Appx. i 6 /cat] 

6 (om. Kai) C ; for the other authorities see Ephes. inscr. Qeo(p6pos] txt GLAg ; 

add. quiscribitC. 9eou Trarpds] txt GLAC; add. v\f/iaTov g. 2 17701- 

GL; add. utoO avTov gAC. 

endowed with.' For the construction 
and meaning see Philad. 5 eV <a 
KXr/pw ij\ijdr)v (with the note). Comp. 

also I Cor. vii. 25 CDS JJXer/fteVos V7TO 
Kvpiov TTIO-TOS flvai, Ign. Rom. 9 r)Xe- 
7^/iai rts- eiVat. 

3. e'i> Trio-ret K.r.X.] For this pre- 
position with ir\r]povv see Ephes. v. 
1 8, Col. i. 9, and perhaps Ephes. i. 
23. With rr\r]po<popflv it is more 
common ; see the note, Colossians 
iv. 12. For the connexion TriWet /cat 
0707177 see the note on Ephes. i. 

4. di/vo-rep?7ra> K.r.X.] Probably sug- 
gested by i Cor. i. 7 Jo-re v/xas jiuy 
V(TTfpelo~6ai ev fjLTjd^vl ^apiV/tan ; comp. 
Polyc. 2 ii/a fjLrjdevos XeiTTiy /cai Travros 
Xapi(Tfj.aTos Trepicrcrevys. The word 
aVuo-Tepj/roy, though a very obvious 
form, is not very common. 

tfeoTrpeTreoraTT;] See the note on 
Magn. I. 

SMYRNA, which is of God the Father 
and His beloved Son, and through 
His mercy abounds in faith and 
love, being deficient in no spiritual 
gift ; greeting in a pure spirit and in 
the word of God.' 

2. TOV rjya7rr)p.evov] ( The beloved] 
or 'His belovec? ; comp. Ephes. i. 6 
f^apircoo-ei/ THJLO.S fv r<5 TJyaTTT)p.fV(o. So 
too Barnab. 3 v *?Tot/za<rez> ev TCO 
TJya7rr)[j.ev(j) avTov, ib. 4 ti/a Taxvvrj 6 
r)ya7rr)fjLvos avrov, T/ roO yyanrifjievov 
'irjo-ov [dta^Ki;], Clem. Rom. 59 rou 
qyaTrrjjjLevov TratSos avroO, TOV tfyaTrr)- 
pevov traidos a-ov. This title 'Dilec- 
tus' is the common designation of 
the Messiah in the Ascensio Isaiae, 

e-g- i. 4, 5,7, 13, "i- i3> '7, 18, iv. 3, 
6, etc. 

rj\rjp.fVT] v\ 'having been pitied 
in,' i.e. 'having in God's mercy been 



dyicKpopco, Trj ova~ri kv Cjuivpvr] Ttjs 'Acrias, iv dj 

al Xoya) Oeov TrXeTcrTa -^aipeiv. 
I. Ao^d^co 'Irjcrovv XpKTTOv TOV Qeov TOV oi/rws 
(ro<pi<T 'avr a' evoricra yap v/uidv KaTripTKr/mevovs eV 

GLCg; fide A. Xcryy] txt GLAg; add. sancto (app.) C 

(having transposed 0eoC and connected it with irvevfiaTi). 3 Aodfw] LA 

Cg Sev-Syr i\ do&fav G. 'Ir)<rovv XpiffTW rbv Qebv rbv /c.r.X.] GL 

Sev-Syr (comp. Ephr-Ant); iesum christum qui etc. (om. TOV 6ebv) AC; rbv debv 
Kal Trartpa TOV KvpLov TJ/J.UI' 'I. X. Tbv 5t' aurou /c.r.X. g. oilrws] GACg Sev- 

i. ayto<popa>] l ferax sanctorum] 
says Pearson. The analogy of other 
Ignatian compounds however, such 
as faotyopos, xpio"ro(opoy, vaofyopos, 
etc, points to another meaning, 'car- 
rying holy things/ rather than ' pro- 
ducing holy men.' See the notes on 
Oeo<f)6pos Ephes. inscr., and on eVre 
ovv K.T.X. Ephes, 9 (in which last 
passage the word ayio<p6pos itself oc- 
curs), for this metaphor derived from 
religious processions. The 'sacred 
vessels,' which the Church of Smyrna 
bears, are its Christian graces and 

"2fj.vpvr]] For the form of this word 
see the note on Polyc. inscr. 

TTJS 'Ao-i'as] On this specification 
see the notes Ephes. inscr., Trail. 
inscr., Philad. inscr. It was not 
wanted in this instance to distin- 
guish the place from any other bear- 
ing the same name. A part of 
Ephesus was indeed called Smyrna 
at one time, but this name no 
longer remained, when Ignatius wrote 
(Strabo xiv. i, p. 633 sq) ; and more- 
over Ephesus itself was equally in 

eV d/ia)/ia> K.r.X.] Comp. 
Ephes. inscr. n-Xt Tora eV 'if/troD Xpio-rw 
KOI fv afjL<ap,(o x a P? X a W lv i R m ' inscr. 
TrXeiora eV *Ir)(rov Xpiara) r&) 0e<u Ty/ncoz/ 
ipeii/. The words ev a/uo/ia> 

. therefore are to be attached to 

what follows. On aVw/Aw see the note 
Ephes. inscr. 

2. Xoya) 0eov] Regarded here as 
an inward monitor; comp. i Joh. i. 10, 
ii. 14, and see the note on Colossians 
iii. 1 6. 

TrXetora ^alpiv\ See the note 
Ephes. inscr. 

I. 'I give glory to Christ who has 
bestowed this wisdom upon you. I 
perceive that your faith is steadfast, 
being nailed to the Cross, and that 
your love is firm in the conviction 
of Christ's blood. Ye believe that 
Christ was truly born of a virgin, 
was truly baptized, was truly nailed 
to the Cross. From the fruit of this 
tree we are sprung. Through His 
resurrection God has held up a 
standard to Jew and Gentile alike, 
that all may flock to it, and be united 
in the one body of His Church.' 

3. Aoao>] The finite verb is 
here adopted in preference to the 
participle, both because the great 
preponderance of authority is in its 
favour, and because the variation is 
very slight (&>aco, 8oaa>); comp. 
Polyc. I ^7repSo|a{|a>. It is quite pos- 
sible however that Aoao>i/ is right 
and that we have here again an 
anacoluthon (the sentence being in- 
terrupted by a succession of subor- 
dinate clauses and never finished), as 
in Ephes. I 'AiroSf dp,evos K.r.X., Rom. 




5 ctKivrfTto Trio'Teiy wcTTrep 

e TO) a"ravpw TOV 

Kvpiov 'lt](roi) XpicrTOv, crapKi re KCLI Trvev/ULaTi, 
ev CL^CLTTY] ev TW at/mciTi XpicrTOv, 

Syr; om. L (but see Appx). 4 ycip] GLCg Sev-Syr ; om. A. 5 TOV 

'Kvpiov] txt GCg* (but Gk MSS add. ^uwv); add. nostri L[A][Sev-Syr] (but the two 
last are valueless, since the addition is always made in the Syriac). 6 KO.\ 

sec.] GL[A]g Sev-Syr; om. C. 7 Xpurrof] G; TOV xpwrou g. 

^I evgdpevos K.r.X. ; see the notes 
on both passages. 

TOV Qeov TOV K.r.X.] 'the God who 
thus made you wise.' 1 For reasons 
which are explained in the note on 
Ephes. inscr., TOV Qew must be 
closely connected with the words 
following. Ignatius does not appear 
ever to call Jesus Christ God abso- 
lutely. Ephraim of Antioch, quoted 
by Photius (Bibl. 229, p. 258), refers 
to this passage, KOI 6 6eo<p6pos 8e 

'lyVClTlOS KOI jJLapTVS, 2/AUpJ>CUOlS 67TI- 

OTeXXo>i/, 6p.oi<i>s Ke^pqrai rw ap^pa> 
(i.e. uses the article with Gedy, when 
speaking of our Lord); but the in- 
ference to be drawn from the pre- 
sence of the article is somewhat 
modified by the additional words TOV 
OVTUS K.r.X. Though the words TOP 
Qeov are wanting in two important 
authorities, they seem to be genuine, 
as they are appealed to by two 
fathers. The omission would be easy 
owing to the repetition of similar 

ovTas (ro(pt(rai>ra] ' 'made you 
thus ivisej as described in the open- 
ing salutation. For the expression 
comp. 2 Tim. iii. 15 ra 8vvdp,evd o~f 
0-o<piVai K.r.X. See also Ps. xviii 
(xix). 8, civ (cv). 22, cxviii (cxix). 

4. eVoj/o-a] */ perceived, when I 
was staying among you.' 

KaTTjpTto-fjLevovs] ' settled* ; see the 
note on Ephes. 2. 


Comp. Philad. \,Polyc. 

to<T7rep Katfj/Xto/zei/ovs] Col. ii. 14 
Trpoo~r)\ao~as avTo rw oraupai. For the 
metaphor see Gal. ii. 20 Xptorw <rw- 
fo-Tavpcofj,ai (comp. vi. 14), Rom. J 6 
epos eptos eVravpcorat. Here however 
the 'nailing fast on the Cross' im- 
plies especially a firm belief in the 
reality of the crucifixion, as opposed 
to the theories of Docetism; comp. 
Polyc. Phil. 7 os av /LH) 6/ioXoy^ TO 
papTvpiov TOV o-Tctvpov. See also 
Trail. 1 1 e(paivovro av K\ddoi TOV 
oravpov, Ephes. 1 8 TrepH^^a TO efiov 
7rvvp.a TOV (TTavpov, Philad. 8 ra 
aBiKTa apxfia o oravpos- UVTOV (with 
the note), where under different 
images the necessity of this belief is 
enforced. For *v with Kadr)\ovo~6ai 
comp. e.g. Arist. Ran. 618 ev K\ifj.a<i 
8ij<ras. So the Latin 'figere in cruce, 
in parietibus.' 

6. o-apKt re K.r.X.] For this fa- 
vourite Ignatian phrase see the note 
on Ephes. 10. 

7- ijo'pao'nevovs ev] For the con- 
struction see Philad. inscr. (note). 

ev TW m/zart] This again implies 
a belief in the reality of the passion ; 
see the note on Philad. inscr. 

7reTT\r]po<f)oprjiJ.evov9 K.r.X.] ^ having a 
full conviction with respect to our 
Lord as being truly descended from 
David etc' For the different mean- 
ings of 7r\T)po(pope1v see the note on 
Colossians iv. 1 2. 



ek TOV Kvpiov rj/uLcov d\r]6ws OVTO. K yevovs 
AaveiS KdTa o~dpKa, viov Oeov KCLTO, 6e\rjiu.a KO.I Svva/uLiv, 
yeyevvrj/ULevov dXrjBcos e'/c Trapdevov, /3e/3a7rTicriui6vov VTTO 

txt GC Theodt Sev-Syr ; add. lrj<rovv %/3t0ToV gLA. d\?70ws] 

GL Theodt (after Treir^po^oprjuevovs, Schulze) Sev-Syr; ws dX^^ws g (trans- 
posing it and placing it after TreirX'rjpo^oprjfj.hovs) ; vere C (connecting it with 
ireir\'r)po(j>op'r)[jievovs) ; om. A. 2 Aaveid] Sad GC. 6'e\rnj.a] GLC 

Sev-Syr ; naturam A ; QeoT-rjTa. Theodt ; def. g. dtvafj.iv] txt A Theodt ; 

add. 0eov GLC Sev-Syr; def. g: see the lower note. 3 yeyevvr)^- 

vov] Theodt (Schulze); qui natus est A Sev-Syr; gentium LC ; yeyevyutvov G; 
def. g. d\t)6s] not omitted in A, as stated by Zahn, who is misled by 

1. eic yevovs AaueiS] See the note 
on Ephes. 18. 

2. viov 6eo5] For the same an- 
tithesis comp. Ephes. 20 (with the 
note). See esp. Rom. i. 3 TOV yevo- 
pevov K o-TTf pharos AaveiS Kara 
o~apKa } TOV 6pi(r6evTO$ viov Qeov fv 
dwdfjiei, which passage Ignatius 
doubtless had in his mind. 

OeXrjfjLa] l the Divine iviW ; see the 
note on Ephes. 20. Again dvvap.iv 
is used absolutely, as in Rom. i. 3 
just quoted. The addition of OeoO in 
the common texts is a transcriber's 
expedient, owing to ignorance of this 
absolute use of 0<fA7/u.a. Theodoret 
strangely substitutes dforrjra for Qi- 
\rjpa. This reading again may be 
due in part to the same ignorance. 
The Armenian translator likewise 
has substituted another word. See 
Justin Dial. 61 (p. 284) OTTO TOV 
Trarpoy 6f\r)crfi ycyfvvf)o-6ai compared 
with ib. 128 (p. 358) yfyevv^a-Bai airo 
TOV TraTpbs o~vvdp.i Koi (3ov\fj avTov, 
Tatian ad Graec. 5 Qik^an de TTJS 
aTrXoTrjTos avTov Trpomjoa \6yos com- 
pared with ib. 6 \6yos TrpoeA&oi' e/c 
T^- TOV TrciTpos 8wafji.(i}s, passages 
quoted by Pearson. 

3- yeyevvrjfjLevov] So we must 
certainly read with Theodoret (as 
printed by Schulze, but Sirmond 
has yfyvrjp,fvov), as e. g. Justin Dial. 
66 (p. 291) K TTapBevov yeyevvrjTai : 

comp. Ephes. 18 os 

;, Trail. 90$ a\r)6a>s tycv- 
This word should probably 
be read also in Hippol. Haer. vii. 38, 
where the MS has TOVTOV 8e OVK e< 
TrapQevov yyfvr/o-6at. For the mean- 
ing of yfyevvrj/jifvov, ' born] see the 
note on Ephes. 18. 

4. Iva. nXrjpcadf) K.r.A.] According 
to Matt. iii. 15 ouro> yap TrpeVov eVrii' 
rjfjuv trXrjpwo'ai 7rao~av diKaioo'vi>r)v. No- 
thing is said respecting the motive 
of Jesus in coming to baptism in 
the other Canonical Gospels. On 
the other hand the Gospel of the 
Hebrews, which Ignatius is supposed 
to quote below 3, gave an account 
of the matter which is inconsistent 
with this motive; Hieron. c. Pelag. 
iii. 2 (n. p. 782) 'In Evangelio juxta 
Hebraeos ... narrat historia ; Ecce 
mater Domini et fratres eius dice- 
bant ei ; loannes Baptista baptizat 
in remissionem peccatorum ; eamus 
et baptizemur ab eo. Dixit autem 
eis : Quid peccavi ut vadam et bap- 
tizer ab eo? nisi forte hoc ipsum 
quod dixi ignorantia est.' In the 
Praedicatio Pauli also it is said that 
Christ 'ad accipiendum loannis bap- 
tisma paene invitum a matre sua 
Maria esse compulsum,' Retract, de 
Bapt. 17 (Cyprian. Op. III. p. 90-, ed. 

5. liovriov JltAarov] For the reason 


'Iwdvvov 'iva nAHpcoen TTACA AIKAIOCYNH VTT CCVTOV, d\q- 
5 6cos 7ri riovTLOV Fli\aTOV Kcu c HpwSov TCTpap^ov KaOrj- 
VTrep rfiucov ev crap/cr d<p' ov KapTrov ^/zels djro 

Petermann's translation. 5 ka.QyXwfj.frov] GL Theodt ; Kadr)\oj/j.^vov g* 

(some authorities); dub. AC Sev-Syr. 6 ev] GLC(?)g; om. Theodt; 

dub. Sev-Syr. As A is derived from the ambiguous Syriac, it has no authority on 
this point. icapirov] GLAC Sev-Syr (not Kapiruit, as Zahn ; for the word 

K")KQ is veiy commonly used in the plural, as a rendering of Kapiros : see the 
note on Trail, n, p. 176); K.a.1 g. ^us] GLC ; add. evptv g. 

of this specification see the note on 
Magn. ii. Here the date is still 
further defined by the mention of 

'HpoiSov rerpapxov] The part taken 
by Herod is mentioned by S. Luke 
alone in the Canonical writings; 
Luke xxiii. 712, 15, Acts iv. 27. 
This Herod Antipas is called 'te- 
trarch' also in Matt. xiv. i, Luke iii. 
19, ix. 7, Acts xiii. i, to distinguish 
him from his predecessor Herod the 
Great who is o /3ao-iAevy (Matt. ii. I, 
comp. Luke i. 5), and from his suc- 
cessor Herod Agrippa who is also 
o jSacriXevy (Acts xii. i). The absence 
of the definite article however before 
the word obliges us to translate eVi... 
{ Hpa>'5ov rerpap^ov 'before Herod as 
tetrarch/ or more probably 'when 
Herod was tetrarch' ( = Tfrpap^ovvros 
...'HptoSov Luke iii. i). 

6. a<p' ov KapTrov] ''from which fruit"* \ 
comp. Tertull. adv. Jnd. 13 'Et lig- 
num, inquit, attulit fructum suum[Joel 
ii. 22], non illud lignum in paradiso 
quod mortem dedit protoplastis, sed 
lignum passionis Christi, unde vita 
pendens etc/ The Cross is regarded 
as a tree (uAoi/) ; comp. Trail. 1 1 
e(paivovTO av K\d8oi rov oravpov Kal r\v 
av 6 Kapnos avroJv a(p6apros. The 
symbolism of the tree of life planted 
in paradise, as referring to the Cross 
of Christ, dates from a very early 
time; Justin Martyr Dial. 86 (p. 
312 D), Clem. Alex. Strom, v. n (p. 

689 sq) aXXrjyopwv o MGJVO^S 

fafjs uv6fj,a(Tv ev TO) TrapaSeicrw nefpv- 

TVfJ.(VOV. ..V TOVTO) O AoyO? TJvdj](TV T 

KOL KapTro(f>6p^crfv crap yevop-evos at 
TOVS yevcrafjLwovs rfjs ^p^o-ror^rof av- 
TOV fo)O7roir]O'V ) eVet fj.rj8e ai/ev rov 
v\ov fls yv&viv TI\UV dcplKTai. This 
application of the tree of life would 
probably be made by Papias ; comp. 
Anastas. Sinait. Hexaem. vii. (p. 961 
Migne), and see Contemporary Re- 
view, October 1875, p. 844. Similarly 
Melito saw a reference to the Cross 
in the tree of Gen. xxii. 13, Fragm. 

12 (p. 418 Otto) (frvrov 2a/3e'/c, TOVT- 
etrriv a(pe(Tfa>ff, Ka\(rf rov oravpoV, 
and Clem. Alex. (Strom. 1. c. p. 690) 
so applies also the gv\ov fafjs (which 
however he quotes SeVSpoi/ aOava.<rias} 
in Prov. iii. 18. If the reading <ap- 
TTOV be correct, Christ Himself seems 
to be regarded as the fruit hanging 
upon the tree ; and a(p' ov Kapnov is 
further explained by OTTO rov Qeopa- 
Kapia-Tov avrou nadovs. We may be 
said to spring from that fruit, inas- 
much as the taste of it gives us life ; 
see Clem. Alex. 1. c. The Latin 
translator renders d<p y ov Kapnov a 
cujusfructu, which Pearson explains 
'ligni quod hie subintelligitur,' taking 
vXou to be the antecedent of ov. 
But it is more naturally rendered 
a quo fructu. Zahn takes the same 
construction as Pearson, but makes 
Xpio-rov the antecedent of ov. The 
clause dcj> ov...7rd6ovs must be taken 

19 2 


TOI)S aiwvas 

TOV OeofULaKapicrTOV CIVTOV Tradovs* 'Iva <'pH CYCCHMON eJs 
Sid Trjs dvacrTacrecos ek TOVS dyiovs KO.I 
avrouy eiVe ev 'lovfiaiois e'/re ev eOvecriv, ev evi 
rjs e/c/cA^cnas CLVTOV. 
II. TavTa yap jrdvra eiraQev $i fj/xas iva (rcodco- 5 

] g; divine beatissima L (i.e. Beo/jiaKaplarov, the word having been 
mistaken for a superlative); Beo/uaKaplrov G; dub. A Sev-Syr; beati (/ut,a.Kaptov) C. 
3 efre ev...elre ei>] gC ; ft/re ev...evre ev G\ et in L. ej/i] GLAg 

Sev-Syr; om. C. 5 y&p] GLg Sev-Syr; om. CA (but supplied in the 

marg.). Iva. o-w0c3/Aej>] GL Sev-Syr ; ad vivificandum nos A (but in the marg. 

ut salvemur) ; om. C[g]. 6 ws] GLCg ; om. A (but it omits the context 

e-n-adev o5s KO! dX^oJs owing to homoeoteleuton) Sev-Syr. dvtffTrjvev eaurov] 

GL Sev-Syr; weary g (but below it adds 6 Xcfyos rbv eavrov>ecrTi]<rev); 

as parenthetical, so that Iva apy is 
connected with the preceding sen- 
tence. The punctuation in the com- 
mon editions (Cureton, Jacobson, 
Hefele, Dressel) is wrong. 

I. dfopaKapLo-Tov] Comp. Polyc. 
7. The word occurs also Method. 
de Sym. et Ann. 5 (p. 107 Jahn) /za- 
(TV ev yevfois yvvaiKoiv 
The other form 

is worse supported and is exposed 
to a double objection, as a aira Af- 
yo/Mei/oi/, and as being somewhat out 
of place here (since /zaKapm/s is used 
of the blessed dead). Zahn retains 
it and endeavours to justify it as a 
transference from the dead to the 

apy crwrtrrfpav] i raise an ensign 
aloft.' 1 The reference is to Isaiah 
xlix. 22, Ixii. 10 (comp. v. 26), where 
the LXX has alpeiv o-va-arrjuov to 
describe the raising of Jehovah's 
standard in Jerusalem, about which 
(in the prophet's image) men should 
rally from all parts of the earth. 
Ignatius sees the fulfilment of this 
in Christ's resurrection. Hence the 
words fi're fv 'louSatois eire ev edvecrtv, 
which follow; for the gathering of 
the Gentiles is a prominent feature 
in the context of the evangelical pro- 

phet. Jerome says on Is. v. 26 (Op. 
iv. p. 88), 'Legi in cujusdam com- 
mentariis, hoc quod dicitur Levabit 
signum in nationibus procul et sibi- 
labit ad eum de finibus terrae de 
vocatione gentium debere intelligi, 
quod elevato signo crucis et deposi- 
tis oneribus peccatorum velociter 
venerint atque crediderint.' The 
commentator to whom Jerome al- 
ludes is probably, as Pearson sug- 
gests, Origen. There is nothing of 
the kind in Eusebius. But the idea 
seems to have been present to the 
mind of Lactantius Div. Inst. iv. 26. 
There is perhaps a reference to this 
same prophetic image of a standard 
in John xii. 32 Kayat eav v\l/-codu> etc 
rfjs yfjs, TTctvTas eXKvcra) jrpos e/xaurov. 
The expression aipeiv o-vaa-rjpov OC- 
curs also Diod. Sic. xi. 22, 61, xx. 
51. The word a-va-a-rjfjiov, which sig- 
nifies properly 'a concerted signal' 
(Diod. Sic. XX. 51 TO a-vy<eifj.evov... 
o-vo-a-rjuov, comp. Mark xiv. 44), was 
used even by Menander, who how- 
ever is roundly scolded by Phrynichus 
for the solcecism (ed. Lobeck, p. 418). 
There is mention of the i vexillum 
crucis' in Fragm. 5 of the passages 
ascribed to Polycarp by Victor of Ca- 
pua. The word rpoTraiov is frequently 



jULev~\* Kai d\rj6cos eTraQev, cos Kai d\r]6cos dvecTTna-ev 
eavTov ov-% uxTTrep aTTKTToi Tives \eyovcriv TO o/ce2V 
avTov TreTTOvOevaL, avTOi TO So/cetV oWes* Kai KaOcos 
(ppovovcriv, Kai (rviuL/SrjcreTai avTols, ovcrtis acrw/iarofs 


resurrexit a mortuis A ; resurrexit C. 7 TO doKeli>] G ; T$ SoKeiv g (some 

MSS) ; secundum videri L. And so again just below. A has opinione in the first 
passage, and opinio in the second. 8 auroV Treirovdtvai] GLA ; 

[g]; al. C. /cal] GLA; om. C; al. g. p, CUTW/XCITOIS /cat 

GL ; daemonia sine cor pore C ; incorporei sicut daemones A ; al. g. 

used by Athanasius of the cross or 
crucifixion of Christ (see the note 
on the Festal Letters p. 97, Oxf. 
transl), as well as by later fathers. 
This image would gain currency 
through the Labarum of Cons tan- 
tine ; but it appears before his time, 
as the passage of Methodius p. 103 
(referred to by Zahn) shows, and 
indeed might be suggested by Col. 
ii. 15. The conjectural reading a-va- 
o-wnov, which is adopted by Bunsen, 
destroys the point of the expression. 

3. TTKTTOVS] The Docetae, who 
denied the reality of the Cross, did 
not fall under this category ; see the 
note on O.TTKTTOI. 2. 

eV eVi o-to/ian] Doubtless a remi- 
niscence of S. Paul's teaching, Ephes. 
ii. 1 6 GTroKaraXXa^Ty TOVS dp-fporepovs 
ev ei>i o-cojLiari r<a 6e< 6ta roG 
o-ravpoO (where also the context, 
ver. 1 8, contains a reference to the 
evangelical prophet, Is. Ivii. 19), iii. 
6 elvai TO. edvr)...crv(ro-(t>iJ.a, iv. 4 ev 
(ro5/Lia Kai ev 7n>ev/ia, etc. j COmp. 
Hermas Sim. ix. 18 ecrrat / fKK\rja-ia 
TOV Qeov ev creS/ua. And for the exact 
expression see Col. i. 18 roO o-wparos 
TJ/S KK\r)a-ias (comp. ver. 24, Ephes. 
i. 23, iv. 12 sq, v. 23, 29, 30). The 
corresponding part of the image, 
/ueX^, appears in Ephes. 4, Trail, ii. 
Pearson writes on eVi o-w/iari, 'Hie 
usus erat signi militaris, ut collige- 

rent se et in unum congregarent, si 
quando erant dispersi aut dissipati.' 

II. 'He thus suffered for our 
salvation. His passion and His re- 
surrection were realities, and not 
phantoms, as some think. To such 
persons it shall happen according to 
their thoughts ; for they are unreal 
and visionary.' 

6. dve<TTT]<rev CCIVTOV] This is dif- 
ferent from the language of the N. T., 
where Christ is always said to be 
raised by the Father. Accordingly 
the interpolator has substituted aVe- 
0-T77, as Jacobson points out. Below, 
7, the doctrine is stated in the 
scriptural way, o-dpKo. elvai TOV o-co- 

TTJpOS...r)V T7J XprjVTOTTJTl 6 

7. aTTio-rot] He calls the Doce- 
ta? unbelievers, because they denied 
the reality of Christ's humanity; 
comp. also below 5 ra Sc oVo^ara 
avTOiv OVTO, airicrra K.T.\. See the note 
on Trail. 10, where they are likewise 
so called. 

8. avrol TO doKflv K.r.X.] See the 
note on Trail. 10, where similar lan- 
guage is used. 

9. Kai trufi/37/o-erai] 'so shall it 
happen? For instances of /mi in the 
apodosis answering to as (nadus) in 
the protasis comp. e.g. Gal. i. 9, Phil. 
i. 20, i Joh. ii. 1 8, and see Winer 
liii. p. 548 sq, A. Buttmann p. 311. 


III. 'Gyo! yap Kai /UL6Ta Trjv dvacTTaa'iv eV crapKi 

i y&p] GL Theodt; 8 C[g] Euseb; atqui A. i olda] GLCAg 

Euseb Theodt ; vidi L (prob. a mistranslation rather than a v. 1. eldov, since 

The passage is wrongly punctuated 
in the common editions. For the 
sense comp. [Clem. Rom.] ii. i eV 
rw yap (ppovelv piKpa ircpl avrov, p,i<pa 
Kai e\Triop,v Xa/SeTf. 

do-tapdrois /e.r.X.] 'being unsubstan- 
tial and phantom-like] in their opin- 
ions : comp. Hieron. Comm. in Jsai. 
xviii. (Op. IV. p. 774) 'nee daemonia 
subsistant, quia jam a Deo qui vere 
est exciderunt, nee sectae haereti- 
corum, quae nullam retinent verita- 
tem, sed in umbrarum similitudinem 
transeunt et intereunt,' where there 
is a similar comparison. For Sai/uoi/- 
iKols see the note on &aip,6viov 3. 
In do-oo/xaroif there is possibly an 
allusion to the creo/ua r^s facXtyerfaf 
(at the end of i) in which they have 
no part. The two adjectives are 
chosen with a view to the daipoviov 
do-top-arov in the narrative which 
follows. The word daipovucos occurs 
in Athenag. Suppl. 25, Clem. Alex. 
Strom, vi. 12 (p. 789), as well as in 
Plutarch. Pearson distinguishes be- 
tween daip,oviKo$ ( = Saifj.ovicc>dr]s) and 
daip,oviaKos ( = daip.ovia6p,i>os). The 
distinction is fundamentally just, but 
the one sense frequently runs into 
the other. 

III. 'I myself am convinced that 
He was still incarnate even after the 
resurrection. He told Peter and his 
companions to handle Him and as- 
sure themselves that He was not a 
phantom. They did so. They were 
convinced, and in this conviction 
they despised death. Nay, He even 
ate and drank with them in the flesh, 
though in the spirit He was one with 
the Father.' 

i. rat fjLfra K.r.X.] i.e. 'not only 
during His natural life, of which they 

deny the reality, but even after His 
resurrection? See the irony of Ter- 
tull. de Cam. Chr. 5 'Fuit itaque 
phantasma etiampost resurrectionem, 
cum manus et pedes suos discipulis 
inspiciendos offert, Aspicite, dicens, 

eV <rapKt K.T.X.] '/ know and be- 
lieve Him to be in the flesh? For 
olda KOI 7rio-T6uo) comp. Rom. xiv. 14 
olda Kai 7re7Tt(r/iat. Jerome (Vir. 111. 
1 6), clearly deriving the quotation at 
second hand from Eusebius and re- 
ferring the passage by inadvertence 
to the Epistle to Poly carp, translates 
'in carne eum vidi et credo quia sit,' 
as if it were etSoi/, and evidently sup- 
poses that Ignatius had seen our 
Lord in the flesh. Similarly the 
Latin Version here 'in carne ipsum 
vidi et credo existentem.' This in- 
terpretation would be encouraged by 
the story, built upon a misinterpre- 
tation of Qeofpopos (see on Ephes. 
inscr.), that he was the child whom 
our Lord blessed. Chrysostom dis- 
tinctly states the opposite, Horn, in 
S. Ign. 4 (II. p. 599) TOV ov8f ecopa- 
Kora avrov ov5e dnoXeXavKOTa avrov 
r^s o-wovarias. Pearson conjectured 
that the false interpretation arose 
from John xx. 8 Kai elfev /cat eVt- 

2. Kai ore K.r.X.] The reference 
is plainly to the same incident which 
is related in Luke xxiv. 36 sq ; see 
esp. vv. 38, 39 C&OKOVV irvevpa deapelv, 
Kai fiirev avrols...tyr)\a(pijo'aT /JLC Kai 
i'Sere, on irvevp,a aapKa Kai oore'a OVK 
e'x* 1 ) KaQas cue $ea>petre e'^oPTa. The 
words however, in which it is told, 
are different. Eusebius (H. E. iii. 
36) is at a loss to say from what 
source this incident was taken (OVK 




KCtl TTlCTTeVh) 

Jerome so translates the oTSct of Euseb). 
modo (OVTWS) C ; dominum A. 

o?' oTrodev prjTois orvyKe'xp^rcu). Je- 
rome however states that it was 
taken 'de evangelio quod nuper a 
me translatum est,' i.e. the Gospel 
to which he has referred before in 
the same treatise, 'evangelium quod 
appellatur secundum Hebraeos, et 
quod a me nuper in Graecum Lati- 
numque sermonem translatum est, 
quo et Origenes saepe utitur' (Vir. 
III. 2), and which at this time he 
was disposed to regard as the ori- 
ginal Hebrew of S. Matthew ; * Ip- 
sum Hebraicum [Matthaei] habetur 
usque hodie in Caesariensi biblio- 
theca quam Pamphilus martyr stu- 
diosissime confecit ; mihi quoque a 
Nazaraeis, qui in Beroea urbe Syriae 
hoc volumine utuntur, describendi 
facultas fuit ' ( Vir. III. 3) ; though 
afterwards he spoke less confidently 
on this point ; in Matt. xii. 13 'quod 
vocatur a plerisque Matthaei authen- 
ticum' (Op. vn. p. 77) ; c. Pelag. iii. 2 
'in Evangelio^rfa J&frvzidr. . .siveut 
plerique autumant, juxta Matthaeum, 
quod et in Caesariensi habetur biblio- 
theca' (Op. II. p. 782). In another 
passage also Comm. in Isai. xviii. 
praef. (Op. IV. p. 770) he writes 
'quum enim apostoli eum putarent 
spiritum, vel, juxta evangelium quod 
Hebraeorum lectitant Nazaraei, in- 
corporale daemonium, dixit etc.' But 
this statement, though thus repeated 
and explicit, is attended with diffi- 
culties ; for (i) Eusebius was well 
acquainted with the Gospel accord- 
ing to the Hebrews. There was a 
copy preserved in his own city, 
Caesarea, in the library which had 
been collected by his friend Pamphi- 
lus, was probably attached to his 
own Church or palace, and certainly 


Kat ore trpos TOVS Trepi 

6vra\ GLg Euseb Theodt ; hoc 

was habitually used by him ; and 
he makes it his business to record 
all references to these apocryphal 
gospels in early writers, and does so 
in other cases. Yet he cannot verify 
the quotation in this instance, not- 
withstanding the striking words daipo- 
viov do-ojjuaroi' which would be likely 
to dwell on his mind. (2) Origen, 
who was also well acquainted with 
the Gospel according to the Hebrews, 
ascribes the words not to this but 
to an entirely different apocryphal 
writing, de Princ. praef. 8 (i. p. 49) 
'Si vero quis velit nobis proferre ex 
illo libello qui Petri Doctrina ap- 
pellatur, ubi salvator videtur ad dis- 
cipulos dicere, Non sum daemonium 
incorporeum, primo respondendum 
est ei, quoniam ille liber inter libros 
ecclesiasticos non habetur, et osten- 
dendum quia neque Petri est ipsa 
scriptura, neque alterius cujusquam 
qui spiritu Dei fuerit inspiratus'. 
With these facts before us it is 
reasonable to suppose either (i) That 
it was a lapse of memory in Jerome. 
His memory sometimes plays him 
strange tricks. Thus he quotes, as 
from ' Ignatius vir apostolicus et 
martyr,' the most notable passage in 
the Epistle of Barnabas ; c. Pelag. iii. 
2 (11. p. 783). Or inasmuch as, hav- 
ing translated the book, he was not 
likely to have made this mistake, it 
seems more probable that (2) His 
copy contained a different recension 
of the Gospel according to the He- 
brews from that which was known to 
Origen and Eusebius. This Gospel 
bore various titles and there is every 
reason to think that it went through 
various recensions. The copy in the 
Caesarean library would represent 




FleTpov rj\0V, e<prj ai/ToIs* A<\Bere, 




Me, KAI 
Kai 6v6vs av- 
rj <rapKi avrov 

i ri\6ev'\ Gg Theodt; e\-/]\v6ev Euseb. 3 K/m0eVres] G; convicti 

;s?) L; quum prehendissent eum C; al. g. A has crediderunt qui eucha- 
ristiae-partitipes-ftierunt (lit. communicaverunf] et coenaverunt antea corpus et san- 
guinem ejus. The first clause is evidently a gloss (prob. later and certainly erro- 
neous) of the second ; and the rendering generally points to /cpafleVres. The 
rendering of C may represent Kpar^a-avres, but prob. is a loose paraphrase of 
Kpa6 'eVres. See the lower note. 4 aiynan] A ; Trpetf/Acm GLC ; al. g : 

the text as Origen and Eusebius had Gospel found in L and some other 
it. Though Jerome refers to the authorities, roly Trepi TOV Herpov a-vvro- 
existence of this copy, apparently for 
the sake of vouching for the respec- 
tability of the Gospel, there is no 
reason to suppose that he had seen 
it. His own, as he tells us, was a 
transcript made at Beroea : and this 
incident seems to have been a later 
accretion incorporated either from 
Ignatius or from the Teaching of 
Peter or from some other source. 
As regards Ignatius himself, it is 
impossible to say whether he got it 
from oral tradition or from some 
written source. Under any circum- 
stances the more elaborate language 
(8aip.6viov ao-<B/iaroi') shows that it is 
later than the account in S. Luke, 
which is told in simple and natural 
language (Tn>ei}/ia o~apK.a Kai oVre'a OVK 

I. TOVS Trepi Herpov] i.e. TOVS 
evdfKa Kai rots (rvv avTols, as the 
company gathered together on this 
occasion is described in the parallel 
narrative, Luke xxiv. 34. The ex- 
pression 01 Trepi IIeYpoi> might in 
late Greek signify Peter alone (see 
Kiihner II. p. 231, Winer xlix. p. 
506 sq) ; but it commonly implies 
others as well (e.g. Acts xiii. 13), and 
here the plurals following, cu/roTs, 
XajSere, etc. are decisive. Zahn points 
out that it is the expression used in 
the alternative ending to S. Mark's 

2. d(ic/jLoviov dcrcoparov] ' an tn- 

corporeal spirit: Origen (1. c.) sup- 
poses that the author of the Doctrina 
Petri used this epithet aVco/iaroi/, not 
in its philosophical sense (=' im- 
material'), but as meaning composed 
of some subtle substance and with- 
out a gross body like man. He says 
also that the Scriptures of the Church 
do not countenance the use of the 
word. Similarly in Clem. Alex. Exc. 
Theod. 14 (p. 971) we read ra 8ai- 
acrto/iara eip^rai, ov% co? croo/ia 
e^oi/ra' e^ei yap o-^^fta* 816 *ccu 
Ur09<jnu KoXao-ea>y e^ei * dXX' coy 

TTpOS (TVyKpl(TlV TWV (T(i)o[J,(V(i)V (TCO/ia- 

Tcav nvevfJiaTiKcov (TKia ovra, ao"co/>iara 
ftpT)Tai. As the Preaching of Peter 
(Krjpvypa Ilerpov), which is supposed 
to have been the same work, was 
well known both to Clement of 
Alexandria and to the Valentinians, 
we may suspect that the explanation 
in this excerpt has special reference 
to this saying of that apocryphal 
writing. Zahn infers from the intro- 
ductory Kai ore here (instead of ore 
yap), that we have a direct citation ; 
but the inference is precarious. 
When Celsus assumes that the Chris- 
tians regard angels as 6\u'/zoi/es, Ori- 
gen is careful to reply that to the 
Christian ear daipvv, daipoviov, is not 




TW aljULari. Sia TOVTO Kai QavaTOV 
5 fjvpedtjarav $e vTrep Gdvarov. jULerd Se Trjv 
[KCU] arvve<pa i yev avrois Kai (rvveTTiev cos (TapKiKos, Ka'nrep 
TTveviuaTiKcos fji/w/zeVos TW TraTpi. 

see the lower note. 5 yvptOvifrav 5] GL; yvptOyo-av yap G; def. A 

(doubtless owing to homoeoteleuton); al. g. 6 Kai ffvvtyayev] g (the 

connexion of the sentences however being different) C Theodt ; vvvtyayev (om. 
Kai) GLA. avrots] here, GLCg; after (rvvtiriev [A] Theodt. d>s 

crap/ct/cos, Kaltrep Tryeu/iaTi/cwj] GL ; ws cra/o/ci/cwy Kai Tn/euyttartKaJs Theodt ; al. g. 
The sentence is rendered et erat cor pore et spiritu et unitus cum patre in A, and 

a neutral word, but del eVt 
TOV ira\VTepov 
trerai ro T<BI> 
oi/o/ia, 7rXen/a>iT6>i> Kai 
rovs dvtipwTTovs, c. Cels. v. 5 (I. p. 580). 

For the whole passage comp. Tert. 
adv. Marc. iv. 43, where this father 
argues against the Docetism of Mar- 
cion from Luke xxiv. 37 sq. Marcion 
retained the passage, but explained 
Ka6a>s e'/zc $eo>petre e^oi/rct, ' as ye be- 
hold me having (neither flesh nor 
bones).' ' Quae ratio tortuositatis 
istius ! ', exclaims Tertullian. The 
way in which Apelles disposed of 
such passages in the Gospels may 
be seen from Hippol. Haer. vii. 38. 

3. KpaOtvTfs] ' being mixed with, 
joined to] and so * having handled,' 
the strongest possible expression 
being chosen to express the closeness 
of the contact ; comp. Find. Pyth. x. 
65 ovTf yrjpas ov\ofifvov KeKparat, iepd 
yevettj Olymp. X. 123 oo'pa 
Plato Phaedr. 279 A tfdei 
KKpao-0ai, Epist. vii. 326 C 

<pv(rei KpaOrjo-fTat. So also 
e.g. Arist. Plut. 853 
7roXv06po) o-vyKexpa/Ltai da.ip.ovi, and 
see the note on dva.KfKpap.fvovs Ephes. 
5. The editors for the most part 
have followed Voss in substituting 
Kparrjdevrfs, which perhaps the Latin 
translator had in his text. But this 
is not so good. The same confusion 
of Kpadfjvai, KpaTTjdfjvai, appears three 

times in Iren. i. 6. 4 oJo-re avr^v <pa- 
Ti^Ofjvai, KparrjOfls yvvaiKi, KparT]6ijvai, 
where the Latin translation has 'ut 
ei conjungatur,' 'mixtus mulieri/ 
'mixtus est/ thus showing that the 
Greek should be read KpaQfjvai, Kpa- 
Oeis, KpaOrjvat. The construction Kpa- 
Tclo-Oai TIVI however is unobjection- 
able in itself; e.g. Act. Paul, et 
ThecL 9 Kparelrai eTTidvpia Kaivfj, 
Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 13 (p. 755) 
Ttvds Kparovpevas (pvaei rw 

Exc. Theod. 32 (p. 977) pa- 
o)(nrep rots oXoty, oiJrco 8e KCU roi 

4. rw at/iart] This is clearly the 
reading of the Armenian Version 
(which wrongly interprets it of the 
eucharist) and seems to be required 
for the sense. ' Flesh and blood ' is 
a synonyme for the corporeal part of 
man : Matt. xvi. 17, i Cor. xv. 50, 
Gal. i. 1 6. In Heb. ii. 14 the reality 
of Christ's humanity is described as 
a partaking ai^aros KOI crapKos. The 
Apostles who were invited to feel the 
nail- prints in His hands and the 
spear-wounds in His side might be 
said almost literally to touch His 
blood as well as His flesh. At the 
same time Trvev/uart might easily be 
substituted for cu/mri, because the 
conjunction ' flesh and spirit ' is fre- 
quent in Ignatius. See Trail, inscr., 
where there is the same confusion of 
and ai^an in different texts. 


IV. TavTa 5e Trapaivw vfMV, d<ya7rr]Toi, eJSfck OTL 

VTWS e^ere* 7rpo([)v\d<r(rto 
TCOV dv6pw7rofJiop<pu)V) civs ov 
7rapa$e%e(r6ai 9 dAV, eJ Sfj/aro^, /x^Se crvvavrav \avTols\* 
JJLOVOV Se TTpocrev^ecrQe vjrep avTwv, edv TTWS /xerai/o^- 5 

existens carnalis et spiritualis (&v <rctp/a/c6s /cat Tn/ei^cm/cos) existens unus cum patre 
in C. Possibly the correct reading may be cos trap/a/cds Kal irvev/j-ariKos, but more 
probably the irep was accidentally dropped, and the terminations of crap/a/cos, irvev- 
/ian/fws, were then made to conform by altering the one or the other. 3 dv- 

QpuiroiJiopcfruv] txt GLACg ; add. aiperiKuv Theod-Stud (but prob. this is his 
own gloss according to his practice; see Rom. 7 6 fyi6s pcos ... xpttrros). Set 

upas ;u.7?] GL, and so prob. C ; ou Set u/ucts Theod-Stud ; non oportet vos A 
Anon-Syr x ; al. g. 4 Svvarov] txt L Theod-Stud Anon-Syrj ; add. 

eV-ri G; al. g. The verb substantive is naturally supplied in AC. aurots] 

7rpo(pvXao-(7c>] Comp. Trail. 8 aXXa 
?rpo(puXao'O'a) vp.ds ovras ftou dyairr]Tovs 
K.T.X., with the note. 

3. av$pa>7rojnop06>!/] Philo de Abr. 
6 (ii. p. 6) KvpicdTepov 8e etrreii', dvdpa- 


6r]pia, Vit. Moys. \. 8 (ii. p. 87), de 
Decal. 1 6 (n. p. 194). This last ex- 
pression occurs also Apost. Const, ii. 
21. These passages are collected 
by Cotelier. See also Eus. H. E. x. 
4. (p. 467) Ps-Ign. Tars. i,andcomp. 
Suicer s. v. dvBpanroiiopfyos. 

6. o/rep] SC. TO p.eravoe'iv. For the 
whole passage compare Iren. iii. 2. 
3 'adversus tales [haereticos] cer- 
tamen nobis est, o dilectissime^ more 
serpentum lubricos undique effugere 
conantes. Quapropter undique re- 
sistendum est illis, si quos ex his 
retusione confundentes ad conver- 
sionem veritatis adducere possimus. 
Etenim si non facile est ab errore 
apprehensam resipiscere animam, 
sed non omnino impossibile est er- 
rorem effugere, apposita veritate.' 

7. gf\v\ Used as a substantive; 
see the note on Ephes. ii. 

el yap K.T.X.] To be connected 
with the preceding chapter, the in- 
termediate words TauTa 8f...fjv being 

de K.r.X.] See Acts x. 41 
oirives crvve^ayofjifv KOI 0-vvfTriop.fv 
aureS /zera ro avaa~TJJvat avroi> e< vc- 
Kpwv. Three several occasions are 
recorded in the Canonical Gospels ; 
(i) Luke xxiv. 30, 35 ; (2) Luke xxiv. 
42,43; (3) Johnxxi. 12, 13. 

r)va>nevos] Compare Magn. 7 
avcv TOV Trarpos ov8ev fTroirjo'ev iji/o)- 

fj.evos v. See also Marcellus in 
Euseb. c. Marc. ii. 2 (p. 37) and 
Eccl. Theol. ii. 4 (p. 106) rfjv de Kara 

IV. 'I give this advice, knowing 
that you yourselves act as I would 
have you act. But I would put you 
on your guard against these monsters 
in human shape. Do not go near 
them, but pray for them. Their re- 
pentance is not an easy matter, but 
Christ can do all things.. If Christ's 
life was a phantom, then my bonds 
are a phantom also. Why then do 
I expose myself to fire and sword 
and wild beasts? Near to these, I 
am near to God ; if only I suffer in 
Christ's name. I have all power in 
Christ, the perfect man.' 

2. vp.fls ovra)s *x fTf ~\ See the note 
on Ephes. 4 oTrep 





Xpurros, TO d\ri6ivov ^/ULWV %f\v. el yap TO 
7rpd^6ri VTTO TOV Kvpiov rfiucov, Kciyw TO 
. TL Se KO.I iavrov e/cSoroy Se&coKa TW OCLVCLTU), 
Trvp, TTfOOS fjid^aipav^ Trpos Brjpia ; d\\' 6 eyyvs 

L*AC (but AC add. its also after dt<rKo\ov) Anon-Sy^; om. G Theod-Stud; 
al. g. 5 Trjooaeu'xecrtfe] C Anon-Sy^; wpoaevx^ffdai GLAg* (MSS, but 

orate 1). 7 y&p] GCg Theodt ; autent LS 2 ; at A. rb 

doKeiv] G; secundum videri L; T$ So/cetf g Theodt. The various readings are 
just the same below. The other versions do not assist in determining between 
TO SoKeiv and T^J doKeiv. 8 icay<j)] GS 2 g Theodt ; ego et ifse etiam 

C ; ergo et ego L* (but with a v. 1. et ego) A. 9 eavrov] G ; tfjutvrov g 

Theodt; meipsum L. 10 6 771)5] S 2 AC (which however translates 

just below as if 6 juera^i) dypiuv) Theodt; tyyvs (om. 6) GL; al. g. 

tioned also by Origen Horn, xx in 
lerem. 3 (ill. p. 280) ' Legi alicubi 
quasi salvatore dicente, et quaero, 
sive quis personam figuravit salva- 
toris sive in memoriam adduxit, an 
verum sit hoc quod dictum est ; ait 
autem ipsi salvator Qui juxta me 
est etc.' Gregory Nazianzen attri- 
butes a similar saying to S. Peter, 
Epist. 20 (ii. p. 19, ed. Caillau) Ka/x- 
vovo~a yap ^v^ eyyvs fo~Ti Geou, (prjo'i 
TTOV \eywv 6 Ilerpos. 
This latter saying is quoted again 
by him anonymously, Orat. xvii. 5 

(l. p. 32l) fTTfldr)'a ^v^ fyyvs 

fo-Ti Qfov (though S. Peter is men- 
tioned in the context), on which 
later passage Elias Cretensis (Greg. 
Naz. Op. II. p. 895, Migne) remarks 
fv TT} Atdao-KdAi'a TlfTpov Kfirai- Ka/i- 
vovo-a yap, $7707, ^v^), rovreo-rt, Ka- 
KO7ra6ovo~a Tf KOI rots TrepicrrariKois 
o-fpiyyoufvr), fyyift paXXov 0co). These 
words are highly natural as the 
genuine expression of Ignatius be- 
fore his execution (comp. Rom. 5), 
for fire, sword, and wild-beasts all 
alike were possible ; but extremely 
improbable in a forger writing after 
the occurrence had excluded all al- 

parenthetical. The return to the 
subject however was suggested by 
the expression TO akrjdivov r)ii>v fjv, 
which here, as in Trail. 9, has a 
reference to Docetic error. 

TO doKflv] For this expression, and 
for the sentiment, see the notes on 
Trail. 10. 

9. eavrov] Of the first person, as 
in Trail. 3 (see the note). 

exdorov K.r.X.] We find exSoroy Stfio- 
vai e.g. Demosth. c. Aristocr. 217 (p. 
692), Polyb. iii. 20. 8, xx. 10. 5, xxviii. 
4. II, Bel et Drac. 22 ; K$OTOV napa- 
difioi/cu, e.g. Diod. Sic. xv. 10; cdo- 
TOV irpodiSovcu Polyb. vi. 49. 5. The 
corresponding eKoVroi/ Xa^aveiv oc- 
curs Acts ii. 23, Jos. Ant. vi. 13. 9. 

10. npos Trvp K.T.A.] Tertull. c. 
Marc. iv. 29 'Qualis machaera, tails 
et flamma,' commenting on Luke xii. 
49, 51 (Matt. x. 34). 

o fyyvs p.axaipas K.r.X.] A saying to 
this effect is attributed to our Lord 
by Didymus on Ps. Ixxxviii. 8 816 
<j)r)<riv 6 o-(OTi]p, 'O fyyvs pov iyyvs TOV 
Trupoy, o fie paicpav air* fj,ov paKpav 
curb TTJS ftaa-iXeias (p. 1488, ed. Migne); 
see Westcott Introduction to the 
Gospels p. 455 (ed. 4). It is men- 


a%aipas 9 771/9 Qeov* jut.eTav Brjpiwv, jUL6Tav Qeov* 


V. *'Ov Tives dyvoovvTes dpvovvTai, /maXXov Se 5 

i /*era> drjplwv /xera^i) GeoG] GLS 2 AC; om. Theodt (from homoaoteleuton) ; 
def. g. 2 'Irjffov XpioTov] GLAC Theodt; domini nostri iesu christi 

qui mortuus est propter nos S 2 ; al. g. 3 viro^vui] GS 2 ACg Theodt; 

sustinebo (vTro^fvui) L. TOV reXet'ou dvdpdirov] C Theodt; add. yevoptvov GL; 

iesu christo deo S 2 ; iesu christo deo nostro A; def. g: see the lower note. 
5 dpvovvTai] GLS 2 AC Theodt ; r)pvri(ravTO g. 7 7rpo0?7re?ai] GLg ; 

C ; prophetia prophetarum A. 8 Mwcr^ws] G; 6 /iwcre'ws g. It was 

Polyc. Phil. 8. The word cvdvvapavv 
is especially Pauline in the N. T. ; 
it occurs also several times in Her- 
mas, Maud. v. 2, xii. 5, 6, Sim. vi. i, 
vii, ix. i. 

TOV TeXciov avOpwirov] Zahn refers 
to Melito Fragm. 6 (p. 416 Otto) 

Geoff yap <ov opov re <ai avdpa>7ros 
re'Xeios o avTos. The addition yevo- 
pevov, which appears in the com- 
mon texts, ought to be omitted. It 
has doubtless been added to sug- 
gest indirectly the preexistence and 
Divinity of Christ ; see the note on 
Rom. 7. The substitutions in the 
Syriac and Armenian are due to a 
similar motive. The object of Igna- 
tius however in this passage was to 
assert broadly the humanity against 
the Docetics, and with the Divinity 
he was not concerned here ; comp. 
i Tim. ii. 5. 

V. ' Certain persons deny Him, 
or rather are denied by Him. They 
are advocates of death, not of truth. 
They turn a deaf ear to the Law and 
the Prophets and the Gospel. Our 
sufferings produce no effect upon 
them. What good is it to me, if I 
am praised by one who denies my 
Lord in denying His humanity? I 
will not mention their names. I will 

ternatives but one ; see Zahn 7. v. A. 
p. 246 sq. As a matter of fact all the 
three had a place in the case of 
Polycarp's martyrdom. He was in- 
tended to be thrown to the wild 
beasts ( 3, 12); he was actually 
burnt at the stake (5, 13 sq) ; and 
he was ultimately dispatched by the 
executioner's sword ( 16). 

1. pfTa^v 6r)pi<>)v K.r.A.] So Rom. 
4 a^ere p.f 6rjpia>v flvai, 81 a>i> 


2. IJLOVOV\ SC. yV(rdo). For a 
similar ellipsis with /ioi/oi> comp. 
Rom. 5, and see the note on Ephes. 
ii. The common punctuation (Us- 
sher, Voss, Smith, Jacobson, Cureton) 
which attaches povov K.T.\. to iravra 
vTro/zcVo) destroys the sense. That 
of Hefele, Dressel, and Zahn, which 
punctuates after Xpio-rov and at- 
taches els TO av^Tradflv avrw with 
what follows, is somewhat awkward. 
I have adopted a punctuation dif- 
ferent from either. 

avp-rradflv avro>] Comp. Rom. viii. 


3. TTCLVTO. vTro/xevo)] This sentence 
is modelled on Phil. iv. 13 ndvTa 
to-^uco ev TO) Mwaftovvri p.f. For 
Trdvra V7ro/xei/co comp. 2 Tim. ii. 10, 
and see also 9 below, Polyc. 3, 




fULa\\ov rj 
ovde 6 J/O//O9 
\iov, ovSe TO. 

VTT avTOv, oes vvvriyopoi TOV 
d\r}Geia^ ovs OVK eTreicrav al 

, a'AA' ovSe fJ-XP l v ^v TO evayye- 

TCOV KCLT av^pa TraOrt/ULaTa' 

to be expected that L* after the Vulg., and C as an Egyptian version, should take 
the form /^wvV^s moyses with the v. The Gk MSS however are too late to be of 
any account in such a question of orthography. dXX'j GLAg; om. C. 

9 Tra^/ictra] GLC (rA, fyu^repa TU>V /car' &v8pa ira.d'qfj.ara being rendered victoria 
laborum) g. The clause is translated scripturas nostras quas singulos docemus in A, 
which must therefore have read fjLa$r)fj.ara (not ypd^ara, as Petermann supposes); 
see the confusion of iradtjT'rjs, /iaflrp-^s, in Polyc. 7 (see the note on Clem. Rom. 2). 

strive to forget them ; until they 
repent and believe in the Passion.' 

5. "Ov nves K.r.X.] Comp. Magn. 
9 (with the note). 

fj.a\\ov Se K.r.A.] See 2 Tim. ii. 12 
ei apvr)<T6fJ,fda, KaKelvos apvrjo-erai jj/zaf. 

So of the opposite, Gal. iv. 9 vvv 8e 
yvovTes Qeov, p.a\\ov 8e yvoxrOevTts 
TUTTO Qeov (see the note there). For 
similar turns of expression in Igna- 
tius see Polyc. inscr. eVto-KOTro) 2/xvp- 
vr)S, /ifiXXoi' eVeorKOTT^/.teVa), ib. 3 iravra 
ypas del Iva /cat avTos 
VTj, TmlL 5 TroXXa yap jjfjuv 
Iva Qfov pr) XctTrco/ie^a, Rom. 8 
Iva Kal vfj-fls d(\r)6r)Tf. See 
also such expressions as Philad. 10 

1 1 

avrovs toy Ka 

va. Ka 

6 Kiipios (with the note), Polyc. 
6 rai eVia-K07r&> np 
Geoj vjuif, and below 10 ov8e 
XvvdrjTf ovde 


6. a-vvr/yopoi *.r.X.] ' advocates of 
death] because by denying the verity 
of Christ's passion and resurrection, 
they practically denied the immor- 
tality of man ; comp. vfKpocpopos 

7. TTJS aXrjdeias] It is probable 
that these heretics, like many others 
since, arrogated to themselves a 
monopoly of 'the truth.' Thus the 

Valentinians had their Evangeliicm 
Veritatis (Iren. iii. n. 9); Celsus 
entitled his work 'AXrjOrjs Aoyos (Orig. 
C. Cels. i. 4 pTa TToXXrjs 6pao~UTr)Tos 
Kal d\aov(ias cTriypm/ms /c.r.X.) ; and 
Hierocles similarly named his own 
attack on Christianity $tXaXr/^s (Eu- 
seb. c. Hierocl. i, p. 511, etc). 

at 7rpo(prjTlai /t.r.X.] As Judaizers 
they professed the greatest respect 
for the Law and the Prophets, and 
yet they ignored the testimony borne 
by them to Christ's passion ; see the 
notes on Magn. 6, Philad. 5, 8, 9. 
Like S. Paul before him, Ignatius en- 
countered a stubborn opposition, as 
he StfXe-yeTo OTTO reoz> ypa0a>j>, diavoiycw 
Kal jraparidffjLfvos on TOV Xptorof eSet 
Trade iv Kal dvao~Tfjvai CK vexpaiv (Acts 
xvii. 3). 

8. p-fXP 1 v ] i- e - notwithstanding 
the clear revelation of the Gospel ; 
comp. Magn. 8. 

9. ra ij/jLerepa] On his own suffer- 
ings, as a testimony to the reality 
of Christ's life and death, sec TralL 
10 (with the notes). 

rtov KUT av8pa] i.e. 'our several 
sufferings,' i.e. of himself and other 
martyrs and confessors, each addi- 
tional instance being a fresh testi- 
mony to Christ's passion. For ot 
Kttr' avdpa see the note on Ephes. 4. 




<yap Trepi V/ULCOV TO CIVTO (ppovovcriv. TI yap [jue] a)(f)e\ei 
el e/me eTraivei Tis, TOV Se Kvpiov JJLOV fiXacrfyrnuLel, /mri 
oiULoXorytov CIVTOV <rapKO<popov ; d Se TOVTO iurj Xe^yccp 
T\eicos CLVTOV dTrrjpvrjTcu, wv v6Kpo<pdpos. TO. Se ovo- 

O.VTWV, ovra aTricrTa, OVK e5oei/ JULOL 

' 5 

I fjt,e] GL (after juvat) AC ; om. g Theodt. w0e\e?] 60eXet G. i d 

e/^] Gg; e'lirep /ae Theodt; et e/u. (or yue) /we? C; si A. TIJ] here, 

gA Theodt; after u>0eXet GLC. 3 <rapKO<t>6pov] txt GLAC Theodt; 

add. 0eoV g. fj.rj] GL[A]g; om. C. 4 dv] gLA; c5i/ G (see the 

note ii below). Theodt has ws vfKpo<j>6pov for wv veKpo<f>6pos. C is mutilated, but 
app. had uv ve/cpo06pos. 5 ou/c] GLAC; vvv OVK g. 7 efc TO... 

di'do-rao-ts] GLAC (but TO trddos is paraphrased passionem salvatoris nostri in A, 
and mortem domini nostri iesu christi in C); om. g. 10 iriaTeijaa)- 

ffiv] LAC Tim-Syr i Anon-Syrj ; ?rt(rTe^(rw y uci' G ; TTKrretfo-T? g (the sing, being 

1. TO auTo (frpovovcriv] To be ex- 
plained by 4 fl yap TO dotcflv ravra 
enpa^drj VTTO TOV Kvpiov ijpatv, /cdyco TO 
8o*flv Se'Sf/zai. The view which they 
take respecting Christ's sufferings 
applies by parity of reasoning to his 
own. They reduce everything to an 

2. el fp.e eVa>ei] Pearson sup- 
poses that there is a special reference 
to his title Qeocpopos : * Illorum laudes 
non acceptabat, dum eum Qeofpopov 
vocarent, negarent autern Christum 
<rapKo<p6pov, et se probarent vtKpo- 
(popovs.' But if this had been so, the 
word Qeocpopos would almost cer- 
tainly have been expressed, for the 
sake of the alliteration, as well as 
for clearness. See also the notes on . 
Trail 4. 

4. wv vfKpo(p6pos] *" he himself car- 
rying a corpse? The word signi- 
fies 'a bearer in a funeral,' *ves- 
pillo,' 'bajulus'; e.g. Polyb. xxxv. 6. 
2 rroTfpov VTTO T&V Trap T]\iiv ev A^aia 
veicpo(f>opa>v KKOfjLio~d(ii)o~i, Appian Bell 
Civ. iv. 27 7r\ovaovcriv ol veKpofpopoi. 
For other applications of the meta- 
phor see Philo Flacc. 19 (n. p. 540) 
yap 6 KaKodaifHov eya> rpo- 


(Is rjpiov, de Agric. 5 (i. p. 304) 
TOCTOVTOV OVK aTTOTiOfTai VKpo(popovo~a, 
Leg. Alleg. iii. 22 (i. p. 100) p) yap 
aXXo TI 7roiT;o-ete eKacrroit TJIJLUV Troteti/, 
TJ vcKpo(f)opelV) TO vfKpov e^ eavTov 
cr<5/i,a eyeipovo~r]s Ka\ afj.0%61 (pfpovo~r)s 
TTJS ^vx^s (comp. de Migr. Abr. 5, 
i. p. 439, de Somn. ii. 36, I. p. 690), 
Greg. Naz. Op. II. 246 vKpo<p6pos 
(of Adam on his expulsion from 
Eden). Cotelier quotes Cypr. de 
Laps. 30 (p. 259, Hartel) 'spiritali- 
ter mortua supervivere hie tibi et 
ipsa ambulans funus tuum portare 
coepisti/ Hieron. Ep. 68 (i. p. 319) 
'Quanti hodie diu vivendo portant 
funera sua et, quasi sepulcra de- 
albata, plena sunt ossibus mortuo- 
rum. J This last quotation combines 
the metaphors which appear in this 
and the parallel passage of Ignatius 
referring to these same Docetic 
Judaizers, Philad. 6 OVTOI e/uol o-T^Acu 
elo-iv /cat Tatpoi vtKpa>v. But why 
are they called veicpocpopoi ? Pearson 
quotes such passages as i Tim. v. 6 
a><ra TedvrjKcv, Apoc. iii. I (rjs /cat 
vcKpos ft It may possibly have this 
reference to their moral state also ; 






yevoiTO [JLOI avTwv /uLvrj/moveveiv, 
fjiTavori(r(*)<nv eis TO Trddos, o i(TTiv r\^v dvdorTacris. 

VI. MrjSeis TrXavdcrOa). Kai TO, eTrovpdvia Kal r\ 

So^a T&V d<yye\u>v Kal ol dp^ovTes oparoi TC Kal 

10 doparoi, eav /mrj TrKTTeixrcocnv ek TO aijma XpiffTOv [TOV 

necessary to harmonize with changes in the context). TOV Qeov] qui est deus 

Anon-Syrjj qui est dei Tim-Syr (where the relative may refer either to alpa. or 
to xpioToG); om. GLAC (which last renders the sentence, in dominum nostrttm 
jesum christum et sanguinem eius sanctum}', al. g (but something corresponding to 
TOV 6eov might have been expected, if it had been in his text). If any insertion is 
to be made, TOV Qeov has the advantage of explaining the renderings of both Anon- 
Syrj and Tim-Syr. They might however be brought to conformity by substi- 
tuting NPP&m for Kn'pNT in the Syriac, or conversely. See the lower note. 

but I believe that it points more 
directly to their doctrinal position. 
If Christ's resurrection were not real, 
then their own immortality was de- 
stroyed also ; they were simply carry- 
ing corpses to the grave. 

5. OVTO. aVtoTa] i.e. 'being those 
of unbelievers,' by a very natural 
brachylogy ; comp. 2 axrirep aTrioroi 
rives \eyov<riv. 

7. (Is TO irdOos] For the con- 
struction comp. Philad. 8 ^eravor?'- 
<ra>(Tiv els eVorqra Qeov (with the note). 
For the prominence given to the 
Passion see the note on Ephes. 

VI. 'Be not deceived. Even the 
angels will be judged, if they believe 
not in Christ's blood. Let no man 
be elated by office. Faith and love 
are all in all. Beware also of the 
false teachers. They have no regard 
for deeds of charity. They abstain 
from the eucharist, because they do 
not acknowledge it to be the flesh of 
Christ which truly suffered and rose 

8. Mr; Sets 7rXm>ao-$o)] See Ephes. 
5 with the note. 

KOI ra eVoupai'ta K.r.X.] See Trail. 

5 f7 ov ra fivovpavia yp(fv//m... voelv ra eirovpdvia K.r.X. 

77 doa TWV ayyc'Xcoi/] i.e. 'the angels 
notwithstanding all their glory.' 

9. apxovres] For this word as a 
designation of angels comp. Trail. 5 
with the note, and see Hort's article 
in Smith's Diet, of Christ. Biogr. 
s.v. Archon. 

oparot re KCU aoparoi] The same 
expression occurs again in a similar 
connexion, Trail. 5 ray o~vo-Tao-eis TOS 
dpxovTiKas, opara re Kai aopara (see 

the note there). 

10. roG Qeov'] 'who is God.'' I 
have inserted these words in brackets 
with very great hesitation, as a pos- 
sible reading. Such a mode of 
speaking however is almost, if not 
quite, unique in Ignatius ; see Ephes. 
inscr. TOV Qeov r^wv. If this was 
the reading of Timotheus and the 
anonymous Syrian writer, as it seems 
to have been (see the upper note), 
it may be due to a transcriber's 
reminiscence of Ephes. i ev at/mri 
Qeov. See the notes on 10 below, 
and on Trail. 7, and compare the 
variation of the Syriac Version above 
in 4 TOV reXeiou ai/#p<B7rov. 


Oeov], KciKeivois Kpicrts ecrr/y. d x^P^N X 00 ? 61703 - 

<$ r A ' * x </\ > v / \ 

iLY]vVCL (pVO'lOV'Tto)* TO yttp O\OV G"TIV 7TIO"TIS KCtt 

&V OV$6V 7TpOKKpLTaL. KaTajULci6T6 Se TOfS ' 

ovvras ek Trjv xdpiv 'Iqorov XpLCTTOv Ttjv ek f)/ias e\6ov- 

i TOTTOJ] GCg Tim-Syr; qualiter (rb TTWS) L; def. A. The same corruption of 

appears in Clem. Rom. 54. 3 5] GLC; etiam A; olv [g]. 

4 Tr/crou X/HOTOU] GL ; domini nostri jesu christi C ; dei A ; al. g. 7 otf 

irepi d\i(3o/j.frov ov irepl deSe^ov] GL; oppressorum et ligatorum A; aut alicuius 

receiveth receive] taken from 
Matt. xix. 12 o dwdpevos \o)pelv ^o>- 
pe/ro). It is a mysterious truth, and 
beyond the capacity of the common 
hearer. Similarly in Trail. 5, when 
he is tempted to speak of the hea- 
venly hierarchy, he checks himself 
and says, <po(3oi>nai /uj) vrjiriois ov<nv 

/iOt, fJLTJTTOTf OV 8vVT)6eVTfS ^ CO p 7^ CT a t 

o-Tpayya\a>6f)Tf, which passage also 
illustrates the metaphor in ^copei*/. 
The interpolator himself was not able 
Xtopeti/, for he obliterates all mention 
of the angels here, evidently looking 
upon them as a stumbling-block, 
and substitutes KUV fiao-ikevs 77 <av 
Upevs K.O.V ap^coi/ Kav IditoTr/s K.T.\. 
Perhaps the reading Trio-revo-co/nei/ 
may be due to the same cause. 
S. Jerome (quoted by Smith) says, 
Comm. in Ephes. iv. 10 (vil. p. 614) 
'Neque enim scire possumus quo- 
modo et angelis et his qui in inferno 
erant sanguis Christi profuerit; et 
tamen quin profuerit, nescire non 

TOTTOS] 'place] i.e. 'office,' 'digni- 
ty' : see the note on Polyc. i. 

2. (pvo-iovrco] Pearson compares 
Iren. iv. 26. 3 'principals conses- 
sionis [i. e. TrpcoroKadeSpt'as, where the 
MSS have 'concessions'] tumore elati 

TTioTts Kai dyaTr^] See the note on 
Ephes. 14 ap^i) fafjs K.T.\. ; and for 

the frequent conjunction of 

and dyaTTTj in Ignatius, the note on 

Ephes. i. 

3. coi> ovdev TrpoKfKpirai] ' to which 
nothing is (justly) preferred] 'than 
which nothing is better" 1 \ comp. 
Magn. i with the note. 

Kara/zatfere] 'mark well] as in Matt, 
vi. 28 ; comp. Polyc. 3, and see also 
Clem. Rom. 7. 

erepoSo^oiWas] See the note on 
Magn. 8. The x"P lc > as t which 
they have gone astray, is the gift of 
Christ's incarnation and passion. 
The yi/G>7"7 of God, which they defy, 
is the obligation to love imposed 
upon them in consequence thereof. 
Their doctrinal error leads to their 
moral failure. On the phrase yi/co'p? 
0eou see Rom. 8 with the note. 

5- Trept dydjrrjs] i.e. 'deeds of 
charity.' There is apparently no re- 
ference to the technical sense which 
dyaTTT] has below in 8. It is the 
general term introducing the men- 
tion of the special directions in which 
love may be manifested. 

6. Trepi xnP a * K.T.\^\ For the 
whole passage comp. Barnab. 20 
Xnpo- K i op(pai><5 ov Trpoo-exovrcs... 
a7TOGrrpe<pop,ei>oi rbv evdeopevov Kai KO.- 
rairovovvTfs TOV 6\i/B6p.vov. 

The care of widows and orphans 
was regarded as of primary obliga- 
tion in the Christian Church from 
the beginning; Acts vi. i, ix. 39, 41, 
i Tim. v. 3 16, James i. 27. See 





5 (ray, 7TW9 evavTioi eicriv TY\ yvcofjiri TOV Oeov. Trepi 
dyaTrrjs ov jueXei ai>TO?9, ov Trepi %^9, ov Trepi 6p(pavov 9 
ov Trepi 6\i/3oiuevov, ov Trepi deSe/mei/ov [// Ae\i//xei/oi/], ov 

indigentis aut alicuius oppressi C (thus transposing the two words and reading deofj-t- 
vov or frSeoptvov for Sede^vov, see Doctr. Apost. 5, quoted below); 6\ip6fj.evoi> . . . 
dede/dvov [g] (changing the form of the sentence). f) XeXu/x^ou] GL; 

om. AC[g]. The omission in g however is of little account, since this re- 
cension contains nothing corresponding to the remainder of the section ov wepl 

also (besides Barnab. 20 just quoted) 
Polyc. 4 x*)P al M dp.e\eio-0(oo-av, 
Polyc. Phil 6 p.rj d^Xovvres XW >) 
6p(pavov fj TrevriTos, Hermas Vis. ii. 4 
vovdfTijcrft ray xnP a * Ka ^ TOVS op0a- 
i/ovy, Mand. viii xr/pais vTnjpeTelvj 


Tf(r6ai, Sim. i ai/ri ayp&v ovv dyopd- 

vi. 43 x^pas (TVV QXifiopevois virep 
ray Trei/ra/coo-iay, ovs ndvras 77 TOV 8e- 


/SXeTrere avrovs, Sim. v. 3 Seoo-et? avro 
^7/pa rj opfpavai 77 v&TfpovfJifVW (comp. 
Sim. ix. 26, 27), Justin Apol. i. 67 

(p. 99) flTKOVpfl OpCpCtVols Tf KOL XVP - 15 

Kal rots 8ia vocrov 77 Si' aXX^t' alriav 
XftTTo/zeVots KCU rois eV deo-pols overt 
K.T.X., Clem. Horn. Ep. Clem. 8 roty 
^iev opfpavols TTOLOVVTCS TO. yovewv raly 
iii. 7 1 Tt/nare... 
op(pavovs as 
(KK\r)o-ias TfKva, Tertull. ^/<7/. 39 
'dispensatur...egenis alendis human- 
disque, et pueris ac puellis re ac pa- 
rentibus destitutis, iamque domesti- 
cis senibus, item naufragis, et si qui 
in metallis, et si qui in insulis vel 
in custodiis, dumtaxat ex causa dei 
sectae alumni confessionis suae fiunt,' 
Apost. Const, ii. 24 otKoj/o/Me/rw op- 
(pavols Kal \r/pms K<U $Xi/3o/ieVois Kal 
evoi$ aTropov^iei/otf, Cyprian Epist. 8 
(p. 487) 'sive viduae sive thlibomeni 
qui se exhibere non possunt, sive hi 
qui in carceribus sunt etc.' (comp. 
Epist. 7, p. 485; Test. 113, p. 181). 
For the practice of the Roman 
Church see Cornelius in Euseb. H. E. 



7. OXiponevov] Besides passages 
in the last note, comp. Doctr. Apost. 

5 a7roa"rpe<po/ifi'oi TOV evdeofj-fvov, Kara- 
TrovovvTfs TOV ^Xt/3o/ievo^, Clem. Alex. 
Strom, vi. 12 (p. 873) a/xe'Xft 0Xi/3o- 
i, 7rapafj,v6iais, nap- 
Tais PIUTIKCUS XptltUt eVi- 

59 ^ v ~ 

The prisoners again 
were a special object of solicitude to 
the early Christians, more especially 
if they were suffering for the faith ; 
comp. Heb. x. 34 KOI yap roty Seoyu- 
ois <TvveTraOri<raTf, xiii. 3 /LUju.i'q'o-Keo-tfe 
T<0>v 6cr/iia)i> (os crvvdedffjifvoiy Clem. 
Rom. 55 faurrdfuffa iroXXovc eV ^/MII/ 
TrapaSeStojcoray cavTOiis fis 
eTepovs Xvrpooo-oi/rai *f.r.X., 
Tpaxrai TOVS 8eo-piovs 
Mand. viii e^ avayiccSi/ \vTpovo-6at 
TOVS dov\ovs TOV Qeov (with Sim. i 
quoted above), Clem. Horn. Ep. 
Clem. 9 TroXXo) /xaXXoi/ Treti/aWay rpe- 
(perf Kai Si-v/^foo-i rrapc'^fre TTOTOV, yv/n- 
i/ois ei/5u/za, rovs i/oo-oui/ras enio-Ke- 
7TTfcr$f, roTy e'v (pvXaKais 67rt(paiv6jMei/ot 
cos dvvao-de /3o77^elre K.r.X. (comp. Z#. 
iii. 69, xi. 4, xii. 32, where nearly the 
same words are repeated), Dionys. 
Cor. in Euseb. H. E. iv. 23 (of the 
Roman Christians) ev /uerciXXoiy Se 
Ty V7rdpxovo~iv 
Apost. Const, iv. 9 





Trepi ireivwvTOS n OI^WVTOS* ev^apLOTTLa^ KCU 

a TO fjiri 6fJLO\oyeiv Tr]V ev^apKTTLav (rdpKa 
rifjioov ' Irjcrov XpicrTOv, TY\V VTrep TWV 

C breaks off at this word. euYapto-Kas KO! 

evai TOV 

8ov\ovs KOI alxpaXaiTovs, dco-piovs eVr;- 
pca^op-evovs, rJKovTas < KaradiKr)? 8ia 


fj,ovofj.a^iav Kctl Savor ov, v. I et fie KOI 

olds T O~T\V aTTttVTa TOV /3lOI> OVTOV 

pvo-ao-0at avTovs fK TOV 
iov, paicdpios ecrTai (with the 
whole context), Hippol. Haer. ix. 12, 
Cyprian Epist. 72 (p. 698) and pas- 
sim. See especially, as the testimony 
of a heathen, Lucian de Mort. Peregr. 
12 eVei fi' ovv efieSero [o EEepfypTvos], 01 
Xpicrrtavoi o~v[jL(f)opav rjyovp.evoi TO Trpay- 
p,a TrdvTo. CKLVOVV e^apirdo-ai Treipco/jifvoi 
OVTOV e IT' eVei rovr' f]v dditvciTOv, fj ye 
aAAj/ Oepairela Tratra ou Trapepyca? dXXa 
<rvv o-7rovf) eyiyvTO- KOI ecodtv /lev 
evdvs rfv opav napa rw fiecr/iturT/piw 
TTpip.vovTa ypafiia xrfpas Tivas KOL 
iraioia op<pavd K.T.X. For passages in 
the early Liturgies see the note on 
Clem. Rom. 59. 

17 \f\vncvov] No adequate sense 
can be given to these words. It is 
proposed for instance to interpret 
fiefiep-fVov 'a cripple' and XeXv/xe'i/ov 
'a paralytic' ('de podagricis et pa- 
ralyticis aliisque etc.' Smith). For 
dcdffjicvos in this sense comp. Luke 
xiii. 1 6 TavTrjv...r)v edqcrev 6 "Sa.Ta.vas... 
OVK e'Sei \vdrjvai OTTO TOV fiea/zoi) TOV- 
rou; Clem. Horn. xii. 18 yvvr) o\r) 
vno TrdQovs TIVOS o-vv$fOeio-a : and for 
\f\vfjievos, Epist. Vienn. in Euseb. 
H. E. V. I vTTo TOV yr/pa)f /cat vno T^S 
vdo-ov \f\vp.evov (of Pothinus), Greg. 
Naz. Op. II. p. 276 eKavTOVTap^oio 
\C\VJJLCVOV tfdpao-f Trcufia in allusion to 
Luke vii. 2 sq (comp. Xvo-t? ib. n. p. 
278, \vaip,\^s ib. pp. 860, 946). 
But though each word singly might 
refer to some kind of disease, the 

odd antithesis of 'bound and loosed' 
in this sense is quite inconceivable ; 
not to say that parallel passages 
make the sense of fiefie/Aei/ou 'a pri- 
soner' quite certain. Markland again 
would render it 'fatigato, deficiente'; 
but even if this rendering could 
stand in itself, it makes no antithesis 
to deoep-evov. Zahn preserves this an- 
tithesis (/. v. A. p. 333) by giving to the 
passage the sense 'they care not 
whether a man is in bonds or free'; 
but this assigns to 77 quite a different 
sense from that which it has in the 
next clause TJ-ept nivu>VTOs rj 8t\lra)VTOs. 
It seems necessary therefore to eject 
the words 77 XeXv/xeVou. as the addi- 
tion of some officious scribe wh'o had 
more regard for rhetoric than for 
sense. They are omitted in the 
Armenian and Coptic Versions. 

1. eu^apiaT/as] On the appli- 
cation of this word to the Holy 
Communion, and even to the ele- 
ments themselves, see the note on 
Philad. 4. It would appear from 
8 (comp. Philad. 4), that these 
heretics did not altogether abstain 
from this sacrament, but that they 
established a eucharist of their own 
apart from the Church. This Igna- 
tius does not allow to be a real 
eucharistic feast ( 8 eW^ /3e/3az 
ev'xapio-Tiu K.T.X.), and therefore he 
says here ev^apio-rtay aTre'^oi/reu. The 
Trpoo-evxfjs is the public prayer of the 
Church, more especially that which 
accompanies the eucharist. Theo- 
doret Op. IV. I. p. 231 quotes the 
passage loosely, (i>xapio-Tias KO\ 7rpo<r- 
<popas OVK aTToSe'xoiTCU K.r.X. 

2. Sta TO /XT) o/JLoXoyw K.r.X.] The 

vi] TO THE SMYRN^ANS. 307 

dfULapTicoi^ VJULWV TraOovcrav, rjv TY\ xprjcrTOTriTi 6 warrjp 
5 ijyeipev. 

VII. Ol ovv dvTiXeyovTes TY\ Scoped TOV Oeov 

. a"uve(f)pv Se ai/TO?9 dya- 

GLA; euxa/Horfas Ka.1 7rpo<r0opas OVK a 

; huic dono (rrjde dupeq.) L ; donis A ; al. g. 

Theodt; al. g. 

6 TTJ 

argument is much the same as Ter- 
tullian's against the Docetism of 
Marcion, adv. Marc. iv. 40 'Accep- 
tum panem et distributum discipulis 
corpus suum ilium fecit, Hoc est cor- 
pus meum dicendo, id est figura mei 
corporis. figura autem non fuisset, 
nisi veritatis esset corpus, ceterum 
vacua res, quod est phantasma, figu- 
ram capere non posset.' The eu- 
charist implies the reality of Christ's 
flesh. To those who deny this 
reality, it has no meaning at all ; to 
them Christ's words of institution 
are false ; it is in no sense the flesh 
of Christ. Somewhat similarly Ire- 
nasus (iv. 18. 5) argues against those 
who deny the resurrection and im- 
mortality of the body from the eucha- 
rist; and he challenges them either 
to change their opinions or to give 
up the celebration (j) rr)i> yvm^v d\\a- 
^aroxrav r) ro Trpocrfpepeiv rot flpr^itva 
TrapaLTeio-daxrav}. See also v. 2. 2. 

4. r)v K.T.X.] Comp. Trail. 9, and 
see the note on 2 above. 

VII. 'It is death to gainsay the 
gift of God. They must learn to 
love, if they would rise again. Have 
nothing to do with these men, but 
give heed to the Prophets, and es- 
pecially the Gospel, where the Pas- 
sion and Resurrection are set forth.' 

6. T0 8o)pea TOV Qeov] The 'gift 
of God' is the redemption of man 
through the incarnation and death 
of Christ. It has substantially the 
same sense in Ignatius, as in S. Paul, 
Rom. v. 15 sq, 2 Cor. ix. 15 ; comp. 

Iren. v. 2. 3. Those who denied 
the reality of the passion gainsaid 
the gift. There is no direct reference 
here to the eucharist, as Aldrich 
supposes. The elements were called 
8<upa, not as the gifts of God, but as 
the offerings of the congregation. 

7. (TvfrrovvTes K.T.A.] 'die by their 
disputing? The contentious spirit 
is death; for it is the negation of 
love (TO ayanav). 

(rwecptpev 5e K.r.X.] This was the 
point in which they were at fault, 

TTfpl dyd'/TTJS OV fJ,\L CtVTols 6. If 

they had devoted themselves to cha- 
ritable works instead of theological 
disputations, it would have been 
better for them (tnivcfaptv avroTs-). 
Love would have revived them, for 
love is resurrection, is life : comp. 
I John iii. 14 y^fls otfaptf ort /xera- 
jSe/Sjf/ca/zei/ CK TOV GCLVCITOV fls TTJV 
^atijv, OTI dya-rrutfjifv TOVS d8e\(pov$' 
o /LIT) dyaTra>i> /ne'i/fi ev r<u>. 
Many commentators (Cotelier, Pear- 
son, Aldrich, Hefele, Zahn) would 
take dycnrdv = dyd7rrjv Troielv f tO hold 
an agape' (see 8 below). This how- 
ever seems lexically impossible, nor 
would the passage be improved by 
the interpretation, if it could stand. 
The word might possibly contain an 
indirect allusion to the agape, but 
even this would destroy the force of 
the expression. The sense 'to ac- 
quiesce,' i.e. 'in the revelation of the 
Gospel,' which Smith assigns to the 
word, is too weak for the occasion. 

20 2 




Trdv *lva 


TWV TOLOVTWV, Kai fj.r)Te K.O.T av Trepi CIVT&V \a\elv 
iTe KOivfj* Trpocre^eiv Se TO?S TTpocpriTais, e^aipertos e 
evayryeXia), ev w TO 7rd6os ri SeS^AwTcu Kai r\ 

VIII. Toik [Se] juepKr/uLOvs (pevyere, cos dp%riv 

i /cat] G; om. L (the omission of et after ut was easy); al. Ag. ofo] 

Gg; om. AL* (but see Appx). 2 Trepl] Gg* (but v. 1. /xer'); de L; 

cum A. 4 ijfuv] GL, and this reading seems to be recognised in the 

paraphrase of g, rots vayye\i(ra(j.vots toiuv /c.r.X. ; nostra ( = r/ / uwj') A. 6 5] 

GL (but om. Lj) g; et A; om. [Dam-Rup i]. 7 ws 'iT/croOs Xptcrr^s 

ry Trarpf] GL Dam-Vat 2 Dam-Rup 5; ws 6 xpto-rds l-rjaovs ry Trar/Di g; jz'cw/ 
iesu christo et patri deo A. 8 Trpea-jSi^rep^] txt GL Dam- Vat ; add. 5 g ; 

1. rrpfTTov ovv cVrli/] See the note 
Ephes. 2. 

2. TTtpi avTtov] This expression 
suggests that the previous rwv TOIOV- 
TO>V may perhaps be neuter, and not 
masculine, as it is generally taken. 
See however 5 ror Se oi/o/mra avrav 


3. TOIS Trpo^rfrais-] On the pro- 
phets as witnesses to the passion 
and resurrection see 5 above, and 
Philad. 5, 9, with the notes. 

c 3 gaipT(*s 8e] ''but preeminently'' ; 
comp. Philad. 9 egaiptrov 8e TI ex l 
TO evayye\iov K.T.\. For 
see the note on Trail. 12. ' 
Se occurs, as here, in Mart. Ant. 3. 

4. r<5 erayyeX/o)] 'The Gospel' 
is here the body of fact or doctrine. 
There is no direct reference to a writ- 
ten record here, though the whole 
body of the four Gospels is often 
called TO i>ayye\iov (e.g. Orig. c. 
Cels. ii. 50, 76, v. 56). Pearson's 
question 'An unum tantum evange- 
lium viderat?' is quite out of place. 
For the distinction between 'the 
Gospel' and 'the Gospels,' comp. 
Iren. iii. n. 9 01 dQeTovvres rrjv Idc 
rov fvayyf\iov Kai eire TrXciova 

e'Xarroi/a TG>V fl 
vayye\io)v Trpdo-caTra, and again 'in 
nihilo conveniens apostolorum evan- 
geliis, ut nee evangelism quidem sit 
apud eos sine blasphemia' (comp. 
ib. 8 'neque rursus pauciora capit 
estte'vangelia : quoniam...firmamen- 
tum ecclesiae est evangelium etc'), 
Orig. c. Cels. ii. 13 ev rols evayye- 
\iois yypa7rrai...ovdev de fix ev ^<- 
dev TOV evayyeXiov (pepeiv (comp. i. 
44, 45, ii. 27, 34). 

5. rfreXeiWcu] 'has been fully 
accomplished"* ; comp. Philad. 9 ro 
Se fvayyeXiov aTraprttr/xa etrrii/ dcpdap- 
a-iay. The word cannot signify, as 
several commentators take it, 'is 
demonstrated, assured, attested.' 

VIII. ' Shun divisions. Follow 
the bishop and presbyters, and re- 
spect the deacons. Do nothing with- 
out the bishop. The eucharist is 
not valid without his consent. Where 
the bishop is, there should the laity 
be found. It is not allowable to 
baptize or to hold an agape without 
him. A ceremony so held is dis- 
pleasing to God and has no vali- 

6. Tovs be nfpio-fjiovs K.r.X.] Comp. 




KCLKWV. 7rdvT$ TO) eirifTKOTTu* ctKoXovOelre, ws '/ 

XplOTTOS TCd TTCLTpi, KCCl TW 7Tpecr/3vTpL(t) ft)S TO?S 

orr6\ois' TOVS Se SICLKOVOVS evrpeireaGe ok Geoi; 
10 /Uriels x M P^ eTTHTKOTrov TL Trpaa-a-eTO) TWV dvrjKovrcov ek 

/3e(3aia evaurria qyeiirOta Y\ 

VTTO TOV eiricTKOTTOV ovcra, fj u> av avros 

sacerdotibus A (see the note on Trail. 7, p. 170). 9 &To\yv] txt GLA 

Dam-Reg Dam-Rup ; add. SiaKovovvras g Dam-Vat. 10 e7rt(r/c67rou] g 

Dam-Vat Dam-Rup ; TOV e-rriaKOTrov G. ei's TT\V eKK\t]aiav] GLg Dam-Vat ; 

ev eKKXyaig. Dam-Rup; al. A. n tKelvrj] GLg Dam-Vat; om. A (?) Dam- 

Rup. 12 virb TOV eiriffKOTrov] GLg Dam-Reg; virb T&V eiriaK&iruv 

Dam- Vat; virb TOV eirivKbirov A (translating quaecumque ab episcopo efficiattcr) 
Dam-Rup. $] GAg Dam-Rup; quod (o) L; def. Dam-Vat. &i>] 

Gg; ^d^ Dam-Rup; def. Dam-Vat. 

Philad. 2 (note), 7, where the same 
expression occurs of these same 
heretics. These Docetic teachers 
were separatists, as well as heretics. 
Their separatism however seems to 
have been only partial. They would 
mix with the Church generally, but 
they would have their separate ritual, 
e.g. the agape, baptism, etc. 

7. (as 'Irjcrovs /c.r.A.] For this 
analogy see Magn. 6, 7 TrpoKadrj^evov 
rov eTTMTKOTrov cis TVTTOv Qeov . . ,<B(77rep 
ovv o Kvpios avev rov irarpos ov8ev 
fTToirjcrev K.r.A., ib. 13 i>7rordyr)T roi 
eViovcoTTO) KOI dX\7;Xois, coy 'iT/croOs 
Xpicrros rco Trarpt, Trail. 3 TOV eVi- 

0-K07TOV (JVTO. TV7TOV TOV TTttTpOy, With 

the respective notes. 

8. cos rois aTTocrroXois] For this 
comparison see Magn. 6 rcoi> npeo-ftv- 
repcoi/ eis TVTTOV arvvedpiov TO>V ciTrocrro- 
Xcoi/, Trail. 2 v7roTa.o~(T(T6e KOI rco 
Trpecr/Swept'cp cos rois aTrooroXots K.r.X., 
ib. 3 TOVS 8e 7rpeo~[3vTpovs cos crvve- 
ftpiov Qeov Kai cos o~vv8eo~iJiov ciTrocrro- 
Xcoi/, and conversely Philad. 5 rois 
OTTocrroXots cos Trpfcr/Sureptco eKK\rjo'ias ) 
with the several notes. 

9- coy 6eo9 lvTO\rjv\ not ' J ///<? 
ordinance enjoined by God'' (so Pear- 

son 'tanquam Dei praecepto insti- 
tutes'), but ' as the voice of God 
enjoining you? The deacons speak 
with the authority of God ; they 
command in God's place. See the 
note on the parallel passage Trail. 
13 uTToracrcro/Lifi/oi rep eVicncoyrco cos TTJ 
(VToXfj, and compare the v. 1. in the 
Latin of Trail. 3 'vereantur dia- 
conos ut mandatum Jesu Christi,' 
which is probably borrowed from 
this passage. See also i Cor. xiv. 
37 eVtyiz/cocTKerco a ypacpco ort Kvpi'ou 
fo-T\t> evToXij. The interpolator has 
inserted SKKOVOVVTCIS to govern ev- 
TO\^V and thus relieve the sense. 

10. /z?7e!s x^P^ K ' T -^-\ See the 
note on Magn. 7. 

rcov avr\K.'ovT<av els] See the notes 
on Philad. i and Clem. Rom. 45. 

11. eKeivrj x.r.X.] This passage 
shows that the heretics celebrated 
the eucharist separately; see also 
below OVK e6v K.r.X. 

j3e/3at'a] 'valid] as e.g. Rom. iv. 16, 
Heb. ii. 2, ix. 17; comp. Rom. 3. 

rjyeia-Ooi] ' be held' This passive 
use of deponent verbs, even in the 
present and imperfect tenses, is not 
very uncommon in other words, e.g. 





6 67ri(TKO7ros, e/cel TO 7r\fj6os e&rw, uxnrep 

i &v] Gg Dam- Vat Dam-Rup; eav Dam-Reg. 6 ^TT&T/COTTOS] Gg Dam- 

Vat Dam-Rup; eTri'cr/coTros Antioch 14. &TTW] Gg; ^frw Antioch Dam- Vat; 

om. Dam-Rup. 2 STTOU &v 77] G; STTOV tav y Dam-Rup; &TTOV &v Dam- 

Vat; 8-rrov (om. &i> $) g; oirovirep &v 6vofj.a.<rOTj Antioch; utique ubi est L; ubi 

camus quomodo possumus) univer- 
salia vel perpetualia\ and examples 
might be multiplied. The word 
therefore was extremely common in 
the age of Ignatius. 

At a later date the expression ij 
K.ado\iKr) eKK\r]o-ia acquired a techni- 
cal meaning, 'the Catholic Church', 
as opposed to the heretical sects ; 
but here its use is different. It is 
the general or universal Church, as 
opposed to a particular body of 
Christians. This meaning is ob- 
viously required by the context ; and 
yet it was reserved for Zahn (/. v. A. 
p. 428) to emphasize the difference, 
and to point out its bearing on the 
Ignatian controversy. The expres- 
sion as used here therefore is no 
indication of a late date, but the 
opposite. It was natural at any 
moment from the time when the 
Church first began to spread by the 
labours of the Apostles. Thus it is 
not more indicative of a late date 
than other uses of the word in early 
Christian writers ; e.g. 77 Ka#. dvao-ra- 
<ris 'the general resurrection', Justin 
Dial. 82 (p. 308), Theoph. ad Autol. 
i. 13 (p. 1 8) ; Ka0. TrvevfjuiTa (of the four 
principal winds) Iren. iii. n. 8; *ad. 
diadiJKcu Iren. iii. II. 9; <a6. o-arrjpia 
Clem. Alex. Paed. i. 6 (p. 116) ; <aQ. 
o/LioXoyia (opposed to pepiKij) Strom, iv. 
9 (P- 595) > Ka @- Ktvrja-is <ai /j.eTd0f(Tis 
(speaking of Matt, xxvii. 52) Strom. 
vi. 6 (p. 764) ; Ka6. Xoyos, Strom, i. 
4 (P- 330), vi. 8 (p. 773) ; ra K a0. 
oToixda (of the letters of the alpha- 
bet), <ad. QcupjfjiaTa, Strom, viii. 8 
(p. 928) ; 'cath. bonitas' (said of God) 
Tertull. adv. Marc. ii. 17; 'cath. 


Kiihner II. p. 106, Winer xxxviii. 
p. 325, Cope on Arist. Rhet. I. p. 299 
sq ; and for &xr&u, Trpoo-Sf'xecr&u, 
etc, see Poppo on Thuc. iv. 19 (comp. 
e.g. the passive npoo-dexeo-da) in 
^4/^/. G?J/. ii. 58, viii. 31). But I 
have not found an instance of the 
present or imperfect of rjyflaOat ex- 
cept in an active sense, for in Herod, 
iii. 14 r/yeopevov, 'being led,' the 
reading is highly doubtful. The per- 
fect rd dyrjpeva occurs as a passive in 
an oracle in Demosth. Mac. p. 1072, 
and TJyr)6ij<rcTai also is passive in 
Hippol. Haer. i. procem. p. 3. The 
commentators do not notice the dif- 

2. ?) KcttfoXiKr) eKK\r)o-iu] ''the uni- 
versal Church? The bishop, argues 
Ignatius, is the centre of each in- 
dividual Church, as Jesus Christ is 
the centre of the universal Church. 
The word KatioXiKos is found in a 
treatise ascribed to Aristotle de Plant. 

11. 6 (p. 826), where KadoXiKos \oyos 
is a 'universal statement' (comp. ii. 
8, p. 828, KaQoXtKtos) ; and Zeno the 
Stoic wrote a work called Ka0oXt/ca 
' Universals ' (Diog. Laert. vii. 4). 
It occurs several times in Polybius, 
e.g. vi. 5. 3 K. e/jKpao-is 'a general 
exposition,' viii. 4. 1 1 K. la-ropia ' uni- 
versal history.' So also Philo Vit. 
Moys. iii. 32 (it. p. 172) KaQoXiKurepov 
Popov, c. Place. 29 (ii. p. 574) rf)s 
K.a6o\iKG)Te pas TroXireias 1 , Dion. Hal. 
de Comp. Verb. p. 68 Ka6o\tKrjv rre- 
pi\T)\l/iv, Epictet. ii. 20. 2 Ka6o\tKov 
a\T)6es (comp. ii. 2. 25, iv. 4. 29, iv. 

12. 7), Quintil. ii. 13. 14 'praecepta 
quae Ka6o\iKa vocant, id est (ut di- 




6Kl Y\ 


! eKK\f](Tia. 

sit A. Xpt<rr6s 'IT/CTOUS] GL Antioch Dam- Reg; t'^crouj %ptcrr6s A Dam- 

Rup; 6 xP Lc r T fc Dam-Vat. e/c/fX^cria] txt GLA (which however inserts 

sit or esto] Dam-Vat Dam- Rup; add. ^lavvdyeTaL [Antioch]. 

Dei templum ' (applied to our Lord), 
adv. Marc. iii. 21; ' cath. patris 
sacerdos' (said likewise of Christ) 
adv. Marc. iv. g. 

The earliest examples after this 
time, where it occurs as an epithet 
of <EKK\r](ria, are (about A.D. 155 or a 
little later) in the letter of the Church 
of Smyrna on the Martyrdom of 
Poly carp, where it occurs three times ; 
inscr. iracrais rair Kara TCOVTO. TOTTOV 
TTJS ay Las KCU KadoXitcrjs <K\rjcrias Trap- 
oiKiai?, 8 rraarjs TTJS Kara TTJV OIKOV- 
fj,evr)v KaOoXiKTjs KK\r](rias ) 19 '^o~ovv rr/s Kara TTJV OLKOV- 
\iivr]v Kado\iKT)s fKK\r)(TLas ; but in all 
these passages it still signifies ' uni- 
versal.' In a fourth passage indeed, 
1 6, Polycarp is called in the com- 
mon texts e7rio~KOTTos rrjs ei> 2p.vpvrj 
KadoXiKrjs KK\r]o-ias. If this reading 
were correct we should have here 
the earliest instance of the use of 
' Catholic Church ' in its technical 
sense ; and it would stand in marked 
contrast with the passage in Igna- 
tius. For, whereas in Ignatius the 
'Catholic Church' is distinguished 
from the congregation over which 
Polycarp presided, in the passage 
of the Martyrdom this very congre- 
gation is itself so designated. But 
the recently collated Moscow MS. 
(see Zeitschr. f. Hist. Theol. 1875, 
p. 360) for KaOoXiKfjs has dyias in ac- 
cordance with the Latin Version ; 
and there can therefore be little 
doubt that this is the original read- 
ing. The technical sense however 
occurs in the Muratorian Fragment 
pp. 20, 47 (ed. Tregelles), ' in catho- 
licam ecclesiam recipi non potest' 
(speaking of heretical writings), and 

very emphatically in Clem. Alex. 
Strom, vii. 17 (p. 898) /^erayei/eoWpas 
Trjs KadoXtKrjs eKK\T)(rias TO.S avQpco- 
irivas (rvvrjXva-fis 7riroiij<acriv...K. rf)s 
7rpoyvf(TTdTT)s <a\ aXrjOecrTaTrjs eKK\r)- 
(rias...fJ.iav eii/ai rr/v aXrjQrj KK\r)<riav 
rfjv rw OVTI ap^aiav...^ovrjv eivai (papev 
TT)V dpxaiav /cat Ka6o\iKr]V eKK\r)<riav eis 


In its earliest usages therefore, as 
a fluctuating epithet of cVucAqo-uz, 
' catholic ' means ' universal/ as op- 
posed to 'individual', 'particular.' 
The Church throughout the world is 
called 'catholic,' just as the Resur- 
rection of all mankind is called 
'catholic.' In its later sense, as a 
fixed attribute, it implies orthodoxy 
as opposed to heresy, conformity as 
opposed to dissent. Thus to the 
primary idea of extension are super- 
added also the ideas of doctrine and 
unity. But this later sense grows 
out of the earlier. The truth was 
the same everywhere, 'quod semper, 
quod ubique, quod ab omnibus.' The 
heresies were partial, scattered, lo- 
calized, isolated (comp. the note on 
Col. i. 6). See Athanasius Festal 
Letters 11 (p. 94, Oxf. transl.) 'The 
Catholic Church which is in every 
place,' Aug. Epist. liii (n. p. 119) 
' KadoXiKr; Graece appellatur, quod per 
totum. orbem terrarum diffunditur.' 
Not unnaturally however there was 
a tendency in theologians to put 
into the word more than history 
warranted : e.g. Cyril of Jerusalem 
Catech. xviii. 23 (p. 296) says that 
the Catholic Church was so called 
for three reasons ; (i) 8ia TO /mra 
ea/ai Trjs oiKoviMvrjs ; (2) dia TO 

3 I2 





r v ^TTLO-KOTTOV ovre ftcnrri^eur 

i TOV] Gg Antioch Dam-Vat; om. Dam-Rup. i ayd-ir-riv] GLA (see 

Petermann) Antioch Dam-Vat ; dyciiras S x (owing to ribut) Dam-Rup ; 

drravTa TO. els yvaxriv dvOp(0ira>v e 
o(peiXoi>ra So-y/xara ; (3) dia TO Ka6o- 
AIKOOJ larpeveiv p.ev KOL depairevfiv anav 
TO TO>V dfjiapTiav el8os K.r.X. These 
two latter reasons, that it is com- 
prehensive in doctrine, and that it is 
universal in application, can only be 
regarded as secondary glosses. So 
again Augustine Epist. xciii. 7 (n. 
p. 240) calls a Donatist adversary 
to account because he explained 
' Catholicae nomen non ex totius or- 
bis communione sed ex observatione 
praeceptorum omnium divinorum at- 
que omnium sacramentorum ', but he 
adds 'quasi nos, etiamsi forte hinc sit 
appellata Catholica, quod totum ve- 
raciter teneat, cuius veritatis non- 
nullae particulae etiam in diversis in- 
veniuntur haeresibus, etc.' 

I. OVTC ficnrTi&iv] Tertull. de 
Bapt. 17 ' observatione 
quoque dandi et accipiendi baptismi 
commonefacere. Dandi quidem ha- 
bet jus summus sacerdos, qui est 
episcopus ; dehinc presbyteri et dia- 
coni, non tamen sine episcopi aucto- 
ritate, etc.' In early times the bishop 
stood to his diocese in the same in- 
timate relations in which a rector now 
stands to his parish. Reference to 
him therefore was possible on all 
these points. The following passages 
show how it soon became necessary 
to relax the rule and extend the 
power to others ; Cypr. Epist. Ixxiii. 
7 sq (p. 783 sq, H artel) 'intellegi- 
mus nonnisi in ecclesia praepositis 
...licere posse quen- 
quam contra episcopos et sacerdotes 
usurpare sibi aliquid'; Can. Apost. 
C. 47 firio'K.oiros rj 7rpeo"/3urepos TOV 
Kara dXijffeiav e^oi/ra /3a7rrio-/na eav 
avvBfv panTio-Tj K.r.X. (comp. c. 46, 
49, 50), Apost. Const, iii. 1 1 ovre rots 

, olov dva"yv(oo~Tais /t.r.X., rj povois 

Kdl 7Tp CT/3 VT ep O I S, 6^- 

[Cypr.] de Rebapt. 10 (p. 82, Hartel) 
'aut si a minor e clero per necessi- 
tatem traditum fuerit.' Yet theoreti- 
cally the power still remained with 
the bishop ; see esp. Hieron. c. Lucif. 
9 (ll. p. 181 sq) 'Non quidem abnuo 
hanc esse ecclesiarum consuetudi- 
nem, ut ad eos qui longe a maioribus 
urbibus per presbyteros et diaconos 
baptizati sunt, episcopus ad invoca- 
tionem sancti spiritus manum im- 
positurus excurrat. . . . Inde venit ut 
sine chrismate et episcopi jussione 
neque presbyter neque diaconus jus 
habeant baptizandi ; quod frequenter, 
si tamen necessitas cogit, scimus 
etiam licere laicis ' ; Ambros. de 
Sacram. iii. I (p. 362) * Succinctus 
summus sacerdos: licet enim pres- 
byteri fecerint, tamen exordium mi- 
nisterii a summo est sacerdote.' 
Comp. Bingham Christ. Ant. ii. 3. 3, 
Augusti Denkw. aus der Christl. 
Archdol. vil. p. 136 sq, Probst Sa- 
kramente etc. p. 115 sq. 

2. ovTf dydnrjv rroiflv] ' nor to hold a 
love-feast? The interpolator expands 
the sentence, oure /:Wri'eti> oiVe irpov- 
(pepeiv OVTC 6v(rla.v TTpoo'ACO/ii^'eiy oure 
do%r)v eVireXcii/. For this last clause 
comp. Apost. Const, ii. 28 TOIS els 
dydnrjv r\roi 8ox^v, as 6 Kvpios 
Q)i/o/xao-6, TrpoaipovfjLevois KaXetv x.r.X. 
(where the reference is to Luke xiv. 
13 OTCIV Troys 8oxnv K.r.X.). For 
0^77, as a synonyme for ayaVj;, see 
the emperor Julian Fragm. Epist. 
p. 305 Spanh. (i. p. 392, ed. Hert- 
lein) TTJS Xeyo/zcV^s 1 Trap' avTols dydnr^s 
rj vTTodoxfjs KOI SiaKovias rpaTre^toi/, 
where he is speaking of the 'impious 





Troielv d\\' o av e'fce?i/o 

[g]. o] GLSjA[g] Antioch Dam- Vat; $ Dam-Rup. 

Antioch Dam- Vat; av Dam-Rup. 



Galileans.' For this use of ayanrj in 
the earliest ages of the Church see 
Jude 1 2 fv TOLS dydirais vp-wv o-m\ddfs 
(compared with 2 Pet. ii. 13 evrpv- 
ev rats dydirats avrtiv, avveva- 
vfjuv, where the v. 1. aVarats' 
is an obvious error), Clem. Alex. 
Paed. ii. I (p. 165) ov dydrrrjv rives 

re /cat Tpv<j)rj KOL Kairvco p 
Tovvop,a...dei7rvdpid re KOL apiara Koi 
doxds etKorcos av KaXolpev rrjv (Tvvrj\v- 
cnv Tavrrjv . . .rds Toiavras 5e ecrrtacreis 1 o 
Kvpios dydrras ov <eK\rjKev (denouncing 
the abuse of these entertainments), 
Strom, iii. 2 (p. 514) els ra 
dOpoigo/jifvovs, ov yap dydnrjv 
av eyeoye TTJV (rvv\vo~iv avrwv (speak- 
ing of the Carpocratians), Celsus in 
Grig. c. Cels. i. I (i. p. 319) /3ovXerai 
rr\v Ka\ov/J.evr)V dydirrjv Xpttr- 

K.r.X., Act. Paul, et Thecl. 25 
r\v ecra) ev rw fj,VT)p.ei(o dydtrr) TroXXr; 
(not found however in all texts), 
Act. Perp. et Felic. 17 'Quantum in 
ipsis erat, non coenam liberam sed 
agapen coeriarent/ Tertull. Apol. 39 
' Coena nostra de nomine rationem 
sui ostendit : id vocatur quod di- 
lectio penes Graecos etc.' (where it 
is described), ad Mart. 2 ' Ouae justa 
sunt caro non amittit per curam ec- 
clesiae et agapen fratrum,' de 'Jejun. 
17 'Apud te agape in caccabis fervet 
etc.' (where, as a Montanist, he is 
reviling the feasts of the Catholics). 
We find references to these agapae 
in heathen writers (besides Celsus 
already quoted who seems to have 
mentioned them by name) ; e.g. Pliny 
Ep. x. 97 (96) 'Solid stato die ante 
lucem convenire carmenque Christo 
quasi Deo dicere secum invicem, 
seque sacramento non in scelus ali- 
quod obstringere, sed ne furta, ne 

latrocinia, ne adulteria committerent 
...quibus peractis morem sibi disce- 
dendi fuisse, rursusque \coeundi\ ad 
capiendum cibum, promiscuum tamen 
et innoxium : quod ipsum facere 
desisse post edictum meum, quo 
secundum mandata tua hetaerias 
esse vetueram ' ; and Lucian de 
Mort. Peregr. 12 etra del-rrva irouecXa 
eto-eKOfii'ero /cat Xoyot lepol avrwv 

In the Apostolic age the eucharist 
formed part of the agape. The ori- 
ginal form of the Lord's Supper, as 
it was first instituted by Christ, was 
thus in a manner kept up. This 
appears from I Cor. xi. 17 sq (comp. 
Acts xx. 7), from which passage we 
infer that the celebration of the eu- 
charist came, as it naturally would, 
at a late stage in the entertainment. 
In the Doctr. Apost. 10 this early 
practice is still observed. In after 
times however the agape was held 
at a separate time from the eu- 
charist. Had this change taken 
place before Ignatius wrote ? I think 
not. The words oiVe /3a7rrieii/ ovre 
dydnr)v Troielv seem to describe the 
two most important functions in 
which the bishop could bear a part, 
so that the dydirr) must include the 
eucharist. Indeed there would be 
an incongruity in this juxtaposition, 
as Zahn truly says (7. v. A. p. 348), 
unless the other great sacrament 
were intended; see e.g. Tertull. de 
Virg. Vel. 9 'Non permittitur mulieri 
in ecclesia loqui, sed nee docere 
nee tingucre nee offerre] de Exh. 
Cast. 7 'et offers ettinguis et sacerdos 
es tibi solus.' Nor would the omis- 
sion of the eucharist be intelligible. 
Pearson indeed urges ' de eucha- 
ristia ante locutus est' ; but this fact 



TW Qeu* evdpe&TOV, lli/a dor(f)a\6s y Kai (3e{3aiov TTCLV 

IX. GuXoyov ecrnv \OITTOV dvavfj^at f)/xas, ok [ert] 
Kaipov e^o/zez/ ek Qeov fj.Tavoeiv. fcaXws e^et Qeov Kai 
e7ricrKO7rov el^evai. 6 TI/ULWV eTricrKOTrov VTTO Qeov rert- 5 
6 \d6pa eTTKTKOTrov TI Trpdcrcrcov TW 

i Kai] GL Antioch Dam-Reg Dam-Rup; om. S X A Dam-Vat. 
GLSjA Antioch Dam- Vat ; paraphrased /car' vapt<TT-r)ai.v 6eov g; r 
XjOitrry Dam-Rup. IVa] g Dam-Rup; IV G. i o Trpaffaere] 

quod facitis S x ; quidquid et faciatis A ; o 7rpd<raeTai GL Dam-Rup ; 6 5' &v 
Trpd<r<rf)Te g (attaching it to the next sentence). 3 avavrj^at ^as] g 

Dam-Rup; ut evigilemus 8^4 p*ynri3*T); vigilem stare A (the Syriac form for 
the 3rd pers. sing, and the ist pers. plur. being the same); &vavij\l/a.i (om. ij/ 
GL. Add. Kai GL (so that /j-eravoeiv is made dependent on ev\oy6v <TTLV); om. 
s i S 4 A g Dam-Rup. Thus Kai seems to have displaced fy*as. ^TI] GLg; 

om. S^A Dam-Rup. 4 /Aerai/oeii'] GLSjg Dam-Rup; poenitentiae A; 

would not dispense with the men- 
tion here, where it is imperatively 
demanded. The interpolator, living 
more than two centuries after the fv^a- 
had been separated from the 
], feels this necessity and inserts 
words accordingly, ot're 7rpo<r<j)cpciv 
OVTC dva-iav TrpoarKo^i^fiv. On the 
other hand some have inferred from 
the words of Pliny quoted above 
and italicized, that when he wrote 
(about A.D. 112) the two were held 
at different times of the day. This 
however depends, first on the ac- 
curacy of Pliny's information, and 
secondly on the interpretation of 
sacramentum, which is supposed to 
have been used by his Christian 
informers in its technical sense and 
to have been misunderstood and 
confused with its ordinary meaning 
by Pliny. The inference therefore is 
somewhat precarious. Others again 
maintain that the eucharist was se- 
parated from the agape and attached 
to the early morning service in con- 
sequence of Pliny's edict prohibiting 
these Christian hetaeriae. For dif- 

ferent views on the relation of the 
agape and eucharist see Bingham, 
Antiq. xv. 7. 6 sq, Augusti Denkw. 
vill. p. 78 sq, 317 sq, Probst Lehre 
u. Gebet p. 349 sq, Th. Harnack Der 
Christliche Gemeindegottesdienst p. 
213 sq, Suicer Thes. s. v. 'Aycnrr). 

IX. ' It is well to learn sobriety, 
and repent, while there is time. 
Honour God and the bishop. He 
who deceives the bishop serves the 
devil. May you abound in all grace, 
as you deserve. You have been good 
to me alike in my presence and in my 
absence. May God requite you.' 

3. evXoyoi>] '// is the part of 
reasonable men? \ a common expres- 
sion. It frequently however means, 
not 'it is reasonable,' but 'it is pro- 
bable,' e.g. Cic. ad Att. xiii. 7, xiv. 
22. The word occurs in the same 
sense as here in Magn. 7. The 
warning is addressed to the here- 
tical teachers. 

\OITTOV] l for what remains] i.e. 
seeing that the time is short ; as in 
E,phes. 1 1 eV^aroi Kaipoi \onrov al- 





\ctTpevei. Trdvra ovv v/uuv v %piTi TrepicrcreveTa), 
aioi <ydp eo-re. Kara irdvTa /u.6 a vena vcrare, Kal 


10 d/mei/Soi v/uup Geo's, Si* ov TrdvTa lyTro/xeVoi/re? CIVTOV 

X. <Pi\a)va Kal ' Pdlov 'AyadoTrovv, 01 7rrjKO\ov- 

om. S 4 . 5 eTriffKOTrov virb Qeov] Gg Dam-Vat Dam-Rup; TOV tirlcr KOTTOV 

VTTO TOV 6eov Antioch 14. rer^rai] GL Dam-Vat Dam-Rup; rtjuarcu 

Antioch; honoratur S X A; nfu^fftrat [g]. 8 /card TrAvra] G; secundum 

enim omnia L; nam in omni A; Ka9a (om. iravra) [g]. 9 'iTjcrous Xptcrros] 

G; l-rjtrovs 6 xP ia " r ^ g- IO d/j.eipoi] d/xot/Set G; retribuat L; servabit A; 

d/xei^erai [g]. u/xZi/] G; z/0fo> L; u/xas g. 0e6s] G; 6 0o's 

g. 12 'Pcuoi'] p^wf G; reum L; 'ydubi' g; agrium (aypiov) A. This 

last may perhaps be a confusion of the two readings p<\ION (peON) and fAION, 
or it may have come from KAIpeON, read KAfpeON : see on Philad. n. After 
this name add. Kal gLA; om. G: see on Philad. n. 'Ayadoirovv] G; aga- 

thopum L; dyaOoTroda g (but 1 has agathopum}', dub. A. 

dvavfj\lfai] ' to recover our senses? 
The word occurs in the same con- 
nexion, 2 Tim. ii. 25 dwrj avrois 6 
060? fjifrdvoiav els cjriyvaxriv d\rj- 
6fias KCU avavrj^ra>(Ti,v fK TTJ? TOV 
dtaftoXov Trayi'Sos, [Clem. Rom.] ii. 
13 rjdr) TTOTC /Merai/oT/o-eo/zfi/, vrj^apfv 
tm TO ayaQov. See also M. Anton, 
vi. 31 dvdvr)(j)c <al dvaKaXov aeavTov. 

<wy CTI Kaipov e^o/iev] See Gal. vi. 
10, [Clem. Rom.] ii. 9, with the notes. 

5. ddevai] ' to acknowledge, ap- 
preciate, value '; see esp. i Thess. v. 
12 fldevat TOVS KOTritoi/Tas ev iifilv Kal 
Trpo'io-Tapcvovs v^v ev Ktpia>. The 
more natural word with 
would be yivoHTKfiv or eT 
but eifevai Qeov is a somewhat fami- 
liar expression. 

o Tipoav K.r.X.] Comp. Philad. 1 1 
dfia e/xot OTTO 'E<eo-iW Kal 
els \oyov Tifj.rjs. rt/zr;cri 
avTovs o Kvpios K.T.\. For such 
modes of expression in Ignatius ge- 
nerally see the note on 5 above. 

8. aioi K.T.A.] See the note on 
Ephes. i. 

Kara irdvra x.r.X.] See the note on 
Ephes. 2 for this favourite Ignatian 

Kal v/Jids] SC. oVaTravcrei or dvairav- 
a-fif ; comp. Ephes. 21 cos Kal vfjL&v 'I. 
X., Philad. 11 (as Kal vpds 6 Kvpios. 
The future is suggested by 10 ov8c 
vp.ds firaio-xvv6rj<rTai K.r.X. ; the 
optative aorist by Ephes. 2 cor Kal 
avTov 6 TraTrjp 'I. X. dva^v^ai. 

9. dnovra /c.r.X.] Comp. Phil. ii. 

jj-ycwnjo-are] See the note on Polyc. 


10. TraWa VTroyuei/oiTes] See the 
note on 4 above. 

avTov Tfv&o-Qf] See the note on 
Magn. i. 

X. ' Ye did well to welcome Philo 
and Agathopus. They have a grate- 
ful remembrance of your kindness. 
You will not lose your reward. I am 
devoted to you. As ye were not 
ashamed of my bonds, so also Christ 
will not be ashamed of you.' 

12. &i\a>va K.T.A.] On the two 
persons here mentioned see the notes 


[JLOL ek Xo^ov Oeov, KaXtos eVo^Vare v 
s SICIKOVOVS [XjOicrroi/] Oeov* oi KCII 

(TIV TO) KvpLW V7T6p VfULWV, OTL CtVTOVS dv67ravCTaT6 KClTa 

TTCLVTO, TpOTrov. ovSev v fjfiv ov JAY} aTroXeiTai. dvTi- 
i//ufc)j/ TO TrvevfJid JULOV, Kal TO. Secrjuid JULOV a ov% 5 

2 X/H(rrou Geou] G; del christi L; 6eov (om. xpioroC) A. In g the passage is 
paraphrased ot ^irrjKoXoijdrja-dv /JLOL ets Xo'yoi' Oeov didKovot x/9t<rrou fores, /caXtDs 
e'TTOiTyo-are UTroSe^d/xevoi us 5iai<6vovs xp LffT0 ^^ n the Greek MSS, but 1 has minis- 
tros dei in this last place, and perhaps 5ta/c6vous 0eou was the original reading of g 
here. If so, the paraphrase may point to x/HoroO deov as standing in the text 

to Philad. n. They had evidently 
arrived at Smyrna after the depar- 
ture of Ignatius thence and followed 
him to Troas. 

1. ds \6yov] t to the score of] t m 
the matter of 7 ', see the note on 
Philad. 1 1 els \6yov Tififjs. 

2. toy dianovovs K.r.X.J It is pro- 
bable that the Armenian Version has 
preserved the correct text. The com- 
mon reading SICLKOVOVS Xpiorov 0eoC 
must be regarded as a confusion of 
the two expressions dLanovovs Xpicrrov 
and duiKovovs 0eou. Both occur in 
S. Paul; dtaKovos Qeov, Rom. xiii. 4, 
2 Cor. vi. 4, i Thess. iii. 2 (v. L); Sia- 
KOVOS [roO] Xpio-rov, 2 Cor. xi. 23, Col. 
i. 7 (comp. i Tim. iv. 6) : and both 
are combined by Polyc. Phil. 5 0eov 
/cat Xpwrrov SICIKOI/OI. A scribe, fami- 
liar with the language of the Apostle, 
would not unnaturally write down 
the alternative phrase in his margin 
or elsewhere ; and hence the con- 
fusion. At all events the expression 
XpioroG GeoO is very awkward in 
itself and quite without a parallel 
even in Ignatius. The nearest ap- 
proach to it is the various reading 
Xpurrov rou Geov (above, 6) which, 
though more intelligible, is itself 
highly doubtful (see the note there). 
See also a questionable parallel in 
Trail. 7. For the limitations with 

which Ignatius speaks of Christ as 
God, see the note on Ephes. inscr. 

Though S. Paul uses the expres- 
sion diaKovoi Qfov (or XpiorTov) in a 
much wider sense, it is probable that 
Ignatius here employs didnovos in 
its technical, restricted meaning of 
' deacon,' for he never uses it with 
any other signification ; comp. esp. 
Trail. 2 rovs diaKovovs ovras /XVOTT;- 
pia>v 'irjo-ov Xpiirroi;. See also the 
note on Ephes. 2 respecting his ap- 
plication of a-vv8ov\os after S. Paul, 
but with a similar restriction. Philo 
is distinctly called a deacon in 
Philad. 1 1 ; and the same was pro- 
bably true of Agathopus (see the note 

4. avrfyvxov K.T.X.] Comp. Polyc. 
2 Kara iravra crov dvTL\lfv%ov fy&> <ai ra 
e<rp.a p.ov a ^yan^a-as. For the mean- 
ing of dvTL\lsv%ov see the note on 
Ephes. 21. 

5. ov% vTTfpi/cpaj'^o'aTe] Comp. Gal. 
iv. 14. 

6. ovfie firrj(rxyv0^rf] Suggested by 
2 Tim. i. 1 6 TT)I/ SXvo-iv pov OVK eV//- 
trxvvBri (see the note on Ephes. 2). 
The interpolator has seen the pa- 
rallel and introduced the context of 
S. Paul into the context of Ignatius, 
SCUT; vfjuv o Kvptos evpelv eXeos /c.r.X. It 
will be seen that there is considerable 
authority for lira.i.(rxvv6r)T here ; and 




ovfie e 
0*l(reTcti r\ T6\eia Tr 

XI. '/-/ Trpcxrevxri VIULWV d7rfj\6ev CTTI TYIV 6KK\rjcriav 

Tr]v ev 'Avrioxeia Trjs Cvpias* o6ev SeSejuez/os 6eo7rpe- 

10 TrecTTCLTOis SecrULoIs TrdvTas dcrTrdoULaiy OVK wv dios 

which the paraphrast had before him. See however the lower note. 

5 vfj.uv] LAg ; Tjfji&i> G. 6 u7rep770a>77<raTe] vtrepL^avrjaare G. 

ircuvx.vvdr)Te G. The MSS of g vary between ^Traiffx^drfre and 
see the lower note. ou5 sec.] GLA; Sib ovdt g. 7 

GL; A:risgA: see the lower note. Xpi<rr6s] G; 6 X/HOTOS [g]. 

you thus to show your sympathy with 
them for that the storm has ceased 
and the haven is reached. Aim at 
perfection in your counsels. God 
ever assists the ready will.' 

8. C H Trpocrevxn] See the note on 
Philad. 10. 

dTTT)\6e v eVi] ' '"went forth unto] 'has 
been directed towards] as e.g. Luke 
xxiv. 24 aitriXOov eVi ro pvrjfj.e'iov. 
Their prayer had indeed been an- 
swered ; but this is not the point 
here, and cannot be implied in the 
expression. ' Your prayer,' says Ig- 
natius, ' travelled to Antioch ; let 
your congratulations follow on the 
same road.' 

9. rfjs Svpms] See the note 
Philad. 10. 

06 fv Sede/ieW] As Ephes. 21 ; 
comp. also Ephes. I 

in 2 Tim. i. 16 eTraio-xvvdr) is the best 
supported reading. Probably this 
was a common, though incorrect, 
form of the word, and perhaps it 
should be retained here. 

eTratcr^w^'o-erat] Comp. Mark viii. 
38 os yap av fTraia")(yv6fi p.f...Ka\ 6 vlos 
TOV av6pa>Trov eVawr^w^^o'erat K.r.A. 
(Luke ix. 26). 

7. TTio-rts] Here in its passive 
sense ' trust-worthiness, fidelity] as 
e.g. in Rom. iii. 3. See Galatians 
p. 155, and the note on v. 22. For 
the idea compare Heb. vi. 10 ov yap 
o Qeos eVtXa^eV^at TOV fpyov 

ojv K.r.X. In this mention of Christ's 
fidelity there is probably a reference 
to His promise, which is quoted in 
the last note. The reading eXnis has 
rather better support, but is open to 
suspicion as a scribe's alteration, the 
term being frequently used of Christ 
in these epistles ; see the notes on 
Magn. ii. 

XI. 'Your prayer for the Church 
of Antioch has been heard. A very 
unworthy member of that Church, I 
have nevertheless been glorified by 
my bonds and have received grace, 
which I pray may be perfected. 
Perfect your work also and send an 
ambassador to Syria to congratulate 
the brethren on the restoration of 
peace. It will be a deed worthy of 

0eo7rpe7re<rraroir] So called because 
they are goodly ; ornaments ' with 
which God has invested him ; comp. 


fcrfjLols said with re- 
ference to Ignatius and others, Epist. 
Vienn. in Euseb. H. E. v. I ra Seo'/xa 
Kooyioi/ evTrpeTTJj. See the note on 
Ephes. ii. For the word deoTrpcmjs 
see the note on Magn. i. 

10. OVK a>i/ agios] See the notes on 
Ephes. 2, 21. 




eiceWev elvai 

avritiv wv /cara BeXtj/ua 
OVK K (TweioTOs, d\\ 3 K %dpiTOs Qeov, 
TeXeiav fj.oi Sodfjvai, 'iva ev Trj Trpoaev^ v 



. *iva ovv TeXeiov vfjiitiv yevrjraL TO epyov 

Kai ev ovpavw, irpeTrei eis Tijmrjv Oeov %eipoTO- 5 

I eZj/cu] GL; vocari A; om. g*. avruv] GLg; avdptitruv 

A (vilior quam oninis homo}. uv~\ LAg; uv G (connecting it with what 

follows). Dressel adopts this reading, which however yields no tolerable sense. 
For similar false aspirates in G see the note on Philad. 7. Kara deX-i^a.] 

txt L* (but auteni added in the printed texts) g* (but 5 added in some texts); 
add. 5 G; pnef. jam A. After d^X-rj/na add. del L; om. GA (voluntate mea] g* 
(originally, but some texts add TOV deov). i ffweidoros] (rweiSoVws G; con- 

scientia L; mente A; <rvvet6ri<rews ^TJS g. 3 TT} irpo<revxfj] GL; rats irpoa- 

1. ^t'X^/ia] * the Divine iviW '; 
see the note on Ephes. 20. The 
various readings give the expedients 
of translators and scribes to help out 
this absolute use of 6f.\r]\ia here, as 
in other passages. 

2. fK o-wfidoTos] The participle, 
when used for o-wfidrjo-is, generally 
has the article. For instances of its 
omission however see Liturg. D. 
Marc. p. 8 ev *ca&ipo> avi/eiSon (and 
so also Liturg. D. Jacob, pp. 42, 56), 
Pausan. vi. IO 6 pcv 8r/ vno o-vveiSoros 
7rappr)(Tid^To dyadov, Hermog. Rhet. 
21 OVTOS (rvfetSoros (fyfvyfi(.Rhet. Graec. 
II. p. 145, Spengel), ib. 30 (p. 152) TOV 
Trare'pa Kpivet (rvvcidoros, 77 yvvrj crvvei- 
8oTos <f)vyi, Joseph. Ant. \. I. 4 oi5 

-yap eV apery rrjv (TiwTrrjv ay (is aXX' eVi 
i novrjpa, Orig. c. Cels. viii. 62 
a (rvvfidoTos TOV Trpoy TOV Qebv r&v 
o\o)v K.a6ap<as cvo-ffiovs, Euseb. H. E. 
X. 8 avveidoTt (pavXcp TOUTO Xo-yt^o- 
[ifvos, Chrysost. Horn, in Rom. xiii 
(IX. p. 552) ri yap aXyeivoTepov, cine. 
poi, avveidoTos Trovrjpov ;...ov8ev our cos 
ai/t^6t, xai piKpov 7TTf<r6ai TroteT, cos 
(rvveidbs dyadov. See also TrpoftSoy 
in Dion Cass. (Epit. Xiph.) Ixix. 4 
e' ov TrpofidoTos. The expression 
might have either of two meanings ; 

(i) ' of conscience] i.e. 'not that my 
conscience pronounces me worthy,' 
comp. i Cor. iv. 4 ; or (2) ' of 'consent, 
complicity] i.e. 'it was God's sole 
doing.' This latter is the meaning of 
crwfidbs in Hermog. 1. c., and more 
commonly of ro a-weibos. See the 
note on (rweidr^a-is Clem. Rom. 34, 
p. 113. The latter is perhaps the 
more probable sense here. 

3. cv rfj Trpocrevxfl vpxoi/] See the 
note on Ephes. 20. 

Geoi) eVrri^o)] See the note on 
Ephes. i. 

4. TeXfiov] With a reference to 
the preceding rfXe/ai/, as the em- 
phatic position of vptov shows ; ' I 
pray that God's grace in me may be 
perfect ; take ye heed that your work 
also may be perfect. 5 He still harps 
on the same word below, reXetoi oi>re? 
reXeia KCU (ppovelTe. 

5. els Ttp.rjv Gfoi)] See the note 
on Ephes. 21. 

6. tieoTrpfa-pvTTjv] l an ambassador 
of God" 1 \ comp. Philad. 10 els TO 
7rpe<rj3evo-ai eicel 6eoC rrpetr/Setai/, els 
TO avyxapfjvai avTols K.T.\. More 
particular directions are given about 
this delegate in the companion 
epistle, Polyc. 7, where he is called 


eKK\r]<Tiav VJJLWV BeoTrpecrflvTrjv ets TO yevo- 



fjievov 0)5 Cvpias (rwyxaprvai ai/os OTL eprjvevova'iv tea 

ct7r\a/3ov TO ifiiov fJL<ye6os Kai aTreKaTecrTaOrj ai/YoZs TO 

CT(x)/ULaT6LOV. efydvY) JULOL OVV Ct^lOV TTpay/ULO. 7T6jUL\l/ai 

[g] (but it has substituted at irpocrevxal for 77 trpoaevxr] above, p. 317). A 
also has a plural, but this is the common Armenian usage. 4 IW] G ; OTTWS 

g : see the note on Rom. 3. r^XctOf v^(av yfrrjTai rb Zpyov] GL ; vfjiuiv rb 

Zpyov TtXeiov yfryrcu g. Kai eirl] GL; enl (om. Kai) gA. 5 7775 ... ou- 

pav$] G ; T^S 7775 ...r<$ ovpavq g. ets Ti/j,r)v Qeov] GL ; ets 6eov TL^V g ; 

om. A. 6 Oeoirpeo-puTTiv] Gg; deo venerabilem L; praecursorem A: see the 

lower note. 7 ?ws Svpt'as] GL ; & <rvplq. g ; in syriam A. 9 awy.a.- 

ret'oi'] G ; ffw/ut-drtov g ; corpusculum L ; perfectio A. d^toj'] Gg ; t?0 digna 

, perhaps written ASI00N) L; gratum deo A. 

other diminutives) ; whereas 
Tfiov is a term of enhancement. The 
proper distinction between the two 
words is recognised in Chcerobosc. 
Orthogr. s. v. (Cramer Anecd. II. 
p. 262) I/KIT* f tor* ei 77 7rapd8o(ris' 
(TifuSr<oi df KOI TrpoTrapot-vroiHos TO 
The meanings of cr<a- 
are as follows ; ( i ) 'A corpo- 
ration, college', as Cod. Just. i. 2. 
2O cos 1 eXXeiTroi/rcov dfjdfv rols apidfj.ols 
crtofiaTfivv : comp. Suicer and Du- 
cange s. v. In this sense substan- 
tially it is used here. (2) * An actor's 
dress and make up', including the 
padding, etc. to give dignity to the 
figure ; Pollux Onom. iv. 115 KOL 

<TKVri p.V 77 T<5l> VlTOKplTWV OToX^' r) 

8' avrr) Kai arajp-aTflov KaXeTro, where 
the editors have wrongly substituted 
o-oo/Lumoj/ (though in ii. 235 it is so 
written, o-co/iartoi/). The word is 
mentioned by Pollux side by side 
with 7rpocra>7Tetoi>, p.opp.o\VKel.ov. So 
Lucian Jup. Trag. 41 ra Trpoo-caTra 
rcov 6fo>v avTa KOI TOVS floras KOI. 

(see the note there). There 
can be no doubt about the meaning 
of the word here, but I have not 
thought it necessary to substitute 
6eo7rpe<rj3evTr)v (the correct form), as 
there is sufficient evidence that the 
forms 7rpeer/3euTT?r, npeapvTrjs, were 
confused at this time ; see the note 
on Philem. 9 7rpe(r/3ur^$-, vvv\ de KOI 

dfCTfJLlOS K.T.X. 

f Is TO K.r.X.] * that he may visit 
Syria and congratulate them." 1 For 
ytvtr6ai eons, ' to arrive as far as,' 
comp. Rom. 2 evpeOrjvai els dixrtv, 
with the note. 

8. aTreXaftov /c.r.X.] ' recovered 
their proper magnitude '. The church 
had been previously weakened and 
diminished by the dispersion and 
defections consequent on persecu- 

ro tdiov crco/Ltaretov] ' their proper 
corporate substance*. So we should 
probably read in Euseb. H. E. x. 5 
(an imperial law) ariva navra roJ 
(Tco/iarto) r<ov Xprr<ai/eov. . .7rapa8i8o<r6ai 
8erj<ri. The form (ramarioj', like trap- 
KIOV (o-apicidiov}, is a word of depre- 
ciation, affected more especially by 
the Stoics, 'this puny, wretched 
body' (e.g. Epictet. i. i. 10, i. 25. 21, 
where it appears in conjunction with 

Kai raXXa ois eKelvoi (Tep.vvvov(ri rrjv 
rpayipSiav, where however it is com- 
monly read oxo/xrma. In this latter 
form too it appears in Photius s. v., 
who defines it a^arrXafr^ora ols ol 




Tiva TWV vfjiTepwv HJLT eiCTTos, iva (rvvocrrj TY\V 
Qeov avTois yevofjievriv evdiav, Kai OTI \IJULEVOS r\r] 
TV\ Trpocrev^fj v/mcov. TeXeioi oWes T\6ia Kai 
* 6e\ov(nv yap v/uuv ev Trpda'areiv Oeos ercu/zos 
ek TO 7rapao")(elv. 5 

XII. 'Aa-Trd^ercu VJJLCLS 77 dydjrr] TWV d$e\(f>a)v TWV 
ev TpcodSi, o6ev Kai ypd<pa) v/uuv Sid Bovppov, ov aVe- 

^ ijSrf] GL; subst. evoppov [g]; om. A. 3 eTiryx a " OJ/ ] pervenerunt in A; 

r6yx avfv GL; reri^xTj/fa g. This last reading points to eT\jyx avov > which however 
the interpolator has mistaken for a ist pers. sing, instead of a 3rd pers. plur. 
Kai] GLAg; om. Max Dam-Rup i. 4 V/MV] GLAg Max Dam-Vat i; 

rifuv Dam-Rup. eS Trpdacreiv] G (not evirpdweiv, as commonly stated); 

eD irpArTeiv g Max Dam- Vat Dam-Rup. Oeds ZTOI/J.OS] GL Max Dam- Vat 

Dam-Rup /cat ^roi/xos ^crriv 6 6eos g*. 5 Trapacrxeij'] Gg; Trap^xeiv Max 

l dia.fra.TTOvo'iv avrovs' (3) ' A 
corpus, or collection, of writings', 
as e.g. Iren. i. 9- 4 T( p T *) s o\r)6fias 
o-co/iareto). But in Other authors 
where this sense occurs, the existing 
texts frequently write it crw/ianoi/. 
(4) ' A corpse', not regarded by it- 
self but (as may be inferred from 
the form) with its belongings, e.g. 
the urn which contains the ashes. 
So it appears in three inscriptions, 
at Aphrodisias, C. I. G. 2826, 2829, 
2835. Though these same inscrip- 
tions elsewhere have et for t, they 
do not so write where the i is cer- 
tainly short, as it is in o-w/nartoi/. It 
must be confessed that no stress 
can be laid on manuscripts, so far 
as regards the distinction between 
i and ei, and with some of the above 
meanings the form of the word may 
be doubtful ; e.g. with the second the 
diminutive form o-co/iartoi/ is explic- 
able, when compared with ' corset ', 
'corselet', 'leibchen'. But inthe sense 
which it has here, this form seems 
quite out of place. The word <ro>- 
paTflov diet rfjs ft di(f>06yyov is ex- 
pressly recognised by a writer in 

Cramer Anecd. II. pp. 308, 309, but 
he does not distinguish its meaning 
from <ra)p,dTiov. 

1. <rwdodo-r)] The word occurs 
Rom. viii. 17, and (in a different 
sense) Arist. Polit. v. 9 (p. 1310). 
Otherwise it is rare until a later date. 

2. \ipevos] The simile occurs al- 
so Polyc. 2. 

3. re'Xfiot K.T.A.] See Phil. iii. 15 
^Ocroi ovv reXeiot, roOro <^poi>a>/iei>. 
Ignatius is here referring to what 
has been said above, Iva ovv re'Aaoi/ 

yevrjTat TO epyov : SO that re'Xeia 
means ' do not leave your 
plans incomplete.' 

XII. 'The brethren at Troas 
salute you ; whence also I write by 
Burrhus your delegate. His minis- 
trations are an example for all to 
copy, and God will requite him. 
I salute your bishop, presbyters, 
deacons, and laity, in Christ, in His 
passion and resurrection, in the 
unity of God and of yourselves. 
Grace be with you always.' 

6. ?; dydirr] K.r.A.] See the notes 
on Trail. 3, 13. 

7. ft id Bovppov] See the note on 



3 2I 

(TTei\aT IULCT' e/mov djuia ' ,(f>ea'iois Tols d$e\(po'is v/ 

6V Kara Trdvra p.e dveTravorev. KCII ofyeXov Trdvres av- 

10 TOV eiuunjLovvTO, OVTCL 6e{j.7r\dpiov Oeov SiaKOvias. d/mei- 

\js6Tat, WJTOV r\ X^P^ wra TrdvTa. 'Aa-Trd^opai TOV 

e7ri(TKO7rov KOL 



rj Trdvras, eV oVo/uan 'Irjcrov XpicrTOv, Kelt Tr\ 

Dam-Vat Dam-Rup. 6 dSe\(f><2v] GLA; add. VP.UV g. 7 Borfppov] 

bumim L; fivppov G; byrdium A; povpyov g: seethe notes on Ephes. 2, Philad. 
ii. 8 dSe\0o?y] G; fratribus LA; o-uva5e\0ots g* (but with a v. 1.). n ^ 

Xpis] GLA; add. TOU Kvpiov g. 12 e7rt<r/ i co7roj'] GL; add. vestrum A; add. 

L/u,t3v TroKvKapTrov g. 0eo7r/)e7r^s] gL[A?]; OeoTrpeTrto'TaTOv G. Kcd sec.] 

L[A][g]; om. G. 14 'I?7<roO Xptarou] GL; xP lffT v t'^oug; domini nostri iesu 

christi A. TTJ crap/ct] GLA; T^S trap/c6s g (MSS, but 1 has /# came]. 

Philad. n, where the same expres- 
sion occurs. 

8. a/ia 'E(/>e<ri'ois K.r.X.] ''jointly 
'with your brethren the Ephesians\ 
The Smyrnseans had joined with the 
Ephesians in commissioning Bur- 
rhus: see Philad. 11. Smith there- 
fore is wrong when he explains a/ua 
'E06(riotff rot? d8(\<f)o'is, l Euplo et 
Frontone', who are stated in Ephes. 
2 to have been among the Ephesian 
delegates in Ignatius' company at 
Smyrna. Evidently a\ia 'Efao-iois is 
connected with the subject, not the 
object of oTTfo-retXare, as the parallel 
passage, Philad. u, shows. Moreover 
there is reason to think that Euplus 
and Fronto were no longer with him, 
having parted from him at Smyrna, 
so that Burrhus was the only Ephe- 
sian delegate in his company at 
Troas ; see the note on Ephes. 2. 

9- Kara Travra K.r.X.] For this 
phrase see the note on Ephes. 2. 

o<eXoi/] '/ would', as i Cor. iv. 8, 
2 Cor. xi. i, Gal. v. 12 (see the 
note), Apoc. iii. 15 : see Winer xli. 
P- 377- The word so used is properly 
the ist pers. sing., 'I ought (sc. to 


witness it)', 'Would I might see it', 
but becomes a mere particle = ' uti- 
nam.' The form without the aug- 
ment seems to be the more common 
with this usage. 

10. cgp.7r\dpiov] See the note on 
Ephes. 2. 

11. -q xapis] * the Divine favour ' ; 
as Polyc. 7 TnoTeveo yap rfj ^optrt, ib. 
8 forai T) x**P ls ( JieT ' OVTOV. For this 
absolute use of 77 ^api? in the N. T., 
see the note Philippians i. 7. Com- 
pare in Ignatius the similar uses of 
[TO] 0\T)na (see note on Ephes. 20), 
TO oVo/ia (see the note on Ephes. 3), 77 
evroXij (see note on Trail. 13). 

12. dgiodeov] See the notes on 
Magn. 2, Trail, inscr. 

OeoTTprrres] See the note on Magn. 

13. o-wSovXovs] Appropriated by 
Ignatius to deacons ; see the note on 
Ephes. 2. 

TOVS KaT avSpa] ' '' individually" 1 ; see 
the note on Ephes. 4. 

14. KCU TTJ a-apid K.T.X.] A farewell 
warning against the false doctrine of 
the Docetics; comp. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 





avTOV Kai ro> a^'/uLan, TrdOi 

re Kai TrvevjuiaTiKrj, eV evorrjTi 


Te Ka. vacrTacret <rapKiKr 

Oeov Kai 
e'Aeos, eiprivrj, vwofjbovi} S*a Travros. 

2 Trvev/j.a.TiKrj'] txt LAg; add. ev 6v6/j.a.Ti G. It has clearly crept in from h 
'Irja-ov XptffTov above. v] GL; om. g (but 1 has in). A, being 

was to impose upon them such duties 
as they were able to perform in re- 
turn for their maintenance, e.g. care 
of orphans, nursing of the sick, visit- 
ing of prisoners, etc. Hence they 
were enrolled in an order, which 
however did not include all who re- 
ceived the alms of the Church. This 
order was already instituted in the 
Apostolic age (i Tim. v. 9 sq). It 
is probably intended here, and in 
Polycarp Phil. 4 yivoxTKovcras on fl&l 
Bvo-iavTripiov Qfov. It is certainly re- 
ferred to in Hernias Vis. ii. 4, and 
in Clem. Horn. xi. 36 XVP 1 o-va-rr]- 
a-d^evos (said of S. Peter). It was 
even known to the heathen, as ap- 
pears from Lucian De Mort. Peregr. 
12 r\v opav Trapa r<a Sf(r/na)r7/pi6) 7Tfpip.(- 
vovra ypqftia ^pa? rivets (i.e. 'widows 
as they call them' ; comp. ib. 41 
fTTio-ToKas dtaTre^aL avrov 8ia6r'/Kas n- 
vds, 'testaments as he called them'). 
The importance of this order may 
be inferred from the incidental col- 
location in Tertullian de Pudic. 13 
'prosternis in medium ante viduas, 
ante presbyteros.' Indeed there is 
every reason to think that it was 
more important throughout the se- 
cond century than at any later time. 
The interpretation of the language 
of Ignatius has been confused by the 
assumption that the widows were the 
same order as the deaconesses. This 
however seems to be quite a mis- 
take. Whatever confusion there may 
have been in later times, in the 
apostolic age and for some genera- 
tions after Ignatius they were dis- 
tinct. This is clear from S. Paul's 

1. o-apKiKT) re K.r.X.] A spiritual 
resurrection was not denied by the 
Docetics. Hence Ignatius asserts 
both ; see [Clem. Rom.] ii. 9, with 
the note. 

2. fv fvorrjTi K.r.X.] A farewell 
warning against the separatism of 
the Docetics ; comp. 8. For the 
form comp. Polyc, 7 rovro TO epyov 
Qeov farlv KOI vpaiv. For evorrjs Qeov 
see Philad. 8, 9, Polyc. 8 (comp. 
evorrjs 'irjcroC Xpioroi) Philad. 5) ; for 
evorrjs vfimv, Philad. 2. The first 
genitive describes the binding prin- 
ciple of the unity ; the second the 
component parts. 

Xapts K.r.X.] The form of bene- 
diction gathered words by time. In 
all S. Paul's Epistles, except the 
latest, in i, 2 Peter, and in Clement, 
it is xpir KOI ciprivT) ; in the Pastoral 
Epistles, and in 2 John, x^P iy > eXeos 
[KCU] flpjinj; while here vnopovr] is 
superadded. The additional words 

(eXeoy. vTVOfJLOvrf} point to a time of 
growing trial and persecution. Other 
forms are eXeos KOI eipr/i/r/, Polycarp ; 
eXfos [KCU] flprjvr) Kai aya-itr], Jude, 
Mart. Polyc. ; elpijvr] /cat x^P ls Ka * 
8o^a, Epist. Vienn. et Lugd. 

XIII. 'I salute my brethren and 
their families ; as also the widows. 
Farewell. Philo my companion sa- 
lutes you. I salute the household of 
Gavia ; likewise Alee, Daphnus, Eu- 
tecnus, indeed all one by one. Fare- 
well once more.' 

5. ras TrapBevovs K.r.X.] The first 
care of the Church was to provide 
for the wants of the widows (see the 
note on 6 above). The next step 






5 <rvv 




transmitted through the Syriac, has no authority on this point. 3 Aeos, 

elprivTj, viro^ovrf] Gg; et sains et patientia A; et misericordia et pax et sustinentia L*. 
4 'Ao-Trdfoucu K.T.\.] Some sentences in this chapter are transposed in A. 

language in i Timothy, where the 
qualifications and functions of the 
two are quite separate (the deacon- 
esses are described in iii. n, the 
widows in v. 9 sq). It held equally 
when the Apostolic Constitutions 
were compiled. The distinction is 
observed alike in the earlier books 
(the deaconesses are discussed in ii. 
58, iii. 15, the widows in iii. i 8; 
while in ii. 26 the two are mentioned 
apart, and in iii. 7 the widows are 
ordered to be submissive to the 
deaconesses), and in the later (sepa- 
rate directions are given for the ap- 
pointment of the two for the deacon- 
esses in viii. 18 sq, for the widows 
in viii. 25 and are assigned to dif- 
ferent Apostles). 

Having thus cleared the way, we 
ask next, what is the meaning of 
* the virgins that are called widows '. 
From their mention as distinct from 
'the households of the brethren with 
their wives and children/ it is clear 
they were persons who lived apart 
from the family life of the rest. 

It is generally explained as imply- 
ing that the order of so-called 'widows' 
either contained among its ranks per- 
sons who were actually unmarried 
virgins, or was altogether made up of 
these. This view is not uncommonly 
supported further by the identifica- 
tion of the 'widows' with the 'dea- 
conesses'; e.g. by Cotelier, Hefele, 
and others here, by Bingham Ant. 
ii. 21. 2 sq, vii. 4. 9, by Probst Kirch- 
liche Disciplin p. 143 sq, and by 
Dollinger Christenthum u. Kirche p. 
326, etc. S. Paul however did not 

contemplate anything of the kind, 
for his directions point to widow- 
hood in the strictest sense, i Tim. v. 
IO/IT) eXarrov eY<5i> e^Koi/ra ycyovvla, 
evos avftpbs yvvrf K.T.\. Moreover 
even at the beginning of the third 
century Tertullian treats it as a mon- 
strous and unheard-of irregularity 
that a virgin has been admitted into 
the order of widows ; de Virg. VeL 9 
'Plane scio alicubi virginem in vi- 
duatu ab annis nondum viginti col- 
locatam : cui si quid refrigerii de- 
buerat episcopus, aliter utique salvo 
respectu disciplinae praestare potuis- 
set, ne tale nunc miraculum, ne 
dixerim monstrum, in ecclesia de- 
notaretur, virgo vidua.' It seems 
therefore impossible that at any time 
when these epistles could have been 
written, the 'viduatus' should have 
been so largely composed of virgins 
as to explain the writer's language 
so interpreted. Cotelier feels this 
difficulty and attempts to overcome 
it by the supposition that different 
churches had different practices ; 
and Zahn (/. v. A. p. 336) argues 
similarly. But Tertullian could riot 
treat as a 'monstrum' a practice 
which had prevailed commonly in 
the Churches of Asia Minor for a 
whole century before he wrote. More- 
over with this interpretation we must 
suppose either that the x r )P lK v f 
Smyrna was wholly composed of 
virgins, or that Ignatius selected out 
of the order for salutation those only 
who had never been married. Either 
supposition would be inexplicable. 
The passages which speak of virgins 

21 2 




%ripas. eppcocrde JULOI ev SvvdfULei 
as 0/Aaji/, <TVV ii 




i irarpos] LA; Trve^aros G (contracted TTVS) g* (MSS, but 1 has dei patris). 
3 Taoutas] yav'tas g: gaviae A: raoutas G; thaviae L: see the lower note. 

as admitted into the diaconate in 
somewhat early times, though quoted 
in support of this view, prove no- 
thing, when it is seen that the 
viduate and the diaconate were 
originally separate institutions. I 
do not hesitate therefore to offer a 
wholly different interpretation, which 
is suggested by the following pas- 
sages ; Clem. Alex. Strom, vii. 12 (p. 
875) o -yap eVttfv/iJjo-a? KOL Karao-^coi/ 
eavTov KaBdirep T; x^P"? ^ ta o-QXppo- 
o~vvr)s avOis 7rap6cvos...avTdi 6V 
fiaiv at yvcao-TiKdl \^u^al ay dTTfiKdo-fV 
TO fvayyeXiov [Matt. xxv. I sq] rais 
ijyiao~p.fvais Trapdevois TOIS 7rpoo~8fX~ TOV Kvpioi/' TrapBivoi p.ev yap as 
KdK&v aT7f(Txn^vai K.r.A. (comp. Strom* 
III. 1 6, p. 55^ ^*? Tivts Kal Trjs rrapOf- 
vov rfjv xnP av e ' y cyKpareiav Trporfi- 
vov&i KaTafJLya\o(ppov^a'a(rav f)s irf- 
irfiparai rjdovfjs), Tertull. ad Uxor. 4 
(of certain widows) ^Adhibe sororum 
nostrarum exempla, quarum nomina 
penes Dominum, quae nullam formae 
vel aetatis occasionem praemissis ma- 
ritis sanctitati anteponunt ; malunt 
enim Deo nubere ; Deo speciosae, 
Deo sunt puellaej de Virg. Vel. 10 
' Non enim et continentia virginitati 
antistat, sive viduorum (v. 1. vidua- 
rum), sive qui ex consensu contume- 
liam communem jam recusaverunt ?', 
de Exh. Cast, i 'secunda [species] 
virginitas a secunda nativitate, id 
est a lavacro, quae aut in matrimonio 
purificat ex consensu aut in viduitate 
perseverat ex arbitrio.' This then I 
suppose to be the meaning of Igna- 
tius here ; * I salute those women 
whom, though by name and in out- 
ward condition they are widows, I 

prefer to call virgins, for such they 
are in God's sight by their purity and 
devotion.' See also Jahn S. Method. 
Platoniz. p. 42, on some uses of 
irapQevos which illustrate this. M. 
Renan (Les Apotres p. 124 sq), with- 
out any thought of this passage in 
Ignatius, says, 'Cette position si dif- 
ficile de la veuve sans enfants, le 
christianisme l'e*leva, la rendit sainte. 
La veuve redevint presque Vegale de 
la vierge? These words give fairly the 
Christian sentiment about widows in 
the age of Ignatius, and the mode of 
expressing it here is eminently cha- 
racteristic of this father in its terse 
epigrammatic form. It is difficult 
to say exactly what interpretation 
Voss takes ; but he quotes (in a 
mutilated form) Clem. Alex. Strom. 
vii. 12, and seems in one part of his 
note, as if he were approaching the 
explanation which I have given. 
The expression in Seneca Agam. 
196 'An te morantur virgines viduae 
domi?', quoted by Pearson, has a 
wholly different sense. The reader 
should be cautioned that in the notes 
of both Cotelier and Voss, as quoted 
by Jacobson, important sentences 
are left out without any sign of 

i. cv Trarpos] In con- 
firmation of this reading comp. Magn. 
3 Kara 8vvap.iv Qeov narpos. The 
confusion of the oblique cases of 
7rarj)p and irvcvfjia. is not uncommon, 
owing to the contractions npc, TTNC, 
etc. So Trail. 1 1 (pvrda rrarpos is 
quoted (pvreia TOV Trvevp-aTos in [loann. 
Damasc.] Par. Rupef. a. Ixxvi. (Op. II. 
P- 773) 5 se e also the notes on Ephcs. 


raovias, rjv 



eSpaardai TricrTei KCLI ctyccTrri 
da"7rd^ofJiaL ''A\Krjv 9 TO 


edpacBaiG; T)8p8.<r9at g. 4 "AX/op] &\Kr)v G. The other authori- 

ties, LAg, write it without an aspirate : comp. Polyc. 8. 

9. In i Cor. xv. 24 F has a v.l. 
TTVL for irarpi. In Iren. V. 5. I ra>v 
Tn/eu/AariKeSi/, the Latin has 'patrum', 
which must have arisen in the same 
way; just as in Hippol. Haer. vii. 33 
the MS has TTUTPIKOV where the sense 
requires TrvevpaTiKov. Again in Jus- 
tin Dial. 30 (p. 247) the common 
reading is peravoiav TOV Trarpdy, where 
the sense requires Tri/eu/naros. The 
critics there refer to Tatian Orat. 5, 
Method. Conv. p. 93, where the MSS 
exhibit a similar confusion. In Euseb. 
H. E. i. 13 Tvapa TOV irarpbs there is 
a V.I. Tn/ev/iaros. 

3. Taovias] There cannot be 
much doubt about the word here. 
The names Gavius, Gavia, are fre- 
quent in the Latin inscriptions : 
see also Jul. Capitol. Anton. Pius 8. 
Gavius appears also in a Greek in- 
scription, C. I. G. 5979. On the 
other hand I have not observed any 
example of Tavia, and only one or 
two of Tavius or Thavius, Muratori 
MCCCXCV. 10, Corp. Inscr. Lat. HI. 

edpao-Oai JTMTTCI] Comp. Ephes. 10 
cdpatot TTJ TriVrei, with the note. The 
form f8pa<rdai for ?7pao-0cu is pos- 
sible; see D'Orville on Charito 
p. 404. 

o-apKiKTj K.r.X.] See the note on 
Ephes. 10. 

4. *A.\KTJV] She is saluted also in 
the companion letter, Polyc. 8, and in 
the same terms, ro TTO^TOI/ /zoi ovopa. 
The name occurs also in the ac- 
count of Polycarp's martyrdom (A.D. 
155 or 156) 17 vTrejSaXe yovv NiKrjrrjV 
TOV TOV 'HpcaSov Trare'pa d8f\<pov de 
*A.\KTJS K.r.X., Herodes being the 

magistrate who was instrumental in 
putting Poly carp to death. There is 
no difficulty, though a period of forty 
or fifty years may have elapsed, in 
supposing the same person to be 
meant. The Alee there mentioned 
was plainly well known to the Chris- 
tians; and her relationship to the 
magistrate implies that, if still liv- 
ing, she was advanced in life. If 
so, this divided family is an illus- 
tration of the warning in Matt. x. 35 ; 
for her brother Nicetes and her 
nephew Herodes are both actively 
hostile to the Christians. Pearson 
says incorrectly that on her account 
'utpote Christianae, frater eius in- 
tercesserat pro Polycarpo\ But Ni- 
cetes interposes for quite another 
purpose, to prevent the Christians 
from recovering the remains of 
Polycarp, being instigated by the 
devil, as the writers of the Martyr- 
dom state. The name Alee occurs 
occasionally in inscriptions, but is 
not common. It is remarkable that 
of the only two occurrences in the 
Greek collection the one (C. /. G. 
3268) is at Smyrna, while the other 
(C. I. G. 7064) is on a gem of un- 
certain locality. In the Latin col- 
lection however it is less rare. Jacob- 
son (Polyc. 8) supposes that in ro 
TroQrjTov fj.oi 6vop,a there is a play on 
the word dX*??, ' robur, fortitudinem 
desiderabat ad martyrium subeun- 
dum'. But this can hardly be; for 
Ignatius uses the same expression of 
KpoKos, Rom. 10, where no such play 
is possible (see also the note on 
Ephes. i). 





TrdvTas KCIT bvopa. eppcocrOe eu 


2 0eoG] 

i fwi] g; mihi L; /AOU G; al. A. See also Polyc. 8, Rom. 10. 
GL; add. amen A; add. Kai Kvpiov rj/Aw K.T.\. g. 

For the subscriptions of'GL see the title to the Epistle to Polycarp. For A 
no subscription is given. For g see Appx. 

I. &d(pvov] This name occurs 
from time to time in the inscrip- 
tions. In one, Reines. Inscr. p. 693, 
it is found in connexion with ano- 
ther name which occurs in this con- 

FELICISSTMVS. Pearson also refers 
to Daphnus the Ephesian physician, 
who is an interlocutor in Athenaeus 
i. p. i. 

dcrvyKpiTov] l incomparable^ : Her- 
nias Mand, 7 "n vpa^is <rov a.a",ros 
eorat, Clem. Horn. i. 21, ii. 43, 45, iii. 
30, xi. 12, etc. Test, xn Patr. Levi 2, 
Hippol. p. 89 (Lagarde). It occurs 
also in classical writers of this age. 
Pearson points out that the corre- 
sponding 'incomparabilis' is a very 
common epithet in the Latin in- 

scriptions; and ao-vyKptros itself oc- 
curs on epitaphs in Jewish cemeteries 
at Rome (Garrucci Dissert. Archeol. 
II. pp. 179, 182). In Rom. xvi. 14 
it appears as a proper name; but 
this is apparently rare. 

EvTfKvov] I have not observed any 
other example of this name; nor 
does it seem very suitable as a proper 
name. However EVTCKVIOS is found 
in literary history ; see Fabric. Bibl. 
Graec. V. p. 60 1, ed. Harles. Zahn 
writes (ZreKvov and treats it as an 
epithet, but this is awkward. 

2. Kar oVo/xa] 3 Joh. 15 aaTra^ou 
TOIS (friXovs Kar' oVo/ia, Polyc. 8 do-Tra- 
o/iai Travras e' oi/o/xarop. See also 
the note on e' oVo/uoro? Ephes. 20. 

eppoxrtfe] See the note on Ephes. 




"\ X 7HILE addressing a letter from Troas to the Church of Smyrna 
generally, Ignatius writes at the same time more especially to the 
bishop Polycarp. He had during his stay in Smyrna received much 
kindly attention from Polycarp, whom he mentions affectionately in 
letters written thence (Ephes. 21, Magn. 15), and had learnt to admire 
his character and work. 

Like the Pastoral Epistles of S. Paul, with which it has many 
points in common, this letter is the exhortation of an older servant of 
Christ to a younger friend who holds a responsible office in the Church. 
Like them also, though special, it is not private. It was obviously 
intended to be communicated to the Smyrnsean Church, for at the 
beginning of 6 the writer turns from the bishop to the congregation 
and addresses them directly on their reciprocal duties towards their 
chief officer. 

In this letter fuller instructions than in the more general epistle 
are given respecting the delegate who is to represent the Smyrnseans 
at Antioch ( 7). Moreover Polycarp is charged with the duty of 
writing to other churches nearer to Syria and directing them to send 
representatives in like manner ( 8). As in the letter to the Smyrnseans, 
so here special salutations are sent to individual persons (ib). On the 
other hand there is no mention, beyond a passing allusion expressed 
in general terms ( 3), of the heresy which occupies so large a space 
in the companion epistle. The directions have reference to the inter- 
nal circumstances and private life of the Church, not to its relations 
with alien persons and creeds. Owing to this fact it has escaped with 


comparatively few changes from tlie violence of the interpolator, who 
accepts any mention of heresy as a signal for free-handling and 

The following is an analysis of the epistle. 

' IGNATIUS to POLYCARP greeting. 

' It was a great privilege to see thee. I exhort thee to greater zeal 
than ever. More especially have a care for unity. Be firm and tender 
and watchful. Bear the ailments of all ( i). Adapt thy medicines 
to the complaints of thy patients.,; Join the wisdom of the serpent 
with the guilelessness of the dove. Thou art compact of flesh and 
spirit, that thou mayest use each in its proper function. Thou art 
the pilot of the vessel of the Church, the athlete in the race of God 
( 2). Be not scared by false teachers. Be firm as an anvil ; submit 
to bruises, as a victorious athlete. Read the signs of the times, but 
await the advent of the Eternal (3).' 

' Provide for the widows. Let nothing be done without thee. Let 
your meetings be more frequent. Do not overlook slaves, but do not 
exalt them unduly ( 4). Warn thy flock against evil arts. Explain 
the duties of husbands and wives to each other. Vows of chastity 
and vows of marriage should be taken with thy cognisance ; and all 
things done to God's honour ( 5).' 

'Ye laity, obey your bishop and your clergy. Work and suffer, 
sleep and rise, together. Be not remiss in your spiritual warfare; 
but buckle on your armour and win your reward. Be patient one 
with another (6).' 

'As the Church of Antioch now enjoys peace, I am the more 
ready to die. Gather together a council, Polycarp, and elect a 
representative who shall go to Syria. A Christian is not his own 
master. It remains for you to complete your good deed ( 7).' 

' Hurried in my departure hence, I have had no time to write to 
the distant Churches. Do thou, Polycarp, urge them to send delegates 
to Syria. Salutations to the widow and children of Epitropus, to Attalus, 
to your elected representative, to Alee. Farewell ( 8).' 


'IFNATIOC, 6 Kai Oeo(p6pos, rioXvicdpTra) 
TTW 6KK\tj<ria$ CjJLVpvaiwv, juia\\ov eTrea-KOTni/ueva) 
Oeov TraTOOs KCLI 'lrj<rou Xpio-rov, TrXelcrra %aipeiv. 


TTpOC TTOAyKApTTON] ff/j-vpvaiots airb rpwddos irpbs iroMKOLpirov lyvanos (num- 
bered /3 in the marg.) G (the first three words being the subscription to the pre- 
vious epistle); epistola ia ignacii smyrneis. a troade policarpo L* (where the two 
are confused) ; ad polycarpum episcopum zmyrnae urbis A ; epistola \domini\ ignatii 
\episcopi antiochiae\ S* ; rou aurou eTrtaToX?} wpbs Tro\vKapirov tirlGKOtrov (r/iupv^s g. 

i 6 /cat] See Ephes, inscr. i eKKXyvias "Zfjivpvatuv] GLg; eccksiae 

zmyrnae tirbis SjA; zmyrnae S. ftaXXov] txt GSg; add. autem L; def. 

A. eireffKoirijfj.tvy] g; liriaKoir'ri^vtp G. 3 'l9;<roG] Lg*; Kvpiov 

i-rjffov GSA. 

overseer of the Church in Smyrna, 
but himself is overseen by God and 
the Lord Jesus Christ; greeting'. 

2. 2nvpvaia>v~\ The Syriac Version 
(and after it the Armenian) writes 
the word with a Z, as it is written 
also in the Syriac translations of 
the Martyrology (Moesinger pp. 5, 
10) and of Eusebius H,E. iii. 36 
(Cureton C. /. p. 203, four times). 
This may be a scribe's caprice, but 
it not improbably represents the 
original form in Ignatius. At all 
events elsewhere (e.g. in the frag- 
ments in Cureton C. I. pp. 198, 210, 
212, 214, and in Rev. i. n, ii. 8) it 
is spelt with S in the Syriac. The 
forms Z/zu'pj/a, Zp.vpvalos, are com- 
mon in Greek inscriptions ; e. g. 
C. L G. 3032, 3203, 3211, 3270, 3276, 

3286, 3289, 3311, 3371, all these at 
Smyrna itself, besides several else- 
where (e.g. Wood's Discoveries at 
Ephesus Inscr. vi. 20, p. 70). On 
the coins too this name is written 
indifferently with a 2 or a Z : see 
Eckhel Doctr. Num. II. p. 545 sq. 
In the earliest coins the Z seems 
to be preferred, in the latest the 2, 
while about the age of Ignatius 
both seem to be used impartially; 
see Mionnet in. p. 302 sq, SuppL 
vi. p. 190 sq. In Rev. i. n, ii. 8, 
it is Zp.vpva in tf, and Zmyrna in the 
Cod. Amiat. Nor is this form very 
uncommon in Latin MSS elsewhere 
(e.g. Tac. Ann. iv. 56). The title 
of Cinna's poem was evidently so 
written, 'Zmyrna'; see Catull. 95 
(p. 67 ed. Mueller, with the fragments 
of the poem itself, ib. p. 88). Lucian 




crov TY\V ev Qew 

cos 7Ti TreTpav aKivrjTOv, VTrepoco /cotra- 
is TOV 7rpo(ra)7rov crov TOV djULoo jjiov , ov ovai^v iv 

i <rov TTjv fv Qeif yv^'rjv'] G; tuam in deo sententiam L; ryv v 0e< <rov 
gj dub. SA. 2 U7rep5odw] GLg; add. deum SA. 3 TOV 

GLg; om. SA. 4 ev xV Tl ] For the addition in L see Appx. 5 

(Jud. Voc. 9) makes 2 complain 
that among other aggressions Z has 
'robbed him of all Smyrna'. The 
form Z/zvpra is supported by the an- 
alogy of fpopaydot, 'zmaragdi,' which 
is frequent, /zepdaXe'a in the Her- 
culanean papyri of Philodemus, etc : 
see Munro on Lucret. iv. 1126. Simi- 
larly the duplicate forms 2/i^oy, 
Zfifjdos, of a proper name occur in the 
inscriptions. Compare also the two 
forms 2omW, ZomW, in Magn. 2 
with the note. The substitution of 
'bishop of Smyrna' in the Syriac of 
Cureton for 'bishop of the Church 
of the Smyrnaeans' is an indication 
of a later date. 

See below 8 fv 
Qeov Kal eVKTK 07177, Magn- 3 
rw Trarpi 'l^troC XpioroO ro> irdvrayv 
fTTio-Koircp ; comp. also i Pet. ii. 25. 
For this use of the verb, referring to 
God's supervision, comp. Orig. de 
Orat. 31 (i. p. 268) vnrjpfo-ia TOV 
faiov povXijpaTos fTTta-KoirovvTos TTJV 


6^o-ovTai. There is perhaps the same 
play, as here, intended by Polycrates 
in Euseb. H. E. v. 24 MeAtVa>m...or 
KeTrat Iv 2apdeo - t Trept/iei/wv Tr/v drro 
ratv ovpavoiv iTTKTKoirrjv K.T.X., and in 
Eusebius himself H. E. iii. 7 'la/cca/Sos 
avTos o Tflde Trpcoros 7ri<TKO7ros...Tfjs 
Oeias eTTio-KOTrrjs fl(TTi Tore p.a.Kpo6v- 
povo-^s. For the sentiment here 
comp. Gal. iv. 9 yvovrcs GeoV, /naXXoi/ 
8e yvvcrOevTes VTTO Qeov ; and for simi- 
lar turns of expression in Ignatius 
see the note on Smyrn. 5. 

I. 'I welcome thy firm faith in 
God, and I give glory that I have 
seen thee face to face. Be more 
diligent in thine own life, and exhort 
all men to be saved. Vindicate thine 
office; be zealous for unity; bear 
the burdens of all; give thyself to 
prayer and ask for more grace; be 
vigilant ; address thyself to each man 
severally ; bear the sicknesses of all. 
The greater the pain, the greater the 

1. y A7ro8ex6/j.evos] ' Welcoming, ap- 
proving] as in Ephes. i 'A^oSe^a/iei/os 
v/icoi/ cV Gfo TO 7io\vaydnr)Tov ovopa, 
Trail. I dirodedp.evos ovv TTJV KUTO. 
Qcbv cvvoiav 6Y avTov eSo^aaa K.T.A. 

fv ecw] These words might be 
connected with ydpao-ufvrjv, as in the 
Syriac and Armenian versions. For 
f8pdeo-6ai ev see Philad. inscr. (with 
the note). Comp. also edpaiovcrdai cv 
Geo) Epiphan. Haer. Ixi. 8 (p. 512). 
Perhaps however they are better 
taken with yvw^rjv] comp. Rom. 7 
TTJV fls Qeov fiov yvfap,7]V) and Trail. I 
(quoted above). 

2. eVi TrtTpav] As in the parable, 
Matt. vii. 24, 25, Luke vi. 48. 

v7Tp&oaa>] Used absolutely, like 
eS6|ao-a in Trail, i quoted above 
(see the note there). The Syriac 
and Armenian versions, followed by 
Petermann, supply ' Deum, 3 from not 
appreciating this usage. For vtrep- 
o|aa> see Orig. Comm. in loann. 
xiii (Op. IV. p. 235), and comp. vnep- 
evCppaivofjLai Barnab. I, VT 
Barnab. 5. 

i] TO POLYCARP. 333 

Oeco. TrapaKctXaJ ere ev ^dpiTi v] evSeSvcrai 7rpocr6e'ivai 
5 TO) Spo/uLco crov, Kai Trdvras TrapaKaXetv Iva era. 
eicS'iicei crov TOV TO7TOV ev TTOL^v] eTTifjieXeia crapKiKrj re 

] GLg; petas pro omnibus hominibus (filiis hominuni) S; petere pro 
filiis hominum A. 6 <rov TOV TOTTOV] GLg (and so Antioch n O.VTOV rbv 

TOTTOV}; convenientia (decentia) SA: see the lower note. (rapKucy re Kai] 

GLSAg; om. Antioch. 

K.r.X.] ' having been 
permitted to sec thy face? 'Numquam 
igitur ante viderat Polycarpum,' says 
Pearson. This seems a just infer- 
ence from the language ; and if so, 
it refutes the statement in Mart. 
Ign. Ant. 3 that Polycarp had been 
a fellow-disciple (o-vvaKpoarf)?) of Ig- 
natius under S. John. For the fre- 
quency of KdTagiovv in Ignatius see 
the note on Ephes. 20. 

3. rov dpapov] The absence of 
these words in the Syriac and Arme- 
nian versions renders them doubtful 
here ; but a/xco/^oj, ap,a>p,<uy, are favour- 
ite words of Ignatius, especially in 
the addresses of his letters : see the 
note on Ephes. inscr. 

ov ovaiwv] ' and may I have joy of 
it? See the note on Ephes. 2. 

4. TTpoo-faivat K.T.A.] * to add to thy 
race] i.e. 'to run thy race with in- 
creased vigour.' The words are 
copied by the pseudo-Ignatius Hero 

1 Trpoo-tfeirai TG> Spo/Liw (rov KOL e'/<5t- 
Kflv (TOV TO a^t'to/^a. The word Spo/zos 
reproduces S. Paul's favourite meta- 
phor of the stadium ; e. g. TrXrjpovv 
TOV dpop-ov Acts xiii. 25, reXeioCi/ TOV 
8p6fj.ov Acts XX. 24, reXeti/ TOV dpopov 

2 Tim. iv. 7. For the metaphor in 
Ignatius see the note on Rom. 2. 

6. exSiKei K.r.X.] ' vindicate, assert, 
thine office] i.e. 'make it felt and 
respected by a diligent discharge of 
its duties.' Pearson quotes Origen 
Comm. in Matt. xii. (ill. p. 531) 01 


Xpvrat r<5 p^rw toy Ilerpos, Cornelius 
in Euseb. H. E. vi. 43 (speaking of 
Novatian) eVio-KOTrqi'.../-^ nrt/SaXXov 
a-av avrw rjedueft In the first passage 
the phrase is used exactly as here ; 
in the second somewhat differently. 
The word cVedticcur occurs frequently 
in the LXX, but most commonly in 
another sense, 'to exact vengeance for 
or from,' 'to avenge/ 'to punish.' 

TOV TOTTOV] 'thy place,' i.e. ' thine 
office ' ; comp. Smyrn. 6 TOTTOS wfteva 
<pvo-toi>T(i>. See also Acts i. 25 TOV 
TOTTOV TTJS diciKovias (the correct read- 
ing), Clem. Rom. 40 TOIS- lepfvo-tv 
?8tos 6 TOTTOS TrpocrreraKTtu, ib. 44 p.rj 


avTols TOTTOV, Polyc. Phil. 1 1 ' ignoret 
is locum qui datus est ei,' Mart. 
Vienn. in Euseb. H. E. v. 4 *t yap 


cicrdai, u>s Trpfo-fivTcpov KK\r)o-ias /t.r.X, 
Apost. Const, ii. 2 KaBLa-Tarm ev r&> 
TOTTW TTJS 7ri<TK07rfjs, ii. 1 1 yvwpifav 
TOV TOTTOV (TOV Kai Tqv a^'iav, ii. 1 8 
dia>s TOV TOTTOV (TOV ev rwSe roi /3i'&) 
dvao-rpe(pov, ii. 35 TTJS iepwo-vvrjs TOV 
TT)\LKOVTOV ro7rov, Alexander in Euseb. 
H. E. vi. 1 1 Nap/ciertros 1 o Trpo f /zoi) 


fv6d8e, Orig. Comm. in Matt. 1. c. 
So also in Latin, Tertull. de Fuga 1 1 
'omnem servum dei...etiam minoris 
loci, ut majoris fieri possit...sed cum 
ipsi auctores, id est, ipsi diaconi et 
presbyteri et episcopi fugiunt, etc', 
Cyprian Epist. iii (p. 469 ed. Hartel) 
'immemor sacerdotalis loci tui et 




Trjs eywVew? (ppovTi^e, fa ovSev ci 
/3dcrTa(e, ok Kai (re 6 Kvpios* TTCLVTUIV dve%ov 
, wcnrep Kai Troiels* Trpocrevxais <r^ d$ia- 
airou orvvecriv TrXeiova r\s 

i u>s Kat] GLAg Dam-Vat 2 Antioch (twice) 7, u; sicut (om. Kai) S 4 2. 6 

Kfyios] GLg Antioch (twice) Dam; add. port'at S 4 S; add. portavit A: see a simi- 
lar addition of SA in 6 ws Kai 6 Geos M/ATp. 3 unrTrep /cat] GL*Ag; JzVw/ 

(om. Kai) S (see above 1. 2); ztf ^w0</ S 4 : def. Dam-Vat Antioch. adia- 

GLg* Dam- Vat Anlioch n (who paraphrases TrpoffevxtvOu vir^p iravruv 
; om. S 4 SA (seemingly, but see the note on Ephes. 10). 5 Trvevfj,a] 

officii,' xv (p. 513) 'solicitude loci 
nostri,' xvi (p. 517) ' aliqui de pres- 
byteris nee evangelii nee loci sui 
memores,' xl (p. 586) ' promovebitur ampliorem locum reli- 
gionis suae.' See Pearson here and 
on Smyrn. 6, where several passages 
are collected. So in English we 
speak of ' placemen,' ' place-seekers.' 
The scruples of Cureton (C. L p. 265) 
respecting rov TOJTOV are groundless ; 
for TOTTOS was certainly so used in the 
time of Ignatius, as the quotations 
given above show. The rendering 
of the Syriac and Armenian ' things 
becoming' is perhaps merely a loose 
paraphrase, meaning the 'official 
duties' of a bishop (see e.g. Payne 

Smith Thes. Syr. s. v. 
But in uncial characters TONTOTTON 
might easily be read ronpenoN, the 
confusion between N, TT and between 
e, o, being very frequent where the 
MS is blurred ; and the plural is ex- 
plained by ribui. 

a-apKiKfj re K.r.X.] As we should 
say, ' secular as well as spiritual.' 
For this favourite combination in 
Ignatius, see the note on Ephes. 10. 

1. TTJS evcoo-eus] See the note on 
Magn. i. 

ovdcv apeivov] Comp. Ephes. 13, 
Magn. 7. 

2. TTiivras /Snoraff] i. e. ' support 

the burdens of all men'; comp. Rom. 
xv. i, Gal. vi. 2. So Epist. adDiogn. 
IO TO rov TrXrjfriov ai/aSe'^erai /Sopos. 

See Apost. Const, i. i j3ao-ra>re ovv, 

oi SoOXoi Kat viot roG Qeov, aXX?;Xouy, 
o (J.ev dvrjp TTJV yvvcuKa K.r.X. 

a>s Kai a-f 6 Kvptos K.r.X.] An allu- 
sion to Isaiah liii. 4 paraphrased 
in Matt. viii. 17 avros ras da-fa veins 
rjn&v eXa/Sei/ Kat ray vocrovs eftaorrao'ev. 
The influence of the evangelist's 
paraphrase is clear, when we com- 
pare the words used just below, 
irdvT<ov ray i/oo-ov? /3ao-rae : for the 
LXX rendering is quite different, ou- 
TOS ras d/JLapTias r//xa>z/ (pepet Kat irfpt 
TIP-GIV odvvarat. The interpolator has 
seen the reference, and has intro- 
duced the words of Is. liii. 4, as given 
in S. Matthew, into the context of 
TrdvTtov rag voo-ovs K.r.X. just below. 

Trdvrcav oW^ov] This describes the 
passive side of his duty to others, as 
the previous clause had described 
the active. See Ephes. iv. 2 dvexo- 
fifvoi d\\ij\o)v ev dydrrij, which Igna- 
tius probably has in his mind. Comp. 
also the saying of Epictetus, aVe'^ov 
KOI aTre^ov, Aul. Gell. xvii. 19. This 
verb generally takes the genitive in 
the N. T. 

3. aStaXetTTT-ots] See Ephes. 10 aSi- 
aXeiWcos Trpoo-fvxfo-Qf with the note, 
where the omission of aStaXewrrots in 
some texts here is discussed. 



5 dKOtjUifjTOv TrvevfJia KeKTtnuevos* ro?9 KT' av^pa 

iav Oeov \d\er rrdvTcov rds vocrovs 
re\eios d6\rjTr]S' OTTOV 7T\eiu>v /COTTON, TTO\V 


GLS 4 SAg Dam-Reg; o^a Dam- Vat; def. Antioch. 6 6fj.o-/i6eiav] g* (but 

adjutorium 1); consuetudinem L; vohintatem S 4 SA; (3otj0eiav G. 7 d0X 17x775] 

Gg Antioch; 6 adX^r-fis Dam-Vat. 6Vou] txt GLAg (but add. mm 1) Dam; 

add. yap S 4 S Antioch. TrXeiwj'] g*L Antioch Dam- Vat; TrXeToj' G Dam- 

Reg; nmltus S 4 SA. TTO\V] GLg (but praef. ibi etiam 1) Dam-Vat; add. 

etiam S 4 2A; add. KO.\ rb Antioch. 

5. TTvevfia] The substitution of 
in a quotation of the passage 
was probably suggested by the fact 
that dKoifj.T)Tov ofifjui is a more fami- 
liar combination ; e.g. Philo de Mut. 
Nom. i (i. p. 579), de Man. 6 (ii. p. 

rols /tar' ai/5pa] ' to each singly" 1 : 
see the note on Ephes. 4 for this 
characteristic Ignatian phrase. 

Kara opoyOfiav GeoC] ' in conformity 
with God^ If the balance of au- 
thorities had left any doubt about 
the reading, it would have been 
settled by Magn. 6 o/ioty&iap 0eoO 
\ap6vres. The Syriac and Armenian 
give a loose rendering of op.ori6ti.av, 
which it was difficult to translate ac- 
curately. The similarity of the letters 
/3 and p in cursive MSS explains the 
variation (BoriQeiav, a common word 
being substituted for an uncommon. 
See also the note on Mart. Rom. 10. 
For ofioty&ia see Clem. Alex. Strom. 
vii. 12 (p. 878), Philostr. Vit. Apoll. ii. 
ii (p. 61), Cyril, c. Julian, x. p. 338 
(ed. Spanheim). Ignatius here means 
'conformity with the character of 
God ' our Father, who neglects no 
one, but makes His sun to shine 
alike upon the good and evil (Matt. 
v. 45 sq). It will appear, I think, from 
the context, that Ignatius has this 
saying of Christ in his mind ; comp. 

ras vovovs /3acrrae ws re' 
j'y, with ver. 48 eo-eo-06 

T\ioi toy o 7rarj)p vfjiatv K.r.X., and 
KaXovs fiaSrjras eav <j)i\f)s K.r.X. with 
ver. 47 sq eav yap ayaTr^o-rjrf TOVS 
dyarrwvTas vp.a.S) riva [iHrOov *X T * 

6. ray vocrovs .r.X.] See the note 
on ok Kai & K.r.X. above. 

7. reXetos ddXrjrrjs] So Polyb. ii. 
2O. 9 d0X?7rai rt'Xetoi yeyovores rwv 
/cara TroXe/iov epyav ; comp. Z<5. i. 59. 
12 d6\r)Tas dnereXea-e. In this ap- 
plication of the word ' athlete ' Igna- 
tius had already been anticipated by 
Clement of Rome, 5. The allied 
words, dOXclv, a6\r]o-ts, occur in this 
connexion as early as 2 Tim. ii. 5, 
Heb. x. 32, and the idea is con- 
stantly present to S. Paul's mind. 
It afterwards became a very favour- 
ite metaphor, more especially as 
applied to the martyrs; e.g. Mart. 
Polyc. 1 8, Epist. Vienn. in Euseb. 
H. E. v. i (several times), Act. Perp. 
et Felic. 10, etc. Naturally also it 
was frequently employed by the 
Stoics. Here Ignatius seems to be 
contemplating the pancratiast (rrdv- 
TUV K.T.X.), in whom all the faculties 
were on the alert, and all the muscles 
brought into play ; so Panastius in 
Aul. Cell. xiii. 28. 3 ' Vita hominum 
qui aetatem in medio rerum agunt ac 
sibi suisque esse usui volunt, negotia 
periculaque ex improviso adsidua et 
prope cotidiana fert : ad ea cavenda 
atque declinanda perinde esse opor- 


nix -v ^ /3 \ i > 

KaAofS juaotyras ea\ 

jjiaXXov TOVS \oijULOTepovs ev 


txt GLg Dam-Vat Antioch (^tXf?) Anton 4 (^iXcis); add. tantum 
S 4 SA. forty] or ten GLS 4 SAg Antioch Anton; ftrrai Dam- Vat. 

2 /xaXXoi'] GLS Dam- Vat Anton; //.aXXov 5 g; dXXoi fj.d\\ov Antioch; sed potius 
S 4 A. TOI)S Xoi/xor^pous] Gg ; deteriores L ; malos S 4 SA ; rod's aireideffTtpovs 

Antioch Dam-Vat Anton. TrpauTiyri] g (but with a v. 1.) 

the things that are visible and may- 
est acquire a knowledge of the things 
that are invisible. The occasion 
demands thee, as a pilot the gales or 
as a storm-tossed mariner the haven. 
Train thyself, as God's athlete. The 
prize is eternal life. I am thy de- 
voted friend, I and my bonds.' 

1. KaXovs K.r.X.] Luke vi. 32 ei 
ayaTrare TOVS dyairaivTas vpas, iroia 
vfjuv x^P LS *o"riv ; K.r.X. (see the note 
on I Kara nfMor/Qeiav Geov), I Pet. ii. 
1 8 ov [iovov rots dyadols KOI 

aXXa KOI rols crKoXiols' TOVTO yap 
K.r.X. See also [Clem. Rom.] ii. 13 
ov x<*P ls vplv, fl dyairdre TOVS dyanav- 

2. TOVS Xoi/norepovs] ' the more 
pestilent] with a reference to the 
metaphor in I Trdvrcov TCLS vocrovs 
K.r.X. This word, like oXetfpos, is used 
of persons even in classical writers, 
e.g. Demosth. c. Arts tog. i. 80 (p. 
794) d Xot/xds 'the pest.' Hence it 
comes to be employed as an ad- 
jective, and is even declined as such ; 
e.g. I Sam. i. 16 QvyaTepa \otp-riv, 
Barnab. IO ovra \oipd TTJ irowjpiq av- 
TWV. This usage is most common in 
the LXX ; comp. also Acts xxiv. 5. 
But I have not found an earlier in- 
stance of the comparative. Zahn 
refers to Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 67 
(p. 464), where this father mentions 
having heard a wise man (Pantae- 
nus?) interpret KaQedpav Xot/i<5i/ (Ps. 
i. i) as referring to the heretical 
sects (ray atpecrccv). 

Probably the correct 

tet animo prompto semper atque in- 
tento, ut sunt athletarum qui pan- 
cratiastae vocantur : nam sicut illi 
ad certandum vocati etc.' For re- 
Xetos Pearson compares Plato Legg. 

vii. p. 795 o TXe'co? TrayKpaTiov rjarKT]- 
K<OS K.r.X., Galen de San. iii. 2 (vi. p. 
1 68 sq, Kiihn) ovtf ol TrXeurra iro- 
vovvTfs dOXrjral KO.T aXXo ri yvp.vd(riov 
e(f)c8pevovTa KOTTOV exov&i TrXfjv TO 

KaXoVfJLfVOV VTT dVTOiV Te\lOV, and 

again TO rfXcwmrov eKflvo 

O 8?) Kai KO.TO.O'KCVTJV OVO[JidoV(Tl. 

OTTOV TrXetwi/ K.T.X.] ' 7"^^ ;;/<7 
M greater gain} So S. John in 
Browning's 'Death in the Desert} 
* When pain ends gain ends too.' A 
contemporary of Ignatius, R. Tar- 
phon (Tryphon), is credited with a 
saying which resembles this, Pirke 
A both ii. 19 ' Dies brevis et opus 
multnm et operarii pigri et merces 
multa et magister domus (oi/<oSeo-7ro- 
TTJS) urget.' So too Tertull. ad Mart. 
3 of athletes, 'quanto plus in exer- 
citationibus laboraverint, tanto plus 
de victoria sperant,' Greg. Naz. Orat. 
xl (l. p. 706) auro ro Ka/xfiv TrXe'oi/, 
irXfiwv jjiicrOos K.r.X. The word KOTTOS 
is used especially of the athlete's 
training : comp. e.g. Galen 1. c., and 
see the note on a-vyKomaTf 6. 

II. 'It is not enough to love good 
scholars. Bring the pestilent into 
subjection. Apply not the same 
remedy to all diseases, Be wise as 
the serpent and harmless as the 
dove. Thou art compact of flesh 
and spirit, that thou mayest humour 



ov TTCLV rpavfjia rrj avTy efjL7r\d(TTpw OepctTreveTar roik 

Trave. ({> p 6 N i M o c n N o y ^>c 

Anton; irpa6rr)Ti G Antioch Dam- Vat. 3 rot)s irapov<rp,ovi\ GLg Antioch 

Dam-Vat Anton; abscissionem S; abscissam A. 4 ^/fyoxcus] g* (but 

with v. 1.) Dam- Vat Anton; tv j8poxts GL Antioch; (in) lenitate S; lenitate A; 
Dam- Reg. 

form here. See the note on Gala- 
tians v. 23. 

3. Tpavpa] The word, as a medi- 
cal term, is not confined to bleeding 
wounds, but includes all external 
bruises and sores. 

rf) avrrj e/iTrXao-rpo)] l the same plaster 
or salve* \ comp. Clem. Alex. Fragm. 
p. IO2O (Potter) tv fjLia e/zTrXaorpo) Kal 
areavrov ical rov 7r\r)o~iov taa'd/^ei/os 1 , 
Hermes Trism. Trepi j3or. ^vX. p. 331 
(ed. Roether) e/M7rXa(rrp< /LIJ) TO) aura) 
xpa>. The word is properly an ad- 
jective, Sepairfla or <pap/xaKe/a being 
perhaps understood, an